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Abacavir, in pregnancy, (3)47
Abdomen
abscesses, and postpartum infection, (3)39
acute
differential diagnosis, (1)74
in pregnancy, (3)54
in pregnancy, (3)54
fetal assessment and, (3)54
circumference, fetal. See Fetus, abdominal circumference.
enlargement, in newborn, (2)97
examination of, (1)6
in prepubertal child, (1)19
exercises, in pregnancy, (2)8
exploration, in gynecologic surgery, (1)74
fetal, masses in, and abnormal labor, (2)73
laser therapy, (1)34
pain in
in acute salpingitis, (1)44
chronic, (1)44
ectopic pregnancy and, (1)44
genital tuberculosis and, (1)49
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
in pregnancy, (3)54
right upper quadrant, (3)29
tumors in, and abnormal labor, (2)73
wall of. See Abdominal wall.
Abdominal sacrocolpopexy, (1)84
Abdominal wall
anatomy, (1)56
congenital defects of, neonatal resuscitation in, (3)68
necrotizing fasciitis, (1)48
posterior, (2)5
surgery, (1)56
closure, (1)56
peritoneal, (1)56
complications, (1)56
incisions, (1)56
Cherney, (1)56
Maylard, (1)56
Pfannenstiel, (1)56
vertical, (1)56
nerve injury, (1)56
skin preparation, (1)56
sutures
placement, (1)56
tight, ischemia and, (1)56
wound dehiscence, (1)56
wound healing, (1)56
wound herniation, (1)56
wound infection, (1)56
vessels, (1)56
Ablation
for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)4
contraindications, (4)4
endometrial, (1)3438, 117
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
thermal
in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31
endometrial, (1)38
in leiomyoma, (1)14
Ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome, genital ambiguity with, (5)83
ABO blood type, gestational trophoblastic tumor and, (4)48
ABO incompatibility, (3)66
Abortion
in adolescents, (6)75
chemical-related, (5)48
chemotherapy and, (5)48
complete, ultrasound, (2)4
depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use after, (6)28
dilatation and evacuation, vs. labor induction, (6)127
drug-related, (5)48
early
euploid, (2)106
in molar gestations, (2)106
nonmolar, (2)106
pathology of, (2)106
ploidy and, (2)106
ultrasound, (2)4
ectopic pregnancy and, (1)69
elective. See Abortion, induced.
first trimester, (1)123. See also Abortion, induced.
abnormal pregnancy and, (6)123
amenorrhea after, (6)123
antibiotic prophylaxis in, (6)123
bleeding during or after, (6)123
cervical agglutination after, (6)123
cervical dilation for
difficult, (6)123
prostaglandins for, (6)123
complications of, (1)123
endometritis after, (6)123
examination of aborted tissue, (6)123
when specimen does not show villi, (6)123
failed, (6)123
incomplete, (6)123
manual vacuum aspiration for, (6)122
medical. See Abortion, medical.
menstrual regulation for, (6)122
method, effect on reproductive capacity, (6)124
mifepristone (RU 486) in, (1)123
misoprostol in, (1)123
with pregnancy too advanced, (6)123
preoperative assessment for, (6)123
problems in, (6)123
prophylactic antibiotics in, (6)123
setting for, (6)115
size-date discrepancy and, (6)123
surgical techniques for, (6)123
suspected perforation in, (6)57
uterine synechiae after, (6)124
vacuum curettage for, (6)122123
anesthesia and analgesia for, (6)123
dilator selection for, (6)123
inability to evacuate pregnancy in, (6)123
instruments for, (6)123
physician-patient relationship and, (6)123
procedure, (6)123
technique, (6)123
vasovagal reaction in, (6)123
habitual. See Abortion, recurrent.
historical perspective on, (6)8
incompetent cervix and. See Cervix uteri, incompetent.
incomplete, (1)101; (6)123
induced, (6)59,61,122. See also Abortion, first trimester.
amenorrhea after, (6)123
anesthesia and analgesia for, (6)122
angry patient and, (6)122
antibiotic prophylaxis in, (6)123
antiprogestins in, (6)123. See also Antiprogestins.
bleeding with, (1)123
and breast cancer risk, (6)124
cervical agglutination after, (6)123
chlamydia testing before, (6)122
complicated pregnancy after, (5)48; (6)124
complications, (6)115
emergency care for, (6)122
prevention of, (6)125
concomitant sterilization and, (6)64, 122
confidentiality in, (6)122
contraception after, (6)122
counseling, (1)122
and decision, (6)122
fetal description in, (6)122
and referral, (6)122
resources for, (6)122
risk disclosure in, (6)122
by telephone, (6)122
data on, sources of, (6)115
demographic patterns in, (6)1
dilation and curettage for, effect on reproductive capacity, (6)124
dilation and evacuation for, effect on reproductive capacity, (6)124
ectopic pregnancy after, (6)115
effect on reproductive capacity, (6)115
endometritis after, (6)123
epidemiologic aspects, (6)115
examination of aborted tissue, (6)123
when specimen does not show villi, (6)123
facility for, (6)122
recovery area, (6)122
follow-up after, (6)122
for genetic indications, (3)111; (6)80
global patterns, (6)115
gonorrhea testing before, (6)122
historical perspective on, (6)80
history of
and placenta previa, (2)49
and subsequent pregnancy loss, (5)48
in hospital, (6)115
illegal, incidence, (6)115
incidence, (6)115
indications for, (6)122
informed consent for, (6)122
legal, incidence, (6)115
long-term risks of, (6)124
clinical implications of, (6)124
manual vacuum aspiration for, (6)122
menstrual regulation for, (6)122
method, length of gestation and, (6)115
in minors, (6)122
mortality from, (6)115
and neonatal sepsis, (6)124
out-of-hospital, safety of, (6)122
outpatient, (6)115
Pap smear before, (6)122
pelvic inflammatory disease after, bacterial vaginosis and, (1)40
and placenta previa, (6)124
policy on, (6)122
international, (6)115
in United States, (6)115
pregnancy confirmation before, (6)122
principles, (6)125
procedure, (6)122
counseling about, (6)122
selection of, (6)122
psychiatric evaluation before, (6)122
psychologic aspects, (6)53
in adolescence, (6)80
counseling, (6)80
psychologic sequelae, (6)124
recovery area for, (6)122
referral with, (6)122
religious conflict with, (6)122
repeat, counseling with, (6)122
Rh determination before, (6)122
Rh prophylaxis after, (3)66; (6)122
safety of, in United States, (6)115
second trimester. See Abortion, second trimester.
setting for, (6)122
by vacuum curettage, (6)122
instruments and supplies for, (6)123
women’ reasons for seeking, (6)115
in young women, (6)122
infected. See Abortion, septic.
labor induction, (6)127
dilatation and evacuation vs., (6)127
extra-amniotic instillation
of ethacridine lactate, (6)127
of prostaglandins, (6)127
gemeprost in, (6)127
intra-amniotic instillation, (6)127 1
of hypertonic saline, (6)127, 4
of prostaglandins, (6)127
of urea, (6)127 3
mifepristone in, (6)127
misoprostol in, (6)127
outcome, (6)127
oxytocin in, (6)127
prostaglandin analogues in, (6)127
vaginal/oral prostaglandins in, (6)127
leiomyoma and, (1)14
maternal mortality in, (6)118
medical
choice of, vs. surgical abortion, (6)126
contraindications to, (6)126
counseling on, (6)126
in early pregnancy, (6)126
historical aspects of, (6)126
in late first trimester, (6)126
regimens for, (6)126. See also Methotrexate; Mifepristone (RU486); Misoprostol.
surgical backup for, (6)123
teratogenicity of, (6)126
uterine bleeding after, (6)126
missed, ultrasound, (2)4
in nineteenth century, (6)8
physician-patient relationship and, (6)123
preoperative assessment for, (6)123
radiation-related, (5)48
recurrent
in alloimmune disease, (3)69
antifetal antibodies and, (3)69
in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, (5)49
antithrombotic therapy in, (5)49
autoimmune disease and, (3)69
causes, (3)69; (5)49
chromosomal abnormalities and, (5)49
chromosomal inversions and, (3)69
chromosomal translocations and, (3)69
chronic villitis and, (2)108
clinical evaluation of patient with, (3)69; (5)48
definition of, (5)49
diabetes mellitus and, (3)69
frequency of, (5)49
gene mutations and, (5)48
genetic counseling, (3)111
immunology, (5)49
immunostimulating therapy for, (5)49
immunosuppressive therapy for, (5)49
incompetent cervix and, (3)69; (5)48
infections and, (3)69; (5)49
intrauterine adhesions and, (3)69
leiomyomas and, (3)69
luteal phase deficiency and, (3)69; (5)56
mendelian mutations and, (5)48
noxious agents and, (3)69
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
preimplantation aneuploidy diagnosis after, (5)108
preimplantation diagnosis and, (5)107
psychologic factors in, (3)69
recommended evaluation for, (3)69
recurrent aneuploidy and, (3)69; (5)48
risk, (5)48
genetic counseling and, (3)69
severe maternal illness and, (3)69
skewed X-inactivation and, (5)48
thyroid abnormalities and, (3)69
trauma and, (3)69
second trimester, (1)125
amnioinfusion in, (6)125
amniotic fluid embolism in, (6)125
anesthesia for, (6)125
deaths from, (6)125
atraumatic technique for, (6)125
background, (1)125
bleeding after, (6)125
cervical dilation for, (6)125, 5
cervical laceration in, (6)125
coagulopathy after, (6)125
complications of
management of, (6)125
prevention of, (6)125
conscious sedation for, (6)125
curettage for, (6)122
depression after, (6)125
dilation and evacuation for, (6)125
disseminated intravascular coagulation after, (6)125
fever after, (6)125
functional complications of, (6)125
gestational age errors and, (6)125
hematometra after, (6)125
hydatidiform mole in, (6)125
infection after, (6)125
method, and reproductive capacity, (6)124
no-touch technique for, (6)125
operator skill and, (6)125
postoperative care in, (6)125
preoperative diagnosis and evaluation for, (6)125
psychologic sequelae, (6)125
removal of devitalized tissue in, (6)125–7
retained tissue after, (6)125
rupture of membranes for, (6)125
setting for, (6)115
sterile technique for, (6)125
surgical, (6)125
adjunctive infusion methods in, (6)125
uterine atony after, (6)125
uterine perforation in, (6)125
septic, (3)33, (6)118
diagnosis of, (6)118
epidemiology of, (6)118
management of, (6)118
prevention of, (6)118
services, (6)122
access to, (6)29
contraceptive services, (6)122
counseling and referral, (6)122
emergency care, (6)122
facility for, reception and registration, (6)122
follow-up, (6)122
instruments and supplies, (6)122
laboratory tests in, (6)122
physical plant for, (6)122
postabortion recovery in, (6)122
procedures performed by, (6)122
telephone counseling in, (6)122
size-date discrepancy and, (6)123
spontaneous, (2)14; (3)69
after chorionic villus sampling, (3)112
aneuploidy and, (5)48
antibody testing in, (5)49
autoimmunity and, (5)49
chromosomal causes, (2)14; (5)48–14
in blastocyst, (5)48
in preimplantation embryo, (5)48
clinical evaluation of patient with, (5)48
clinically recognized, (3)69; (5)48
chromosomal abnormalities and, (5)48
cytogenetic abnormalities, (3)69
frequency and timing, (3)69
likelihood of, (5)48
not chromosomally caused, (5)48
pathologic findings, (3)69
in clomiphene-induced pregnancy, (5)68
in diabetes mellitus, (5)48
early, pathology, (2)106
ectopic pregnancy and, (1)68
endocrine causes, (3)69
environmental causes of, (2)22
exogenous agents causing, (5)48
first trimester
clinically recognized, (5)48
genetics of, (3)69
pathologic findings, (3)69
recurrence risk, (3)69
formal evaluation, (3)69
frequency of, (5)48
genetic and nongenetic causes of, relative proportion of, (5)48
genetic causes of, (3)69; (5)48
genital mycoplasmas and, (3)48
habitual. See Abortion, recurrent.
history of, and placenta previa, (2)49
HLA sharing and, (5)48, 49
immunologic testing in, (5)49
immunologic therapies for, (5)48
immunology, (5)49
imprinting and, (5)48
incompetent cervix and, (3)69; (5)48
incomplete, ultrasonography, (1)101
infection and, (2)108; (5)48, 25, 49
intrauterine adhesions and, (5)48
late, recurrence risks, (3)69
leiomyomas and, (5)48
luteal phase defects and, (5)48
maternal age and, (5)48
müllerian fusion defects and, (3)69; (5)48–26
myomas and, (1)58
nonrecurrent, villous and decidual features of, (2)106
novel cytogenetic mechanisms in, (5)48
patient education, (3)69
preclinical, (3)69
chromosomal causes, (5)48
cytogenetic findings, (3)69
frequency and timing, (3)69
morphological findings, (3)69
preimplantation, chromosomal causes, (5)48
recurrent. See Abortion, recurrent.
repetitive. See Abortion, recurrent.
second trimester, chromosomal abnormalities in, frequency of, (5)48
serum progesterone and, (5)38
spermicides and, (6)17
steroid endocrinology of, (5)38
third trimester, chromosomal abnormalities in, frequency of, (5)48
thyroid abnormalities and, (5)48, 25, 49
timing of, (5)48
toxicant exposure and, (2)10
uterine abnormalities and, (5)48–26
surgical. See Abortion, induced.
techniques, (6)123
therapeutic, (6)122
in breast cancer, (3)57
in cervical carcinoma, (3)57
in Hodgkin disease, (3)57
in leukemia, (3)57
threatened, ultrasound, (2)4
tubal, (1)69
Abruptio placentae, (2)50, 107
chronic hypertension in mother and, (3)5
clinical presentation, (2)49
cocaine use and, (1)50
complications
fetal, (2)50
maternal, (2)50
neonatal, (2)50
congenital dysfibrinogenemia and, (2)50
congenital hypofibrinogenemia and, (2)50
congenital thrombophilias and, (2)50
diagnosis, (2)50, 16
dietary deficiency and, (2)50
drug use and, (2)50
epidemiology, (2)50
etiology, (2)50
historical development, (2)50
hyperhomocystinemia and, (2)50
incidence, (2)50
infection and, (2)108
management, (2)50
anesthesia and, (3)90
guidelines, (2)50
postpartum care, (2)50
therapeutic plan, (2)50
maternal age and, (2)50
maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein elevation and, (2)50
maternal vascular disease and, (2)50
parity and, (2)50
pathology, (2)50
pathophysiology, (2)50
placenta previa and, (2)49
preterm premature rupture of membranes and, (2)50
recurrence, (2)50
smoking and, (2)50
supine hypotensive syndrome and, (2)50
temporal trends, (2)50
trauma and, (2)50
twin gestation and, (2)49
vascular pathology and, (2)108
Abscess
abdominal, and postpartum infection, (3)39
adnexal, postoperative, (1)59
anorectal, (1)97
Bartholin’, (1)11
breast, (1)26; (3)39
mastitis and, puerperal, (2)89
in newborn, (2)97
in pregnancy, (3)54
treatment of, (3)35
drainage, (1)48; (3)39
radiology-guided, (4)54
epidural, after regional or spinal anesthesia, (3)37
hepatic, amebic, (3)51
pelvic, (1)48
after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
imaging techniques, (1)48
postoperative, (1)47
treatment, (1)48
postpartum formation, (3)39
and rectovaginal fistula, (1)91
spinal, after regional or spinal anesthesia, (3)37
tubo-ovarian, pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)44 4–5
Abstinence
as contraceptive method, for adolescents, (6)11
in fertility awareness methods, (6)16
periodic, (6)12
efficacy of, (6)3
Abuse. See also Intimate partner violence (IPV).
and marital counseling, (6)98
in pregnancy, (3)54
and psychosomatic medicine, (6)70
sexual. See also Sexual battery.
substance. See Substance abuse
of women with disabilities, (1)102
Acanthosis nigricans, (5)29
evaluation of patient with, (5)68
hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant syndrome, (5)28
with insulin resistance, vs. polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
Acardia, (2)107
Accessory muscles of ventilation, (3)26
Accounting, computerized, (1)100
Accreta placenta. See Placenta accreta.
Accutane (isotretinoin), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Acesulfame K, (2)7
Acetaminophen
biodisposition, gender differences in, (3)60
for fetal hyperthermia, (3)35
for pain, in gynecologic cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy, (2)6
Acetic acid
in cervical cancer screening, (1)33
in diagnosis of HPV infection, (4)2
Acetowhite epithelium, (1)30
Acetylcholinesterase, amniotic fluid AFP and
in neural tube defects, (3)116
in ventral wall defects, (3)116
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, teratogenicity of, (2)22
Acetylsalicylic acid. See Aspirin.
Achondroplasia, (5)74
prenatal diagnosis, (3)115
Acid-base balance. See also pH.
in fetus, (3)58
in nutritional prescription, (4)63
postoperative disturbances, (1)53
in pregnancy, (3)54
Acidosis, postoperative, (1)53
Acne
androgen excess and, (5)28
implantable contraceptives and, (6)38
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
ACNM (American College of Nurse-Midwives), (2)68
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), (1)46. See also Human immunodeficiency virus-1.
breast feeding and, (2)93; (3)47; (5)31
gender differences in, (1)46
host resistance in, to listeriosis, (3)40
practice implications for obstetrician-gynecologist, (1)46
in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)47
prevention, (1)46
barrier contraceptives and, (6)17
perinatal, (3)47
Acrochordons, vulvar, (1)9
Acrocyanosis, in newborn, (2)97
Acrodermatitis enteropathica, (5)31
zinc deficiency and, (2)93
Acrodysgenital dysplasia, lethal, (5)83
Acromegaly, (5)25
hirsutism in, (5)28
in pregnancy, (3)23
Acroparesthesias, nocturnal, in pregnancy, (3)19
Acrosin, (6)12
Acrosome reaction, (5)45
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
in Addison’ disease. See Addison’ disease.
adrenal regulation, (5)36
in Cushing’ syndrome. See Cushing’ syndrome.
and fetoplacental steroidogenesis, (5)38
pituitary tumors secreting, (5)25
plasma, determination
in Addison’ disease, (3)23
radioimmunoassay, (5)36
ACTH stimulation tests, (5)36
in Addison’ disease, (3)23
in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
Actinomyces infection, (1)41
in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
intrauterine device and, (6)29
Actinomyces israelii, (1)41
intrauterine devices and, (1)44
Actinomycin D
for gestational trophoblastic tumors, (4)48
for ovarian cancer, (4)36
ovarian effects of, (5)88
Actinomycosis. See Actinomyces.
Actiq. See Fentanyl.
Activin
follistatin and, (5)39
ovarian, (5)11
placental, (5)39
Actocardiography, fetal, (3)78
Acyclovir
in genital herpes, (3)46
for herpes simplex infection, in pregnancy, (3)35
in pregnancy, (2)6
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
in varicella, (3)46
Addiction. See Substance abuse.
Addison’ disease, (5)37
adrenal crisis, (5)37
clinical manifestations, (5)37
diagnosis, (5)37
etiology, (5)37
in pregnancy, (3)23
treatment, (3)23; (5)37
Adenoacanthoma, of endometrium, (4)15
endocrine aspects, estrogen
conversion, (4)14
effects on endometrium, (4)14, 16–17
levels and life stages, (4)14
after menopause, (4)14
puberty, (4)14
reproductive age, (4)14
potencies, (4)14
synthesis and metabolism, (4)14
Adeno-associated virus, in gene therapy, (4)64
Adenocarcinoid, ovarian, (4)31
Adenocarcinoma. See also Carcinoma.
Bartholin’ gland, (4)40
of cervix uteri
clear cell, (4)6
endocervical, (4)6
in situ, (1)29
endometrioid, (4)6
invasive, (4)6
mesonephric, (4)6
microinvasive, (4)6
papillary serous, (4)6
radiation therapy. See also Radiation therapy, for cervical carcinoma.
in situ, (4)6
of endometrium. See Endometrium, adenocarcinoma of.
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
minimal deviation, (4)6
papillary, villoglandular, (4)6, 15
vaginal, (1)10; (4)44
fallopian tube prolapse vs., (1)10
vulvar, (4)40
Adenofibroma
ovarian, (4)30
clear cell, (4)30
endometrioid, (4)30
mucinous, (4)30
proliferating, (4)29
Adenoid cystic carcinoma
of vestibular glands, (4)40
vulvar, (4)40
Adenoid squamous carcinoma. See Adenosquamous carcinoma.
Bartholin’ gland, (4)40
vulvar, (4)40
Adenolipoma, breast, (1)27
Adenoma
adrenal, and female pseudohermaphroditism, (5)79
lactating, (1)27
liver, in pregnancy, (3)29
pituitary, (5)25
in male infertility, (5)63
oral contraceptives and, (6)25
in pregnancy, (3)19; (5)25
prolactin-secreting, (5)25
toxic, hyperthyroidism due to, (5)35
Adenoma malignum, (4)6
Adenomatoid malformation, cystic, pulmonary, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Adenomatoid tumors, of fallopian tubes, (1)17
Adenomyosis
cervical, (1)31
dysmenorrhea and, (6)87
placenta previa and, (2)49
uterine, uterine artery embolization and, (1)103
Adenosarcoma, müllerian, (4)22
Adenosine monophosphate, cyclic (cAMP)
and myometrial contractility, (3)87
and postpartum mood disorders, (6)84
Adenosis
cervical, (1)10, 31
vaginal, (1)10
after repair of partial obstruction, (1)70
DES exposure and, (4)44
vulvar, (1)9
Adenosquamous carcinoma
cervical, (4)6
glassy cell type, (4)6
mature type, (4)6
signet-ring type, (4)6
in situ, (4)6
endometrial, (4)15
Adenoviral vectors, in gene therapy, (4)64
Adenovirus
in pediatric vulvovaginitis, (1)19
placental pathology with, (2)108
Adenylate cyclase, receptor effector system, (5)5
ADH (antidiuretic hormone). See also Vasopressin.
inappropriate secretion of (SIADH), (1)53
Adhesiolysis, hysteroscopic, for Asherman’ syndrome, (5)24
Adhesions
and chronic pelvic pain, (6)87
iatrogenic infertility and, (3)54
intrauterine, (5)24. See also Asherman’ syndrome.
and spontaneous abortion, (3)69; (5)48
stages, (1)118
lysis, (1)76; (5)61
in gynecologic surgery, intestinal complications from, (1)74
hysteroscopic, (1)117; (5)24
laparoscopy in, (5)62
laser for, (1)34
microhysteroscopic, (1)118
prevention
after microsurgery, (1)67
in myomectomy, (1)58
postoperative, (5)61
Adipose tissue
androgen metabolism in, (5)2
in body composition, and onset of puberty, (5)16
distribution of, and coronary artery disease, (6)111
endocrine functions of, (6)111
intra-abdominal, clinical significance of, (6)111
role in breast development, (5)30
Adnexa uteri. See also Fallopian tubes; Ovaries.
abnormalities, ultrasonography, (1)101
adhesions, prevention of, after microsurgery, (1)67
anatomy, (1)101; (2)5
broad ligament, (2)5
anatomy, (1)1
fibrosis, (1)1
in hysterectomy
abdominal, total, (1)57
laparoscopic, subtotal, (1)61
cardinal ligament, (2)5
in abdominal hysterectomy, total, (1)57
anatomy, (1)1
masses
asymptomaric menopausal, indications for surgery of, (1)25
biloculated, (1)25
sonographic characteristics of, (1)25
complex, (1)25
sonographic characteristics of, (1)25
cystic, (1)25
menopausal, expectant management of, (1)25
premenopausal, expectant management of, (1)25
sonographic characteristics of, (1)25
laparoscopy and, (4)55
laparoscopy for, (1)119
malignant, (1)25
multiloculated, (1)25
sonographic characteristics of, (1)25
simple, (1)25
solid, (1)25
sonographic characteristics of, (1)25
sonographic characteristics of, (1)25
types of, (1)25
ultrasound assessment of, (1)25
ovarian ligament, (2)5
anatomy, (1)2
in hysterectomy, laparoscopic, subtotal, (1)61
pubourethral ligament, anatomy, (1)1
round ligament, (2)5
anatomy, (1)2
in hysterectomy, abdominal, total, (1)57
torsion, laparoscopy for, (1)119
ultrasonic scan, (1)101
abnormalities, (1)101
uterosacral ligaments, (2)5
anatomy, (1)1
Adolescence. See also Puberty.
congenital anomalies, (1)22
contraception, (1)22; (6)9
cervical cap, (6)9
compliance, (6)9
condoms, (1)22; (6)9
Depo-Provera, (6)9
diaphragm, (1)22; (6)9
IUD, (1)22; (6)9
Norplant, (6)9
oral contraceptives, (6)9
weight concerns and, (6)10
sterilization, (6)9
dysmenorrhea, (1)22
gynecologic examination, (1)22
pregnancy. See Pregnancy, in adolescence.
prescribing for minors, (1)22
primary care in, (6)110
sterilization in, (6)9
uterine bleeding abnormalities, (1)22
vaginitis, (1)22
vulvitis, (1)22
Adolescents
abstinence as contraceptive method for, (6)11
depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use by, (6)28
of dying patient, communication with, (6)95
pregnancy in, (6)75. See also Pregnancy, in adolescence
nutrition in, (2)7
pregnancy rates in, (6)75
by nation, (6)11
in United States, (6)11
reproductive behavior, policies and programs on, (6)11
sexual activity in, (6)75
sexual behavior, policies and programs on, (6)11
sexual habits of, (6)75
Adoption rates, for adolescents, (6)75
Adoptive immunotherapy, (4)60
Adrenal cortex
ACTH regulation, (5)36
adenomas
congenital, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
fetal, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
anatomy, (5)36
androgens, (5)36
secretion, (5)36
perimenopause and, (1)109
tumors producing, (5)79
CBG and, (5)36
cortisol secretion, (5)36
CRH regulation, (5)36
development, (5)36
anomalies, (5)36
disorders, (5)37. See also specific disorder.
Addison’ disease, (3)23; (5)37
congenital hyperplasia, (1)4; (5)37. See also Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital.
Cushing’ syndrome, (3)23; (5)37
embryology, (5)36
function, (5)36, 79
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, (5)36
laboratory evaluation, (5)36
glucocorticoids, (5)36
hormones
actions of, (5)36
secretion of, (5)36
and development, (5)79
tumors producing, (5)79
mineralocorticoids, (5)36
renin-angiotensin system and, (5)36
steroid metabolism, (5)36
steroidogenesis, (5)36
tumors, (5)37
zona fasciculata, (5)79
zona glomerulosa, (5)79
zona reticularis, (5)79
Adrenal crisis, (5)37
Adrenalectomy, for Cushing’ syndrome, (5)37
Adrenal glands
age-related changes, (5)72
androgen secretion by, (5)79
androgen synthesis and secretion, (5)2
cortex. See Adrenal cortex.
disease, in pregnancy, (3)23
failure, anovulation in, (5)22
fetal, in steroidogenesis, (5)38
functions of, (5)79
hyperplasia. See Adrenal hyperplasia.
insufficiency
adrenal crisis, (5)37
in newborn, (2)97
primary, (5)37. See also Addison’ disease.
lesions of, and precocious puberty, in male, (5)16
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
physiology, (3)23
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
steroid hormone biosynthesis in, (5)1
transplantation, in Addison’ disease, (5)37
tumors of
androgen-producing, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
hyperandrogenism with, (5)2
and precocious puberty, (5)16
vs. polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
Adrenal hyperplasia, (1)4
congenital, (1)19; (5)37,79
17α-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)37
androgenic hormone sources and, (5)79
anovulation in, (5)22
11β-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)28
classic, (5)79
molecular genetics of, (5)79
nonclassic, (5)79
with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)2
3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, (5)28
molecular genetics of, (5)79
nonclassic, (5)79
with 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, (5)2
20,22-desmolase deficiency, (5)37
enzyme defects in, (5)79
hormonal cytology of, (1)29
hormonal replacement therapy for, (5)79
21-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)2837, 79
classic, (5)79
clinical features, (5)37
genetics, (5)37
HLA and, (5)37
hormonal diagnosis, (5)37
incidence, (5)37
molecular genetics of, (5)79
nonclassic, (5)79
prenatal diagnosis, (5)37
prevalence, (5)79
salt-wasting form, (5)79
simple virilizing form, (5)79
variability of symptoms in, (5)79
with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)2
intersex management in, (5)79
late-onset, amenorrhea in, (5)21
lipoid, (5)37
maternal steroid administration and, (5)79
neoplasms and, (5)79
nonclassic, hirsutism in, (5)28
in pregnancy, (3)23
prenatal diagnosis, (5)79
DNA-based, (5)76
prenatal treatment, (5)37
treatment, (5)37
prenatal, (5)37
lipoid, congenital, (5)82
and precocious puberty, (5)16
Adrenal hypoplasia congenita, (5)78
Adrenaline (epinephrine), in pregnancy, (2)6
Adrenal medulla, in fetal circulation regulation, (3)58
Adrenal rests, in scrotal enlargement, (5)16
Adrenal rest tumor, (1)17; (4)31
Adrenarche, (5)9
β-Adrenergic agonists, for inhibition of preterm labor, (3)60
β-Adrenergic blocking agents
in pregnancy, (3)6
in hypertension, (3)1
for supraventricular tachycardia, fetal, (3)65
2-Adrenoceptors, and postpartum mood disorders, (6)84
Adrenocorticotropic cells, (5)25
Adrenogenital syndrome
hormonal cytology in, (1)29
male infertility and, (5)65
Adriamycin. See Doxorubicin.
Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
in pregnancy, (3)27
pyelonephritis and, (3)35
septic abortion and, (6)118
Aerobes. See Bacteria, aerobic.
AESOP robotic system, in laparoscopy, (1)119
Affective disorders. See Depression.
AFP (α-fetoprotein), (3)116
abnormalities identified by screening, (3)116
ultrasound evaluation, (3)64
amniotic fluid
acetylcholinesterase and
in neural tube defects, (3)116
in ventral wall defects, (3)116
in cystic hygromas, (3)116
biologic properties, (3)116
and gastroschisis, (3)116
maternal serum levels
elevated, placental abruption and, (2)50
higher-order multiple gestation and, (2)83
in neural tube defect risk assessment, (1)116–12
negative ultrasound examination and, (3)72
screening programs, benefits, (3)116
and trisomies, (3)116
measurement as multiple of the median, (3)116
and neural tube defects, (3)116–2
and omphalocele, (3)116
in ovarian cancer, in children, (4)34
in prenatal screening
for chromosomal abnormalities, (3)114
for trisomy 18, (3)114
serum screening for, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
African trypanosomiasis, (3)51–23
Afterload, (3)79
Agalactia, (5)31
Aganglionosis, recurrence risk, by severity of defect, (5)75
Age. See also Aging woman.
and breast cancer, (6)110
and colon cancer, (6)110
and contraceptive efficacy, (6)3
and genital tuberculosis, (1)49
gestational. See Gestational age
growth adjusted sonographic, (3)1
abdominal circumference and, (3)1
and growth hormone levels, (1)109
and human papillomavirus infection, (1)33
and infertility, (1)72
oocyte donation and, (5)100
and lung cancer, (6)110
maternal
advanced, (5)72
antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113–10
and chromosome abnormalities, preimplantation diagnosis, (1)107
fetal ultrasound diagnosis and, (3)72
and pregnancy outcome, (5)72
as indication for aneuploidy diagnosis, preimplantation, (5)108
and multiple gestation, with assisted reproduction, pregnancy reduction in, (3)83
placental abruption and, (2)50
and placenta previa, (2)49
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
at menopause, (1)109
and ovarian cancer, (1)17; (6)110
paternal, advanced, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
in patient selection, for hysterectomy, for cervical carcinoma, (4)9
pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)44
and pituitary response to GnRH, (5)8
and puberty. See also Puberty.
and therapeutic response to hormonal chemotherapy, (4)20
and in vitro fertilization results, (5)97
Agenerase, in pregnancy, (3)47
Agenesis
anal canal, (2)12
anorectal, (2)12
lung, (2)12
renal. See Kidneys, agenesis.
Aging woman, (1)107. See also Menopause.
adrenal function, (5)72
anal incontinence in, (1)108
cancer in, (1)105
cardiovascular disease in, (1)105
cerebrovascular disease in, (1)105
delirium in, (1)108
dementia in, (1)108
demographics, (1)105
depression in, (1)108
disease prevention, (1)107
education level, health correlation with, (1)105
estrogen replacement therapy. See Menopause, estrogen replacement therapy in.
exercise in, (1)108
fallopian tube function, (5)72
grief in, (1)108
hearing assessment in, (1)108
hormone replacement therapy for, (1)108
hypothalamic-pituitary function, (5)72
immunizations for, (1)108
impending death of, (1)108
income level, health correlation with, (1)105
independent living, (1)105
life expectancy, (1)105
medical management. See Menopause, estrogen replacement therapy in.
medication use in, (1)108
nutritional assessment in, (1)108
osteoporosis in. See Osteoporosis, postmenopausal.
ovarian function, (5)72
pelvic floor prolapse, (1)107
physical abuse of, (1)108
physiology, (5)72. See also Menopause.
pregnancy outcomes, (5)72
primary care of, (6)110
reproductive system, (5)72. See also Infertility, age and.
safety issues for, (1)108
screening, (1)107
for anemia, (1)108
for cancer, (1)108
for cerebrovascular disease, (1)108
for coronary artery disease, (1)108
for diabetes mellitus, (1)108
for osteoporosis, (1)108
for thyroid disease, (1)108
sexual activity in, (1)108
sexual function, (1)107
somatic aging vs. menopausal changes in, (1)109
suicide in, (1)105
surgery in
preoperative and postoperative care, (1)107
rates of, (1)105
urinary incontinence in, (1)108
urinary tract infection and, (1)107
urogenital atrophy, (1)107
uterine function, (5)72
vision testing in, (1)108
vulvovaginitis, (1)107
weight gain in, IGF-1 level and, (1)109
Agonadia, (5)83
in 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86
Agoraphobia, (6)73
AIDS. See Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Airway
management, (3)26
in neonatal resuscitation
clearance of, (3)68
laryngeal mask, (3)68
Al-Awadi syndrome, (5)83
Albendazole
for ascariasis, (3)51
for hookworm disease, (3)51
for pinworm infection, (3)51
for strongyloidiasis, (3)51
for trichuriasis, (3)51
Albumin, levels of, in pregnancy, (3)54
Albunex, in sonohysterography, (5)52
Albuterol, in pregnancy, (3)60
Alcohol
abuse of. See also Substance abuse.
and anesthesia for delivery, (3)90
in lesbians, (6)103
fetal effects of, (3)60
injections, for vulvar pruritus, (1)11
in lactation, (2)90
and osteoporosis, (1)111
ovarian effects of, (5)88
and pituitary response to GnRH, (5)8
in pregnancy, (2)33
fetal effects, (2)7; (3)60
intake, (2)7
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
and recurrent abortion, (3)69
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
teratogenicity of, (2)6
withdrawal, neonatal, (2)33
Alcoholic liver disease, (3)29
Aldomet. See α-Methyldopa.
Aldosteronism, primary, (3)23
Aldridge sterilization procedure, (2)92; (6)39
Alendronate, in osteoporosis, (1)111
Alkaline phosphatase
in leukocytes, in documentation of ovulation, (5)54
in pregnancy, (3)54
Alkalosis, metabolic, postoperative, (1)53
Alkylating agents, contraindications to, in pregnancy, (3)60
Allantoic duct, (2)107
Alleles, (5)74
mutations as source of, (5)74
shared parental, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization, in prenatal genetic disorder diagnosis, (3)115
Allen-Masters syndrome, (6)87
Allergy
to copper, in intrauterine devices, (6)29
food, breast feeding and, (2)93
to peanut oil, in micronized progesterone preparation, (5)56
All-fours maneuver, (2)79
Allodynia, evaluation of, in gynecologic cancer, (4)58
Alloimmune disease
hemolytic, of fetus and newborn. See Erythroblastosis fetalis.
and recurrent abortion, (3)69
Alloimmunization
platelet
after intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
cordocentesis and, (3)80
Rh. See Rh isoimmunization.
Alopecia, androgenic, (5)28
Alpha-adrenergic stimulating agents, for urinary stress incontinence, (1)87
Alpha fetoprotein. See AFP (α-fetoprotein).
Alprazolam, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Alternative medicine, in menopause, (1)114
Altretamine, in ovarian carcinoma, (4)36
Alupent (metaproterenol), in pregnancy, (2)6
Alzheimer disease, genetic predisposition, preimplantation diagnosis, (5)109
Amastia, (5)30
Ambulation
during labor, (2)68
postoperative, (1)53
Amebiasis, (1)41; (3)51
Amenorrhea, (5)21
after uterine artery embolization, (1)103
in anorexia nervosa, (5)21, 12
in Asherman’ syndrome, (5)21
in bulimia, (5)22
classification, (5)21
definition of, (5)20
evaluation of patient with, before clomiphene citrate treatment, (5)68
exercise and, (5)21
hyperprolactinemic, and pituitary response to GnRH, (5)8
hypothalamic
anovulation in, (5)22
hormonal cytology in, (1)29
and pituitary response to GnRH, (5)8
imperforate hymen and, (1)19
lactational, in fertility regulation, (6)16
lactation and, (5)31; (6)36
contraception during, (6)15
ovulation induction in, (5)68–8
perimenopausal, (1)109
physiologic, (5)21
pituitary tumors and, (5)25
postabortion, (6)123
postpill, (5)21
primary, (5)21
17α-hydroxylase deficiency and, (5)21
clinical evaluation, (5)21
congenital absence of uterus and vagina and, (5)21
differential diagnosis, (5)21
etiology, (5)21
gonadal dysgenesis and, (5)21
mixed, (5)21
pure, (5)21
XY, (5)21
hormonal cytology in, (1)29
hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities and, (5)21
laboratory tests in, (5)21
ovarian insensitivity syndrome and, (5)21
physical examination in, (5)21
progesterone withdrawal test in, (5)21
pseudohermaphroditism and, (5)21
treatment, (5)21
psychogenic, (5)21
radiation-induced, (5)88
secondary, (5)21
central nervous system lesions and, (5)21
diagnosis, (5)21
disease and, (5)21
drug-induced, (5)21
endocrinopathies and, (5)21
endometrial destruction and infection causing, (5)21 8–9
estrogen-producing ovarian tumors and, (5)21
etiology, (5)21
exercise-induced, (5)21
with high gonadotropin levels, (5)21
intrauterine synechiae and, (5)21
masculinizing ovarian tumors and, (5)21
polycystic ovary syndrome, (5)21
postpill, (5)21
pseudocyesis and, (5)21
psychogenic, (5)21
treatment, (5)21
weight-loss related, (5)21
tuberculosis and, (1)49
X chromosome deletions and, (5)78
American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM), (2)68
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)
antepartum record, (2)16
contact information, (6)122
American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM), official statements, (3)71
American Medical Women’ association, (6)122
Amikacin
for pelvic infections, (1)48
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Amino acids
placental, maternal and fetal, (2)11
placental transfer, (2)11; (3)59
Aminoglutethimide, for chemical adrenalectomy, (5)37
Aminoglycosides
for granuloma inguinale in HIV, (1)46
for pelvic infections, (1)48
for postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
in pregnancy, (3)34
teratogenicity of, (2)6
5-Aminolevulinic acid, photodynamic therapy with, for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)40
Aminophylline, in pregnancy, (2)6
4-Aminopterolyglutamic acid (Aminopterin), in abortion induction, (6)126
Amiodarone
in pregnancy, (3)60
for supraventricular tachycardia, fetal, (3)65
Amitriptyline (Elavil), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Amniocentesis, (3)112. See also Cytogenetics.
diagnostic error sources, (3)66
early, (3)112
for genetic diagnosis, (3)112
in multiple gestation, (2)81; (3)112
in preterm premature rupture of membranes management, (2)47
psychologic response, (3)3
Rh isoimmunization and, (3)66
risks, (3)66
safety, (3)112
technique, (3)66
timing, (3)66
ultrasound guidance, (3)64
Amniochorionic membranes. See Membranes.
Amniography, in molar pregnancy, (4)14
Amnion
early rupture sequence, (2)107
formation of, (2)11
layers, (2)11
meconium-induced injury, (2)107
Amnionitis. See also Chorioamnionitis.
acute, (2)108
antibiotics for, (3)35
Candida, (2)108
Amnion nodosum, (2)107
Amniotic cavity, infection, (3)37. See also Infections, intra-amniotic.
Amniotic fluid, (3)76
AFP in
acetylcholinesterase and
in neural tube defects, (3)116
in ventral wall defects, (3)116
in cystic hygromas, (3)116
analysis of. See also Amniocentesis.
in Rh isoimmunization, (3)66
cells of, in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis, (3)113
composition of, (2)11
culture, in intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
cytomegalovirus in, (3)45
diagnostic tests, in intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
drug accumulation in, (3)60
dynamics, (3)76
elimination, (3)76
embolism, (3)27; (6)125
treatment, (3)18
and fetal drug clearance, (3)60
hCS in, (5)39
origin, (3)76
oxytocin concentration, (5)7
volume, (3)76. See also Hydramnios.
in biophysical profile, (3)77
change, ultrasound assessment, (3)64
functioning renal parenchyma and, (3)77
ultrasonographic evaluation
comparison, (3)76
inconsistencies, (3)76
semi-quantitative, (3)76
subjective, (3)76
Amniotomy, (2)68
in labor induction, (2)71
and umbilical cord prolapse, (2)78
Amobarbital, coagulopathy with, (3)60
Amoxicillin
for asymptomatic bacteriuria, in pregnancy, (3)35
in bacterial vaginosis, (1)40
in chlamydial infection, in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)35
in gonorrhea, (2)42
in prevention of premature delivery, (3)35
in urinary tract infections, (2)43
Amphetamines
abuse of, in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
anesthesia for delivery and, (3)90
Amphotericin B
for leishmaniasis, (3)51
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Ampicillin
accumulation in amniotic fluid, (3)60
for asymptomatic bacteriuria, in pregnancy, (3)35
in bacterial vaginosis, (1)40
for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, in pregnancy, (3)35
cost of, (3)35
in gonorrhea, (2)42
in granuloma inguinale, (1)41
in group B streptococcal infection, (3)41
for intra-amniotic infection, (3)35
for obstetric infection, microbial susceptibility to, (3)35
for pelvic infections, (1)48
pharmacokinetics of, in pregnancy, (3)60
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
in prevention
of bacterial endocarditis, in pregnancy, (3)35
of postcesarean endometritis, (3)35
prophylactic use, for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
for pyelonephritis, in pregnancy, (3)35
for sepsis
neonatal, with group B staphylococcal infection, (3)35
pelvic, in abortion, (6)118
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Ampicillin/sulbactam, for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
Amplicor test, for tuberculosis, (1)49
Amprenavir, in pregnancy, (3)47
Ampullary-ampullary reanastomosis, in tubal sterilization reversal, (6)46
Ampullary pregnancy. See also Ectopic pregnancy; Tubal pregnancy.
surgical management, (1)68
Anaerobes. See Bacteria, anaerobic.
Anal canal
anatomy of, (1)98
cytology of, (1)29
Anal endosonography, (1)98
Analgesia
for abortion, first trimester, (6)123
for delivery, (3)90. See also Labor, analgesics.
in labor, (2)68–10; (3)90. See also Labor, analgesics.
for labor and delivery, (3)60
patient-controlled (PCA), (1)53
after cesarean delivery, (3)90
after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
in labor, (3)90
Analgesics. See also specific analgesic.
postoperative, (1)53; (3)90
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Anal incontinence, (1)98
in aging woman, (1)108
anatomic considerations, (1)98
neurophysiologic testing, (1)81
physical examination in, (1)98
surgical procedures for, (1)98; (4)53
postoperative care, (1)98
preoperative care, (1)98
Anal manometry, in rectocele, (1)83
Anal pull-through repair, for anal incontinence, (1)98
Anal sphincter
anatomy, (1)98
artificial, (1)98
concentric needle electromyography, (1)81
external, (1)97
internal, (1)97
lateral surgical sphincterotomy, (1)97
neurologic assessment, (1)81
physiology, (1)98
physiologyof, (1)91
Anaplastic carcinoma, nodules of, ovarian mucinous tumors with, (4)29
Anaprox. See Naproxen.
Anastomosis
reanastomosis after vasectomy, (3)48
reanastomosis of colon and rectum, after pelvic exenteration, (4)10
tubal
reanastomosis in sterilization reversal, (1)67; (6)46
for tubal obstruction, (5)61
Ancylostoma duodenale, (3)51
Androblastoma, (4)31. See also Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (androblastoma).
Androgen(s). See also specific androgen.
actions, (5)36
adrenal, tumors producing, (5)79
adrenal secretion, evaluation, (5)36
aromatization of, to estradiol, in ovarian follicle development, (5)6
biology, 5, (5)80
excess
amenorrhea and, (5)21
HAIRAN syndrome, (5)28
hirsutism and, (5)28. See also Hirsutism.
hyperinsulinemia and, (5)29
in polycystic ovary disease, (1)29
signs, (5)28
surgical treatment, (5)28
exogenous, hirsutism related to, (5)28
ingestion of, hirsutism related to, (5)28
in initiation of parturition, (5)38
male fertility and, (5)65
and male gender identity, (5)81
for menorrhagia, (5)23
metabolic clearance rate for, (5)2
metabolism, (5)2, 28
and action, (5)2
in adipose tissue, (5)2
in brain, (5)2
by fetoplacental unit, (5)38
in liver, (5)2
in skin and genital structures, (5)2
perimenopause and, (1)109
in polycystic ovarian syndrome, (5)2
in postmenopausal hormone therapy, (1)110; (6)86
prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
production and clearance, (5)1
secretion of, (5)282
adrenal, (5)79
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
in sexual differentiation, (5)82
sources of, in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
synthesis of, (5)282
defects of, (5)82
in 17-α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, (5)82
in 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, (5)82
in 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, (5)82
in congenital adrenal lipoid hyperplasia, (5)82
in Leydig cell hypoplasia, (5)82
in multiple P-450 enzyme defects, (5)82
in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, (5)82
in steroidogenic factor-1 deficiency, (5)82
therapy
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
in osteoporosis, (1)111
transport, (5)2
tumors producing, hirsutism and, (5)28
Androgen-binding protein, (5)38
Androgenic steroids, teratogenicity of, (2)6
Androgen insensitivity syndrome, 2, (5)80
and 5α-reductase deficiency, (5)81
complete, (5)80
male pseudohermaphroditism and, (5)80, 81
partial, (5)80
ultrasonography in, (1)101
Androgen receptor, (5)80, 81
mutations, (5)81
Android fat distribution, (5)29
Androstenediol. See also Androgen(s).
activity of, (5)2
biologic significance of, (5)2
plasma levels, in premenopausal women, (5)2
transport, (5)2
Androstenedione. See also Androgen(s).
activity of, (5)2
adrenal, (5)79
biologic significance of, (5)2
metabolic clearance rate for, (5)2
metabolism, (5)2
by fetoplacental unit, (5)38
in liver and peripheral tissues, (5)2
in perimenopausal woman, (1)109
plasma levels
in postmenopausal women, (5)2
in premenopausal women, (5)2
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
in puberty, (5)16
synthesis and secretion of, (5)2
transport, (5)2
Anemia
associated with pregnancy, (3)16
absolute, (3)16
aplastic, (3)16
Coombs positive, (3)16
decreased erythrocyte production and, (3)16
bone marrow failure, (3)16
maturation disturbances, (3)16
diagnosis, (3)16
erythrocyte mass, (3)16
fetal considerations, (3)16
hemolytic. See also Hemolytic anemia.
extrinsic, (3)16
intrinsic, (3)16
hereditary, (3)16
genetic counseling and patient education, (3)16
intrauterine diagnosis, (3)16
hereditary spherocytosis, (3)16
higher-order multiple gestations, (2)83
history, (3)16
hypersplenism and, (3)16
increased erythrocyte destruction and, (3)16
extrinsic hemolytic anemia, (3)16
intrinsic hemolytic anemia, (3)16
increased erythrocyte loss, (3)16
iron deficiency. See Iron deficiency anemia.
laboratory assessment, (3)16
maternal considerations, (3)16
megaloblastic, (3)16. See also Megaloblastic anemia.
methemoglobinemia, (3)16
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, (3)16
physical examination, (3)16
placental considerations, (3)16
plasma volume, (3)16
relative anemia, (3)16
sickle hemoglobinopathies. See Hemoglobinopathies, sickle.
structural hemoglobinopathies without HbS, (3)16
thalassemia, (3)16
woman with disabilities and, (1)102
with cervical carcinoma, and results of radiation therapy, (4)11
in congenital syphilis, (3)42
Cooley’, (3)16
fetal, (2)107
neonatal, with placenta previa, (2)49
in newborn, zidovudine and, (3)35
pernicious, folic acid supplementation in, (2)22
and puerperal infection, (3)37
screening for, in aging woman, (1)108
sickle cell, DNA-based diagnosis, (5)76
Anencephaly. See also Neural tube defects.
ultrasonic detection, (3)72
Anesthesia
for abortion
first trimester, (6)123
in second trimester, (6)125
abruptio placentae and, (3)90
for circumcision, (2)91
for delivery, (3)90. See also Labor, anesthesia.
cardiovascular effects of, (3)8
diabetes mellitus and, (3)90
epidural, and prolonged labor, (2)73
maternal substance abuse and, (3)90–20
in multiple gestation, (2)82; (3)90
prematurity and, (3)90
vaginal, operative, (3)90
for dilatation and curettage, (1)54
for fetal surgery, (3)91
general
for abortion, in second trimester, (6)125
for cesarean delivery, (3)90
preeclampsia and, (3)90
for labor, (3)90
and delivery, (3)60
and uteroplacental blood flow, (3)90
in high-risk obstetrics, (3)91
for hysteroscopy, (1)118
for labor, (2)68–10; (3)90. See also Labor, anesthesia.
and delivery, effect on fetus. See Perinatal pharmacology.
for laparoscopy, (1)119
sterilization, (6)43
for laser excisional conization, (1)34
local
for abortion, in second trimester, (6)125
in cancer pain management, (4)58
for labor and delivery, (3)60
neonatal toxicity of, (3)60
tubal application, in laparoscopic sterilization, (6)42
obstetric, with placenta previa, (2)49
in obstetrics. See Labor, anesthesia.
placenta previa and, (3)90
in pregnancy, (3)54
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
puerperal, complications of, (3)37
regional
for cesarean delivery, (3)90
complications, (3)90
for labor, (3)90
and delivery, (3)60
response of placental and uterine vasculature to, (3)62
spinal, for labor and delivery, (3)60
for vasovasostomy, (5)66
Anesthetics
inhalational
for analgesia during labor, (3)90
in pregnancy, (3)54
local. See also specific anesthetic.
in obstetrics
and headache, (3)90
inadvertent intravascular injection, (3)90
intraspinal narcotics, (3)90
unintentional intravenous injection, (3)90
response of placental and uterine vasculature to, (3)62
Aneuploidy, (2)106; (4)59; (5)73
cytophotometric analysis. See Cytophotometric DNA quantitation.
first trimester detection of, database on, (3)2
parental, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
preimplantation diagnosis of, (5)108
chromosome-specific, (5)108
fluorescence in situ hybridization in, (5)108
indications for, (5)108
polar body in, (5)108
prognostic value of, (5)108–12
technique of, (5)108
in preimplantation embryos, (5)48
frequency of, (5)48
recurrent, and recurrent abortion, (3)69; (5)48
risk assessment, ultrasound and, (3)72
simultaneous testing for, in avoiding genetic disorder misdiagnosis, (5)109
Aneurysm
hypogastric artery, (1)73, 18
in pregnancy, (3)8
splenic artery, in pregnancy, (3)29
vein of Galen, hydrocephaly vs., (3)72
Angelica, in menopause, (1)114
Angelman syndrome, (5)74–11
Anger, in gynecologic cancer patient, (4)68
Angiogenesis
in ovarian follicle development, (5)6
placental, (5)38
Angiography
in pregnancy, (3)11
pulmonary, in pulmonary embolism, (2)31
Angiokeratomas, vulvar, (1)9
Angioma, vulvar, (1)11
Angiomyofibroblastoma, vulvar, (4)40
Angiomyxoma, vulvar, (4)40
Angiopoietins, in placental angiogenesis, (5)38
Angiosarcoma, (4)40
vulvar, (4)40
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
in pregnancy, (3)60
teratogenicity of, (2)6; (3)5
Angiotensin II, (5)10
in preeclampsia-eclampsia, (5)43
in uteroplacental circulation, (2)11
Aniline dyes, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Aniridia, (5)73
with Wilms’ tumor, and genital ambiguity, (5)83
Ankle, exercises during pregnancy, (2)8
Ankle clonus, in newborn, (2)97
Ankylosing spondylitis, in pregnancy, (3)20
Anococcygeal raphe, (1)98
Anomalies, congenital. See Birth defects, congenital; Congenital anomalies; specific anomaly;specific organ.
Anorectum. See also Anal canal; Anal incontinence.
abscess, (1)97
agenesis, (2)12
anatomy of, (1)97
condyloma, (1)97
disorders, (1)97
examination of, (1)97
fascial compartments, (1)97
fissure, (1)97
fistulas, (1)97
hemorrhoids, (1)97. See also Hemorrhoids.
hidradenitis suppurativa, (1)97
palpation of, (1)97
pilonidal sinus, (1)97
pressure measurement, (1)98
rectovaginal fistulas, (1)97
Anorexia nervosa, (5)26
amenorrhea in, (5)6, 12
anovulation in, (5)22
antecedents of, (5)26
and 5α-reductase deficiency, (5)81
behavior patterns in, (5)26
bulimia and, (5)26. See also Bulimia.
clinical syndrome, (5)26
cortisol levels in, (5)26
endocrine factors, (5)26
estrogen levels in, (5)26
FSH levels in, (5)26
hypothalamic dysfunction in, (5)26
evidence for, (5)26
incidence, (5)26
laboratory findings, (5)26
luteinizing hormone levels in, (5)26
osteoporosis in, (1)111
perceptual abnormalities, (5)26
prognosis, (5)26
thermoregulation disorders, (5)26
thyroxine levels in, (5)26
treatment, (5)26
triiodothyronine levels in, (5)26
weight loss in, (5)26
Anorgasmia, in aging woman, (1)108
Anoscopy, (1)97
Anovulation, (5)22. See also Infertility.
anatomic defects and, (5)22
androgen excess and, (5)22, 28
in anorexia nervosa, (5)22
in athletes, (5)22
in bulimia, (5)22
classification, (5)70
congenital defects and, (5)22
diagnosis of, (5)22
in disease, (5)22
drug-related, (5)22
etiology, (5)22
functional, (5)22
in hyperprolactinemia, (5)22
in hyperthyroidism, (5)22
hypogonadotropic, (5)22
hypothalamic, (5)622
in hypothyroidism, (5)22
integrative, (5)22
in nonpsychogenic weight disturbances, (5)22
in obesity, (5)22
ovarian, (5)22
ovulation induction in, (5)22
perimenopausal, (1)109
pituitary, (5)22
in polycystic ovary syndrome, (5)22
postpill, (5)22
in pseudocyesis, (5)22
psychogenic trauma and, (5)22
systemic, (5)22
treatment, (5)22
uterine bleeding with, (5)20
Antepartum care. See Prenatal care.
Anthracyclines, in endometrial cancer, (4)21
Anthrax vaccine, pregnancy and, (2)10
Antiandrogens, for hirsutism, (5)28
Antianxiety drugs. See Anxiolytic drugs.
Antiarrhythmic drugs
for fetal supraventricular tachycardia, (3)65
in pregnancy, (3)60
transplacental therapy with, (3)60
Antiasthmatics, in pregnancy, (2)6
Antibiotics. See also specific antibiotic.
beta-lactam, in pregnancy, (3)60
in breast feeding, (3)35
candidiasis and, (1)37
in chancroid, (1)41
in chlamydial infections, (1)41
in granuloma inguinale, (1)41
in group B streptococcal infections, (1)41
in hysterectomy, for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
for intra-amniotic infection, (1)37
intrapartum, for intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
in listeriosis, (1)41
for mastitis, (3)37
for obstetric infections, (3)35. See also Infection, obstetric.
in pelvic infections
abscess, (1)48
after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
necrotizing fasciitis, (1)48
septic shock, (1)48
septic thrombophlebitis, (1)48
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
for pelvic sepsis, in abortion, (6)118
placental transmission. See also Perinatal pharmacology; Pregnancy, pharmacology of.
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
for postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
in pregnancy, (1)60
after appendectomy, (3)54
in preterm premature rupture of membranes, (2)47
prophylactic
in cesarean delivery, (3)37
with first trimester abortion, (6)123
with hysterosalpingography, (5)50
with intrauterine device insertion, (6)29
with oocyte retrieval, for in vitro fertilization, (5)97
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
in premature rupture of membranes, (1)37
in preterm premature rupture of membranes, (2)47
in vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
pseudomembranous colitis due to, (3)39
in puerperal infections
abscess, (3)39
endometritis, (3)39
prolonged, (3)39
septic shock, (3)39
in septic abortion, (2)39
for septic pelvic thrombophlebitis, (3)37
teratogenicity of, (2)6
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
placental anatomy in, (3)34
placental function in, (3)34
teratogenicity of, classification of, (3)34
for urinary tract infections, (2)43
Antibody(ies)
anti-endometrial, (1)20
antifetal, and recurrent abortion, (3)69; (5)48
anti-HER2, (4)60
in antimicrobial immunity, (3)33
antinuclear, pregnancy and, (3)20; (5)48
anti-ovarian, and premature ovarian failure, (5)86
antiphospholipid. See Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.
antisperm, (5)48, 49
detection, (5)58
effects on gametes, (5)58
humoral, (5)58
and infertility, (5)5058, 63. See also Infertility, immune aspects of.
in vasectomized men, (6)49
and vasectomy reversal, (6)48
antithyroid
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
testing for, (5)49
antitrophoblast, (5)49
antizona, infertility in women and, (5)58
blocking antibody deficiency, and pregnancy loss, (5)49
blood group, atypical, (3)66
embryotoxic, and recurrent abortion, (5)48
monoclonal. See Monoclonal antibodies.
anti-CA-125, (4)60
immunotherapy and, (4)60
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Rh
detection and measurement, (3)66
maternal titers, (3)66
single-chain, in gene therapy, (4)64
in systemic lupus erythematosus, (3)20
thyrotropin receptor, (5)34
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
erythroblastosis fetalis and, (3)66
natural killer cells and, (4)60
Antibody testing, in pregnancy loss, (5)49
Anticardiolipin antibody, (2)108
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
testing for, (5)49
Anticholinergics
for hyperemesis gravidarum, (2)9
for overactive bladder, (1)88, 14
Anticoagulants. See also Heparin.
obstetric anesthesia and, (3)90
in pregnancy, (2)108; (3)60
indications for, (3)19
teratogenicity of, (2)22
Anticoagulant system, endogenous, (3)17
Anticoagulation, for septic pelvic thrombophlebitis, (3)37
Anticonvulsants. See also specific anticonvulsant.
biodisposition, gender differences in, (3)60
DMPA and, (6)28
as mood stabilizers, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79. See also Psychotropic drugs, in pregnancy and lactation.
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy, (3)1
metabolism, (3)19
teratogenicity of, (3)19
Antidepressants, (6)73
fetal effects of, (3)60
postpartum, (6)84
in pregnancy, (3)60
and lactation, (3)3; (6)79. See also Psychotropic drugs, in pregnancy and lactation.
serotonergic, for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
teratogenicity of, (2)6
tricyclic
neonatal withdrawal with, (3)60
for overactive bladder, (1)88
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy, (3)60
Antidiuretic hormone. See ADH (antidiuretic hormone).
Antiemetics, teratogenicity of, (2)6
Antiepileptic drugs, in pregnancy, (2)22; (3)60
Antiestrogens
in male infertility treatment, (5)65
in osteoporosis, (1)111
target gene transcription regression by, (5)4
Antifibrinolytic agents
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
for menorrhagia, (5)23
Antifungal agents
for candidiasis, (1)37
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)34
Antigen(s)
HLA. See HLA antigens.
presentation, by MHC class I vs. class II molecules, (5)49
Rh, (3)66. See also Erythroblastosis fetalis.
squamous cell carcinoma, in cervical carcinoma, (4)6
trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive, and pregnancy loss, (5)49
Antihistamines
for hyperemesis gravidarum, (2)9
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Antihuman globulin, indirect, in Rh antibody detection, (3)66
Antihypertensive agents
in preeclampsia-eclampsia prevention, (3)7
in pregnancy, (2)6(3)5; (3)12, 60
β-adrenergic blocking agents, (3)6
hydralazine, (3)6
methyldopa, (3)6
preoperative considerations, (1)52
with renal disease, (3)6
teratogenicity, (3)60
Anti-infective agents, teratogenicity of, (2)6
Anti-inflammatory drugs, nonsteroidal. See Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Antimalarial drugs, in pregnancy, (3)20
Antimicrobial agents. See Antibiotics; specific agent.
Antimonials, for leishmaniasis, (3)51
Antimüllerian hormone, (5)79
Antineoplastic agents
in pregnancy, (3)60
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Anti-ovarian antibodies, and premature ovarian failure, (5)86
Antioxidants, in preeclampsia-eclampsia prevention, (3)7
Antiparasitic agents, in pregnancy, (3)34
for toxoplasmosis treatment in utero, (3)50
Antiparkinsonian drugs, in pregnancy, (6)79
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, (2)108
antithrombotic therapy in, (5)49
complications of, pregnancy-specific, (5)49
diagnosis of, (5)49
Sapporo criteria for, (5)49
and fetal death, (2)107
immunologic therapies for, (5)49
placental pathology in, (2)108
prednisone therapy in, (5)49
and spontaneous abortion, (2)108; (5)48–9
in systemic lupus erythematosus, (3)20
Antiprogestins, (3)61. See also Mifepristone (RU486).
in contraception, (6)12
endometrial response to, (6)12
for menorrhagia, (5)23
Antiprostaglandins. See Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors; specific drug.
Antipsychotic drugs, in pregnancy and lactation, (3)3; (6)79
Antiretroviral drugs, in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)35
Antiseizure drugs, in pregnancy, (3)60
Antisense technology, in gene therapy, (4)64
Anti-sperm antibodies, and infertility, (5)50
Antithrombin III, deficiency of, (2)108
Antithrombotic therapy, in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, (5)49
Antithyroid medications, in pregnancy, (3)60
Antitoxins. See also Immunization.
Antituberculous drugs, (1)49
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)34
pregnancy after, (1)49
Antiviral agents. See also specific agent.
in HIV infection, in pregnancy, for reduction of vertical transmission, (3)47
in pregnancy, (3)34
for herpes simplex virus infection, (3)35
Anus. See also Anal canal; Anal incontinence; Anorectum.
anatomy, (1)97
dilation of, for hemorrhoids, (1)97
fascial compartments, (1)97
fissure, (1)97
fistulas, (1)97
extrasphincteric, (1)97
Goodsall’ rule for, (1)97
intersphincteric, (1)97
suprasphincteric, (1)97
transsphincteric, (1)97
lateral surgical sphincterotomy, (1)97
Anxiety, (3)73. See also Psychological considerations.
about HPV infection, alleviation of, (4)2
acute stress disorder, (6)73
agoraphobia, (6)73
breast-feeding and, (5)31
diagnosis, (6)73
generalized anxiety disorder, (6)73
in gynecologic cancer patient, (4)68
in infertility, (5)50
maternal, and labor and delivery, childbirth education and, (2)18
obsessive-compulsive disorder and, (6)73
panic disorder, (6)73
post-traumatic stress disorder, (6)73
preoperative evaluation, (6)89
social phobia, (6)73
specific phobia, (6)73
treatment, (6)73
Anxiolytic drugs, (6)73
in pregnancy, (3)3
for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
Aorta
coarctation of, in pregnancy, (3)11
disease of, in pregnancy, (3)11
Aortic arch, fetal, (2)12
ultrasound examination, (3)72
Aortic dissection, in hypertensive encephalopathy, treating, (3)5
Aortic lymphadenectomy, laparoscopic hysterectomy and, (4)55
Aorticopulmonary septum, (2)12
Aortic valve
insufficiency, in pregnancy, (3)11–9
anesthesia and, (3)91
stenosis of, in pregnancy, (3)11
anesthesia and, (3)91
Aortocaval compression, in pregnancy, anesthetic implications, (3)90
Apareunia
definition, (6)102
female circumcision and, (1)96
Apgar scores, (3)67
general anesthesia and, cesarean delivery and, (3)90
in resuscitated newborn, (3)68
Apnea
prolonged periods, surviving, (3)26
sleep, obstructive, in pregnant patient, anesthesia and, (3)91
Apomorphine, for female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Apoproteins, (6)24
Apoptosis
in corpus luteum, (5)14
follicle atresia and, (5)12
Appendectomy
fertility after, (5)61
incidental to gynecologic surgery, (1)74
incidental to tubal sterilization, (2)92
in pregnancy, (3)54
Appendicitis, in pregnancy, (3)30
Apresoline. See Hydralazine.
Apt test, (2)78
Arachidonic acid, metabolism, (5)42
products of, (5)42. See also specific product.
Aralen. See Chloroquine.
Arcus tendinei, (1)1
ARDS. See Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Aredia, (1)111
Arginine vasopressin, (5)7. See also Vasopressin.
Argon laser, (1)34, 5. See also Lasers; Laser therapy
Arias-Stella reaction, (1)69; (5)18
Arnold-Chiari type II malformation, spina bifida and, (3)72
Aromatase, deficiency of, with 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86
Aromatization, age and, (1)109
Arousal, sexual, physiologic changes during, (6)105
Arrhenoblastoma, (4)31; (5)2
ovarian, (1)4
and precocious puberty, (5)16
Arrhythmia. See also specific arrhythmia.
fetal, (3)65
assessment of, (3)65
prognosis of, (3)65
transplacental therapy for, (3)60
treatment of, (3)60
types of, (3)65
in pregnancy, (3)10
Arsenic, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
ART (assisted reproductive technologies). See Fertilization, in vitro; Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT).
Arterial embolization
in leiomyoma management, (1)14
for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
Arterial lines, in critically ill patient, (3)79
Arterial oxygen tension, in pregnancy, (3)26
Arterial pH, in pregnancy, (3)54
Arteriography, pelvic, (1)73
Artery(ies). See specific artery.
great, transposition of, in pregnancy, (3)11
testicular, injury, complicating varicocelectomy, (5)66
Arthritis
gonococcal, neonatal, (3)42
rheumatoid
estrogen replacement therapy and, (1)110
in pregnancy, (3)20–10
sexual function with, (6)99
Artificial insemination, (5)6567. See also Therapeutic (artificial) insemination.
Artificial sweeteners
and phenylketonuria, (2)7
use in pregnancy, (2)7
Ascariasis, (3)51
Ascaris lumbricoides, (3)51
Ascites
genital tuberculosis and, (1)49
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C). See also Vitamins.
deficiency, in infant, (2)93
excess, in breast-feeding mother, (2)93
in lactation, (2)93, 6
placental transfer, (3)59–12
in pregnancy, (2)7
requirements, (2)93
Asherman’ syndrome, (5)24, 57
amenorrhea and, (5)21
classification, (5)24
diagnosis, (5)24
dilatation and curettage and, (1)54
etiology, (5)24
hysterosalpingography in, (1)118
hysteroscopy in, (1)118; (5)24
pathology, (5)24
and placenta previa, (2)49
prevalence, (5)24
symptomatology, (5)24
treatment, (5)24, 57
pregnancy outcome after, (5)61
Aspartame (NutraSweet), in pregnancy, (2)6
Asphyxia
fetal, postdatism and, (2)54
perinatal, (3)63
as stimulus to extrauterine breathing, (2)12
Aspiration
endometrial. See Endometrium, biopsy of.
fine needle. See Aspiration cytology.
during pregnancy
anesthesia and, (3)90
pneumonia and, (3)27
testicular, percutaneous, (5)66
Aspiration cytology, (1)29. See also Cytology.
in cervical cancer staging, (4)7
CT-guided, (4)54
fine-needle biopsy for
in breast, (1)26; (4)52
in cervical cancer, (4)7
clinical utility of, (4)52
cytomorphologic features in, (4)52
limitations of, (4)52
in lymph nodes, (4)52
radiologic guidance for, (4)52
in ovary, (4)52–16
in pelvic masses, (4)52
in soft tissue and subcutaneous lesions, (4)52
for exclusion of metastasis, (4)52
specimen preparation in, (4)52
technique, (4)52
in gynecologic cancer staging, (1)29
of neoplastic cysts, (1)29
thyroid, (5)34
ultrasound-guided, (4)54
Aspiration device, for transabdominal chorionic villus sampling, (3)112
Aspiration pneumonitis, gastric feeding and, (4)63
Aspirin
in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, (5)49
low-dose
in preeclampsia, (5)43
in preeclampsia-eclampsia prevention, (3)7
in systemic lupus erythematosus, during pregnancy, (3)20
in pregnancy, (2)108; (3)20; (5)43
for women with lupus anticoagulant, (3)20
prophylaxis, in pregnancy, (5)49
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Asplenia, genital ambiguity with, (5)83
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART). See also Embryo transfer; Fertilization, in vitro; Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT).
antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
endometriosis and, (1)20
for HIV-infected woman, (1)46
parenthood and, psychologic considerations, (6)82
pregnancy diagnosis and, (2)2
ultrasound and, (5)55
in unexplained infertility, (5)53
vasectomy reversal vs., (6)48
zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT), (5)65101
Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, (6)122
Asthenospermia, (5)63
treatment, (5)65
Asthma
bronchial
acute exacerbations, treatment, (3)27
diagnosis, (3)27
epidemiology, (3)27
estrogen use and, (1)106
intermittent, (3)27
management, (3)27
during labor and delivery, (3)27
persistent
mild, (3)27
moderate, (3)27
severe, (3)27
in pregnancy, (3)27
pharmacologic implications, (3)60
preoperative considerations, (1)52
treatment of, in pregnancy, (3)60
in pregnant patient, anesthesia and, (3)91
Asynclitism, (2)67
Ataxia
cerebellar, with 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86
Friedreich’, (5)74
spinocerebellar, (5)74
Atenolol (Tenormin)
in Graves’ disease, (5)35
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)60
teratogenicity of, (3)5
Athelia, (5)30
Athletic conditioning. See Exercise.
Atopic dermatitis
in pregnancy, (2)32
vulvar, in pediatric patient, (1)19
Atosiban, in labor inhibition, (3)87
Atresia
cervical, (5)90
duodenal, (2)12
fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
esophageal
fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
follicular, (5)12
vaginal, (5)90
in multiple malformation syndromes, (5)90
Atrial fibrillation, fetal, (3)65
Atrial flutter, fetal, (3)65
Atrial septal defect, in pregnancy, (3)11
Atrioventricular canals, development, (2)12
Atrioventricular valves, fetal, ultrasound examination, (3)72
Atrophy
defined, (2)14
distal hypogastric artery, failure, (1)73
trigonal, (1)78
urethral, (1)78
urogenital, in menopause, (1)107
vaginitis and, (1)40
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from prenatal toxicant exposure, (2)10
Auranofin, in pregnancy, (3)20
Aurothioglucose, in pregnancy, (3)20
Autism spectrum disorders, from prenatal toxicant exposure, (2)10
Autoanalyzer, in Rh antibody detection and measurement, (3)66
Autoantibodies
in endometriosis, (1)20
in vasectomized men, (6)49
Autoeroticism, in female child, (6)90
Autoimmune disorders. See also specific disorder.
Addison’ disease and, (5)37
antiphospholipid testing in, (5)49
coagulopathy in, (2)108
polyglandular syndromes, (5)37
premature ovarian failure in, (5)86
in pregnancy, (3)20
and spontaneous abortion, (2)106; (3)69
treatment, in pregnancy, (3)20
Autoimmunity
and pregnancy loss, (5)48, 26, 49
to sperm
effects of, clinical assessment of, (5)58
vasectomy and, (5)58
Automobile accidents. See also Trauma.
in pregnancy, (3)54
Autonomic dysreflexia, intrapartum, in woman with disabilities, (1)102
Autonomic nervous system
respiration and, (3)26
uterine activity and, (2)5
Autonomic testing, pelvic floor, (1)81
Autoregulation
cellular, estrogen expression, (5)3
uteroplacental circulation, (2)11
Autosomal chromosomes, translocation of, with X chromosomes, and ovarian dysgenesis, (5)85
Autosomal dominant disorders, (3)115
Autosomal dominant inheritance, (3)111; (5)74
Autosomal genes, and spermatogenesis regulation, (5)91
Autosomal recessive disorders, (3)115
Autosomal recessive inheritance, (3)111; (5)74
in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79, 9
Autosomal trisomy
risk, ultrasound and, (3)72
and spontaneous abortion, (3)69
Avert contraceptive sponge, (6)17
Avinza. See Morphine.
Axilla, hair in, in puberty, (5)9
premature, isolated, (5)16
Aygestin. See Norethindrone.
Ayre spatula, in cytologic sampling, (1)29
Azathioprine (Imuran)
in pregnancy, (3)20
in systemic lupus erythematosus, (3)20
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Azidothymidine. See Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT).
Azithromycin
for chlamydial infection, in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)35
in HIV infection, in pregnancy, (3)47
for syphilis, (1)45
Azoospermia, (1)91; (5)63
diagnosis, (5)91
genetics, (5)91
autosomal genes, (5)91
Y chromosome, (5)63
medical treatment, (5)65. See also Infertility, male, medical treatment.
AZT. See Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT).
Aztreonam
for pelvic infections, (1)48
for postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
Azulfidine. See Sulfasalazine.

 

Subject Index B

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Bacillary dysentery, (1)41
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, in pregnancy, (3)49
Back pain
in labor and delivery, (3)90
postpartum, epidural anesthesia and, (2)90
in pregnancy, (3)19
Back surgery, previous, in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
Bacteria. See also specific bacteria.
aerobic
and pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
vaginal, (1)37
anaerobic
gram-negative, and puerperal infections, (3)37
in pelvic abscess, (1)48
and pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
in puerperal infections, (3)37–12
in septic pelvic thrombophlebitis, (3)37
vaginal, (1)37
in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
facultative, and puerperal infections, (3)37–12
of genital tract, (5)57
gram-negative, postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
gram-positive, postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
infection
placental pathology with
acute, (2)108
chronic, (2)108
in premature rupture of membranes, (2)46–4
in intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
in pediatric vulvovaginitis, (1)19
in pregnancy, (2)41
vaginal, (1)37
vulvar, (1)37
Bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerella vaginalis vaginitis), (1)3740
in AIDS, (1)40
clinical disease, (1)37
complications, (1)40
diagnosis, (1)37
epidemiology, (1)37
in lesbians, (6)103
pathogenesis, (1)37
in pediatric patient, (1)19
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
and puerperal infections, (3)37
recurrent, (1)40
treatment, (1)37
of sexual partners, (1)40
vaginal discharge characteristics, (1)37
Bactericides, as vaginal spermicides, (6)17
Bacteriuria
asymptomatic, (2)43
in pregnancy, treatment, (2)43
treatment, (2)43
asymptomatic, antibiotics for, in pregnancy, (3)35
postpartum, (3)37
Bacteroides
in pelvic abscess, (1)48
in septic pelvic thrombophlebitis, (3)37
Bacteroides bivius, and puerperal infections, (3)37
Bacteroides fragilis, and puerperal infections, (3)37
Bactrim. See Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
Banana sign, (3)116
Bardet-Biedl syndrome, (5)90
Barium enema, in cervical cancer staging, (4)7
Baroreceptors, in fetal circulation regulation, (3)58
Barr bodies, (5)74
Bartholin’ gland
adenoid cystic carcinoma, (4)40
angiomyxoma, (4)40
cysts, (1)9, 11
examination, (1)6
rhabdoid tumor, (4)40
secretory cells, (4)40
squamous cell carcinoma, (4)40
squamous cells, (4)40
transitional cells, (4)40
tumors, (4)40, 41
Basal body temperature (BBT)
in fertility regulation, (6)16
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
in ovulation confirmation, (5)54
in infertility, (5)50
Basal cell carcinoma, vulvar, (1)9; (4)40
adenoid cystic carcinoma of vestibular glands vs., (4)40
metatypical, (4)40
nodulo-ulcerative, (4)40
treatment of, (4)40
Basedow’ disease. See Graves’ disease.
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), ovarian, (5)11
B cells. See B lymphocytes (B cells).
BCG (bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, in pregnancy, (3)49
Becker muscular dystrophy, prenatal diagnosis, (3)112
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, (3)72; (5)74
Beclomethasone, in pregnancy, (3)60
Bed rest, in multiple gestations, (2)81
higher-order, (2)83
Beemer syndrome, (5)83
Behavioral aspects, of hyperemesis gravidarum, (2)9
Behavioral disorders, in newborn, maternal benzodiazepine use and, (6)79
Behavioral effects, of steroid hormone receptors, (5)4
Behavior modification
fertility awareness methods and, (6)16
in overactive bladder, (1)88
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)87
Behavior neurochemistry
membrane receptors and, (5)5
opioid peptides and, (5)10
Behavior therapy, for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
Bell’ palsy, in pregnancy, (3)19
Benadryl (diphenhydramine), in pregnancy, (6)79
Benzene, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Benznidazole, for Chagas’ disease, (3)51
Benzodiazepines
in anxiety, (6)73
in lactation, (6)79
in pregnancy, (3)60; (6)79
Benztropine, in pregnancy, (6)79
Berberine, (3)60
Beriberi, infantile, (2)93
Besant, Annie, (6)8
β-Adrenergic blocking agents
for hypertension, in pregnancy, (3)5
in pregnancy, (2)6
Beta-blocking agents. See β-Adrenergic blocking agents; specific agent.
Beta-endorphin, premenstrual syndromes and, (1)23
Betamethasone (Celestone)
for lichen sclerosus, in pediatric patient, (1)19
in pregnancy, (2)6
Bethesda classification system, in cytologic diagnosis, (1)29. See also Cytology.
BFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), ovarian, (5)11
Bicarbonate
for metabolic acidosis, in newborn, (3)68
in pregnancy, (3)54
Bilharziasis. See Schistosomiasis.
Biliary tract, embryonic development, (2)12
Bilirubin
metabolism, erythroblastosis fetalis and, (3)66
placental transfer, (2)11
in pregnancy, (3)54
Bimanual examination
and dilatation and curettage, (1)54
postpartum, infection and, (3)39
Bioassays
of hCG, (5)39
of oxytocin, (5)7
of vasopressin, (5)7
Biochemical screening, prenatal, for genetic disorders, (3)114. See also Genetic disorders, prenatal diagnosis.
Bioeffects, of ultrasound, (3)71. See also Ultrasound/ultrasonography, bioeffects for perinatologist.
Biofeedback
in overactive bladder management, (1)88
in urinary stress incontinence management, (1)87
Biologic response modifiers. See also Immunotherapy.
in immunotherapy, (4)60
Biophysical profile (BPP), (3)77
amniotic fluid volume in, (3)77
components, (3)77
in congenital anomaly detection, (3)77
contraction stress test vs., (3)77
efficacy, (3)77
fetal body movement in, (3)77
fetal breathing movements in, (3)77
fetal heart rate reactivity in, (3)77
fetal tone in, (3)77
gradual hypoxia model, (3)77
IUGR and, (3)74
in labor, (3)77
in magnesium sulfate tocolysis, (3)77
management protocols, (3)77
maternal diabetes and, (3)77
modified protocols, (3)77
in multiple gestation, (2)81
nonstress test in, (3)77
nonstress test vs., (3)77
postterm gestation and, (2)54; (3)77
premature rupture of membranes and, (3)77
twin gestation and, (3)77
types, (3)77
Biophysical profile (BPP), preterm premature rupture of membranes and, (2)47
Biopsy
breast, (1)26
cervical, with colposcopy, for premalignant squamous lesions, (1)31
cone. See Conization.
endometrial. See Endometrium, biopsy of.
excisional, condyloma acuminatum, cervical, (1)31
fimbrial, pregnancy prediction with, after distal tubal obstruction, (5)61
fine-needle aspiration, (4)52. See also Aspiration cytology.
hysteroscopic, (1)117
of ovarian tumors, in children, (4)34
in preimplantation genetic diagnosis, (5)97
scalene node, in cervical cancer staging, (4)7
testis
complications, (5)66
indications, (5)66
microsurgical technique, (5)66
percutaneous, (5)66
vulvar, (1)11, 17
Biopsychosocial model, in marital counseling, (6)98
Bioself Fertility Indicator, in ovulation documentation, (5)54
Bioterrorism, pregnancy and, (2)10
Biparietal diameter (BPD). See Fetus, biparietal diameter (BPD).
Bipolar cells, in breast fibroadenoma, (4)52
Birth defects
congenital. See also Congenital anomalies; specific defect.
central nervous system, ultrasound detection, (3)72
contraception-related, (6)37
drugs and. See also specific drug.
gastrointestinal tract, ultrasound detection, (3)72
genitourinary system, ultrasound detection, (3)72
heart, ultrasound detection, (3)72
hydrocephalus and, (3)72
psychologic impact, (3)3
skeletal system, and externally visible body defects, (3)72
ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
drugs and, (2)6
fertility awareness methods and, (6)16
Birth rates, adolescent, (6)75
Birth weight. See Newborn, birth weight.
Bisphosphonates
for bone pain, with cancer, (4)58
in osteoporosis, (1)111
Bitin, placental transfer, (3)59
Black cohosh, in menopause, (1)114
Bladder
anatomy, (1)101
anatomy and physiology of, normal, (1)88
development, (2)12
dome, in vaginal reconstruction, (4)53
drugs acting on, (1)88
dysfunction of, neurologic causes of, (1)81
fistula of, to vagina, (1)90. See also Fistulas, vesicovaginal.
flap, in abdominal hysterectomy, (1)57
gynecologic cancer spread to, (4)54, 29
infections. See Urinary tract infections.
inflammation of
in pregnancy, (3)35
radiation and, (4)54
in cervical carcinoma treatment, (4)11
injury, during cesarean delivery, (2)74
during labor and delivery, (2)5
neural control of, (1)88, 7
outlet obstruction, (1)88
overactive, (1)88. See also Detrusor muscle.
in bladder outlet obstruction, (1)88
cost of, (1)88
definition, (1)88
degenerative pattern, (1)88
dysjunctional ultrastructure pattern, (1)88
electron microscopic changes, (1)88
epidemiology, (1)88
evaluation, (1)88
gender and, (1)88
incidence of, (1)88
myogenic mechanisms, (1)88
myohypertrophy ultrastructural pattern, (1)88
neurogenic mechanisms, (1)88
pathophysiology of, (1)88
prevalence, (1)88
quality of life and, (1)88
refractory, neuromodulation for, (1)88
treatment, (1)88
behavior modification, (1)88
bladder training, (1)88
pelvic floor exercises, (1)88
pharmacologic, (1)88
urethral factors, (1)88
overdistention, postoperative, (1)53
radiation injury, (4)54
reflection onto abdominal wall, (1)56
resection of, in pelvic exenteration. See Pelvis, exenteration of.
septa, ascending, (1)1
training of
for overactive bladder, (1)88
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)87
ultrasonic scan, (1)101
unstable, diagnosis, urodynamic investigation, (1)78
Bladder pump, in overactive bladder management, (1)88
Blastocoele, (5)38
Blastocyst, (2)12
preimplantation, (5)38
transfer of, after in vitro fertilization, (5)97
Blastogenesis, (2)14
Blastomere, (2)14
biopsy of, in preimplantation genetic diagnosis, (5)97
fluorescence in situ hybridization of, in preimplantation genetic diagnosis, (5)108
Blastomyces dermatitidis, (1)41
Blastomycosis, North American, (1)41
Blastula, (2)14
Bleeding. See also Hemorrhage.
after hysterectomy, laparoscopic subtotal, (1)61
in anorectal disorders, (1)97
breakthrough, oral contraceptives and, compliance with use and, (6)10
disorders. See also Coagulopathies; specific disorder.
first trimester abortion and, (1)123
hemorrhoidal, (1)97
menstrual, (5)18. See also Menstruation.
normal menstrual, (5)20
postmenopausal, management, (1)54
postoperative
after dilatation and curettage, (1)54
after vasectomy, (6)47
third-trimester, ultrasound assessment, (3)64
uterine
abnormal
in adolescent, (1)22
anovulatory, (5)23
causes of, (5)23
definitions of, (5)20
dysfunctional. See Bleeding, uterine, dysfunctional.
endometrial monitoring in, (5)23
endometrial polyps and, (5)23
evaluation of, (5)23
excessive menstrual, (5)23
fibroids and, (5)23
history, (1)6
hysteroscopy in, (1)117
incidence of, (5)23
inherited bleeding disorders and, (5)23
intermenstrual, (5)23
leiomyoma and, (1)14
medical management of, (5)23
menopausal, (5)23
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
perimenopausal, (5)23
surgery for, (5)23
tamoxifen-induced, (5)23
thyroid disorders and, (5)23
after medical abortion, (6)126
anovulatory, (5)20
dysfunctional, (5)20. See also Bleeding, uterine, abnormal.
after laparoscopic sterilization, (6)43
classification of, (5)20
definitions of, (5)20
diagnosis of, (5)20
differential diagnosis of, (5)20
dilatation and curettage, (1)54. See also Dilatation and curettage (D&C).
endometrial ablation, (1)38
endometriosis and, (1)20
estrogen breakthrough, 3, (5)20
estrogen withdrawal, (1)110; (5)20
laboratory evaluation of, (5)20
microhysteroscopy of, (1)118
progesterone breakthrough, (5)20
progesterone withdrawal, (5)20
surgical therapy for, (5)20
treatment of, (1)54; (5)20
patterns of, contraceptive vaginal rings and, (6)31
vaginal. See also Bleeding, uterine.
abruptio placentae and, (2)49
estrogen replacement and, (1)111
placenta previa and, (2)49
in pregnancy, ectopic, (1)69
Bleomycin
in ovarian cancer, (4)36
topical, for vulvar Paget’ disease, (4)40
Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus syndrome, premature ovarian failure with, (5)86
Blocking antibody deficiency, and pregnancy loss, (5)49
Blood
changes in
postpartum, (2)90
in pregnancy, (2)31
circulation
in fetus, (3)58, 60. See also Fetus, circulation in.
maternal, fetal cells in, in antenatal diagnosis, (3)113
in newborn, (3)68
in resuscitation, (3)68–10
placental, and hormone secretion, (5)39
during pregnancy, (3)90
exercise and, (2)8
uteroplacental, (2)11; (3)90
coagulation. See Coagulation.
components
fetal, (2)11
maternal, (2)11
flow
distribution of, in fetus, (3)58
fetal, prostaglandins and, (5)43
placental, prostaglandins and, (5)43
umbilical, fetal circulation and, (3)58
umbilical, prostaglandins and, (5)42
uterine
during pregnancy, (2)13; (5)38
prostaglandins and, (5)42
uterine, fetal circulation and, (3)58
uteroplacental, (2)11; (3)90
formed elements, in pregnancy, (2)13
in genital discharge, in prepubertal child, (1)19
leukocytes, in pregnancy, (2)13
loss. See also Hemorrhage.
hookworm disease and, (3)51
during myomectomy, minimization of, (1)58
maternal
fetal cells in, in screening for chromosomal abnormalities, (3)114
hCS levels, (5)39
use in intrauterine fetal transfusion, (3)81
oxytocin levels during pregnancy, (5)7
platelets. See Platelets.
pressure. See Blood pressure.
red cells. See Erythrocytes.
replacement. See Transfusion.
scalp, fetal, (3)67
stasis, (2)31
transfusion. See Transfusion.
vessels. See Blood vessels.
volume. See Blood volume.
volume, in fetus, control of, (3)58
Blood cells, embryonic and fetal development, (2)12
Blood coagulation. See Coagulation.
Blood gases, (3)26
in pregnancy, (3)54
anesthetic implications, (3)90
umbilical cord, (3)67
venous, assessment, in critically ill patient, (3)79
Blood group antibodies, atypical, (3)66
Blood group antigens, Rh, (3)66. See also Erythroblastosis fetalis.
Blood group incompatibility, maternal-fetal, preimplantation diagnosis, (5)109
Blood platelets. See Platelets.
Blood pressure. See also Hypertension; Hypotension.
fetal, (3)58
in hypertensive encephalopathy, lowering, (3)5
leukotriene effects on, (5)43
measurement, in critically ill patient, (3)79
in pregnancy, (3)54
low-dose aspirin therapy and, (5)43
preoperative considerations, (1)52
prostaglandin effects on, (5)43
Blood replacement. See Transfusion.
Blood transfusion. See Transfusion.
Blood type, gestational trophoblastic tumor and, (4)48
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), in pregnancy, (3)6
Blood vessels. See also Vascular.
abdominal wall, (1)56
brain, development, (2)12
disease of, maternal, placental abruption and, (2)50
disorders, in pregnancy
collagen diseases, (3)6
dermatologic diseases, (2)32
placental, (2)108
fallopian tube, (1)2
ovary, (1)2; (2)5
pelvic wall, (2)5
perineum, (1)1
in pregnancy
resistance in, (3)8
structural changes in, (3)8
ultrasonic scan, (1)101
umbilical cord, intrauterine transfusion complications involving, (3)81
uteroplacental, pathology, (2)108
uterus, (1)2
in abdominal hysterectomy, (1)57
and adnexa, (2)5
laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of, for uterine fibroids, (1)103
vagina, (1)1; (2)5
Blood volume
in delivery, (3)8
postpartum increase in, (2)90
in pregnancy, (2)13; (3)8
pharmacokinetic effect of, (3)35
Blue cohosh, (3)60
Blunt trauma. See also Trauma.
in pregnancy, (3)54
B lymphocytes (B cells)
antibodies and, (4)60
in endometriosis, (1)20
Body dysmorphic disorder, (6)70
Body mass index (BMI)
calculation of, (6)111
classification of, (6)111
definition of, (6)111
Body temperature, basal. See Basal body temperature.
Body weight. See Obesity; Weight.
Bonding, parent-infant, (6)82
Bone(s)
density of
loss of, implantable contraceptives and, (6)38
postpartum changes in, (2)90
fetal, ultrasound heating, (3)71
growth, in acromegaly, (5)25
long, fetal, measurement, (3)73
loss, in menopause, (1)106. See also Osteoporosis, postmenopausal.
mass
oral contraceptives and, (6)1
in perimenopausal woman, (1)109
in postmenopausal woman, (1)111
measurement
indications, (1)111
techniques, (1)111
metastases to
from cervical carcinoma, (4)7
from endometrial carcinoma, (4)54
radiation injury, (4)54
remodeling, (1)111
biochemical markers of, (1)111
Bone marrow, failure, anemia and, (3)16
Bone mineral density
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
Bonine (meclizine), in pregnancy, (2)6
Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome, (1)4, 16, 22
Bonney clamp, in myomectomy, (1)58
Bonney hood, in abdominal myomectomy, (1)58
Boric acid, in candidiasis treatment, (1)40
Botanical medicine. See Herbal remedies.
Botulinum toxin, in overactive bladder management, (1)88
Bouin’ solution, for endometrial specimens, (5)18
Bowel. See also Colon.
burn, in electrosurgery, (1)34
congenital anomalies, ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
dysfunction of, neurologic causes of, (1)81
hyperechogenic, (3)72
inflammatory disease
in pregnancy, (3)30
and rectovaginal fistula, (1)91
injury, during cesarean delivery, (2)74
metastasis
from cervical cancer, (4)7
from endometrial cancer, (4)54
obstruction
after gynecologic surgery, (1)74
fetal, ultrasound diagnosis of, (3)72
ovarian cancer and, pain management in, (4)58
in ovarian carcinoma, surgical management, (4)39
in pregnancy, (3)30
problems during gynecologic surgery. See Gastrointestinal tract, problems in gynecologic surgery.
radiation injury, (4)54
small
injuries during gynecologic surgery, (1)74
obstruction of
fetal ultrasound diagnosis of, (3)72
laparoscopy in gynecologic cancer and, (4)55
radiation toxicity to, in cervical carcinoma treatment, (4)11
small, in pregnancy, (3)30
submucosal xenografts of, in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
ultrasonic characteristics, (1)101
fetal structural anomalies, (3)72
in vaginal reconstruction, (4)53
Bowenoid papulosis, (1)9; (4)40. See also Vulva, intraepithelial neoplasia.
Bowen’ disease, (1)9. See also Vulva, intraepithelial neoplasia.
BPD (biparietal diameter). See Fetus, biparietal diameter (BPD).
BPP. See Biophysical profile (BPP).
Brachial plexus, injury at birth, (2)79; (3)63
Bracht maneuver, modified, (2)76
Brachytherapy, (4)25
for cervical carcinoma, (4)11–14
with pelvic exenteration, (4)10
in radiation therapy, for vulvar carcinoma, (4)43
for vulvar carcinoma, (4)43
Bradlaugh, Charles, (6)8
Bradyarrhythmia, fetal, (3)65
Bradycardia
fetal
intrauterine transfusion and, (3)81
paracervical block and, (3)90
in pregnancy, (3)10
Brain. See also Central nervous system.
androgen metabolism in, (5)2
development, (2)12
fetal, androgens and, (5)2
lesions of
neurophysiolgic testing, (1)81
in precocious puberty, (5)16
in male, (5)16
peptides in. See Neurosecretory peptides.
tumors
and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, (5)65
in pregnancy, (3)19
Branchial cleft cysts, in newborn, (2)97
Branchial cleft sinuses, (2)97
Brandt-Andrews maneuver, (2)68
Braxton Hicks contractions, (2)68
BRCA genes
identification of, psychological response to, (4)68
in ovarian cancer, (4)27
in ovarian cytology, (1)29
Breast
abnormalities in, (1)27
history of, (1)6
abscesses, (1)26; (2)97; (3)39
in mastitis, (3)37
mastitis and, puerperal, (2)89
in pregnancy, (3)54
adenocarcinoma, aspiration cytology, (4)52
adenolipoma, (1)27
anatomy of, (1)27
aspiration cytology, (1)26; (4)52
aspiration cytology of, (1)27
athelia, (5)30
benign disease, (1)26,27
aspiration cytology, (4)52
aspiration cytology of, (1)27
estrogen use and, (1)110
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
biopsy, (1)26
fine-needle aspiration, (4)52
budding, (5)30
carcinoma of, (1)26
adjuvant therapy for, (1)26
age and, (6)110
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
BRCA genes in
identification of, psychological response to, (4)68
and ovarian cancer, (4)27
in ovarian cytology, (1)29
breast feeding and, (2)93
chemoprevention, (1)26
chemotherapy, (1)26
continuing follow-up, (1)26
diagnosis, (1)26
diagnosis of, (1)26; (4)52; (5)30
ductal, (1)26
invasive, histology and cytology, (1)26
early, surgical management, (1)26
and endometrial carcinoma, (4)13
estrogen and estrogen/progestin therapy, (1)26
estrogen use and, (1)26110, 111
after breast cancer, (1)110
in situ, (1)26
lobular, (1)26
modified radical mastectomy, (1)26
obesity and, (6)111
in obstetric patient, management of, (3)57
oral contraceptives and, (6)19
patient history, (1)26
physical examination, (1)26
postmenopausal, (1)26
in pregnancy and lactation, (1)26; (3)54
prevention, (4)33
previous induced abortion and, (6)124
primary, (1)26
radiation therapy, (1)26
referral, (1)26
risk estimates, (1)26
risk factors, (1)26
screening for. See also Mammography.
staging, (3)57
steroid hormone receptors in, (5)4
surgical management, (1)26
surveillance, (1)26
TNM staging, (1)26
treatment options, (1)26
adjuvant, (1)26
breast-conserving, (1)26
breast reconstruction, (1)26
cyst, aspiration cytology, (1)27; (4)52
cytology, (1)26
development of, (1)27
asymmetric, (1)19
hormonal effects on, (5)30
in puberty, (5)16
precocious, (5)16
isolated, (5)16
in thelarche, (5)9
premature, (5)30
diagnostic imaging of, (1)27
disease
diagnosis and management, (1)26
sex hormones and, (5)30
ductal hyperplasia, (1)27
duct ectasia, (1)26
embryology of, (5)30
clinical correlations of, (5)30
engorgement of, postpartum, (2)90
estrogen effects on development, (5)30
examination of, (1)6
clinical, (1)27
in newborn, (1)19; (2)97
in prepubertal child, (1)19
screening, (1)27
fat necrosis, (1)26
fibroadenoma, (1)26
aspiration cytology, (4)52
bipolar cells in, (4)52
histology and cytology, (1)26
fibrocystic disease, (1)26; (5)30
aspiration cytology, (4)52
histology and cytology, (1)26
galactocele, (1)26
galactopoiesis, (5)31
growth and development during pregnancy, (5)31
hCS and, (5)39
herpes simplex lesions, breast feeding and, (2)93
histology, (1)26
history related to, (1)27
hormonal effects on development, (5)30
hyperplasia, (5)30
infections. See also Mastitis.
puerperal, (3)37
inflammatory conditions, (1)26. See also Mastitis.
lactation. See Breast feeding; Lactation.
lactogenesis, (5)31
lipoma, (1)26
lobular hyperplasia, (1)27
male, enlargement of, in puberty, (5)9
mammogenesis, (5)31
anatomic changes, (5)31
hormonal effects, (5)31
mammography, (1)26; (5)30. See also Mammography.
masses, (5)30
mammography, (5)30
in pregnancy, (3)54
triple test for, (4)52
mastalgia, (1)27
mastitis. See Mastitis.
mature female, (5)30
Mondor’ disease, (1)27
nipples
discharge, (1)27; (5)30
stimulation, contraction stress test, (3)78
supernumerary, (2)97
true vs. pseudoinverted, (5)31
nonlactating, (5)30
papillary carcinoma, aspiration cytology, (4)52
papilloma
aspiration cytology, (4)52
intraductal, (1)26
phylloides tumor, (1)26
physiology of, (1)27
postnatal development, (5)30
postpartum care of, (2)90
in pregnancy and lactation, (1)26; (5)31
pubertal development, (5)30
adipose tissue in, (5)30
clinical correlations, (5)30
hormonal effects, (5)30
removal of, sexual activity after, (6)99
superficial thrombophlebitis, (1)26
Tanner staging, (1)19
tenderness
implantable contraceptives and, (6)38
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
tubular adenoma, (1)27
Breast feeding, (5)31–10; (6)36. See also Lactation.
AIDS and, (2)93; (3)47; (5)31
antibiotics in, (3)35
anticonvulsant drugs and, (3)19
antidepressants and, (3)3
benefits, (5)31
breast cancer and, (2)93
chemotherapy and, (2)93
contraception during, (6)36
contraindications, (2)93
definitions, 3, (6)36
depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use during, (6)28
by diabetic mother, (2)93; (3)14
difficulty in, causes of, (5)31
drugs and, (5)31
environmental contamination and, (5)31
family planning and, (3)36
family spacing or limiting while, (6)16
fertility and, (3)36
fertility awareness methods during, (6)16
food allergies and, (2)93
hepatitis B transmission through, (2)93
herpes simplex lesions of breast and, (2)93
hyperbilirubinemia and, (5)31
infant considerations, (2)93
galactosemia, (3)39
mastitis and, (3)39
maternal considerations, (2)93
in multiple births, (2)93
oral contraceptives during, (2)93
potential hazards of, (5)31
premature infants and, (2)93; (5)31
principles and practice, (5)31
reawakening to benefits, (5)31
sexuality and, (2)20
surrogate lactation, (5)31
by tuberculous mother, (2)93
weaning and involution, (5)31
Breathing. See Respiration.
Breech presentation. See Labor presentation, breech.
Brenner tumor, (1)17; (4)2930, 52
aspiration cytology, (4)52
atypical proliferative, (4)30
benign, (4)30
aspiration cytology, (4)52
malignant, (4)30
aspiration cytology, (4)52
Brethine. See Terbutaline.
Brethine (terbutaline), in pregnancy, (2)6
Bricker technique, in rectovaginal fistula repair, (1)91
Broad ligament. See Adnexa uteri, broad ligament.
Bromocriptine
in hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea, (5)21
in hyperprolactinemic galactorrhea, (5)32
in lactation suppression, (5)31
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
in mastodynia, (5)30
in prevention of breast engorgement, (2)90
in prolactinoma, (5)25
Brown fat, (2)12
Brucella, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Brugia malayi, (3)51
Buccal smear, in primary amenorrhea, (5)21
Budd-Chiari syndrome, in pregnancy, (3)29
Bulbocavernosus muscles, (1)1; (2)5
concentric needle electromyography, (1)81
Bulbocavernosus reflex, (1)79
Bulimia
amenorrhea in, (5)22
anorexia nervosa and, (5)26
anovulation in, (5)22
prognosis, (5)26
syndrome of, (5)26
treatment, (5)26
BUN (blood urea nitrogen), in pregnancy, (3)6
Bupivacaine
cardiotoxicity, (3)90
in labor, (3)90
external cephalic version and, (3)90
obstetric pharmacology of, (3)60
tubal application, in laparoscopic sterilization, (6)42
Bupropion
in lactation, (6)79
for postpartum depression, (3)3
in pregnancy, (3)60; (6)79
Burch colposuspension
cost analysis, (1)123
cul-de-sac in, (1)57
for intrinsic sphincter deficiency, (1)92
laparoscopic, (1)123
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)79
Burns
electrosurgical, (1)32
in pregnancy, (3)54
Burn test, in ovulation documentation, (5)54
Buserelin, for precocious puberty, (5)16
Buspirone (BuSpar), in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Busulfan, and premature ovarian failure, (5)88
Butoconazole, for candidiasis, (1)37, 40
Butorphanol, fetal effects of, (3)60
Bystander effect, (4)64

 

Subject Index C

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CA-125
in endometriosis, (1)20
in ovarian cancer, laparoscopy and, (4)55
serum levels, in cervical carcinoma, (4)7
Cadherins, (2)14
Cadmium
ovarian effects of, (5)88
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Café au lait spots, in newborn, (2)97
Caffeine
biodisposition, gender differences in, (3)60
fetal effects of, (3)60
intake, in pregnancy, (2)7
in pregnancy, (2)6
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
sources of, (2)7
CAGE questions, in alcohol abuse risk assessment, (2)33
CAH (congenital adrenal hyperplasia). See Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital.
Calcitonin, in osteoporosis treatment, (1)111
Calcium
deficiency of
in aging woman, (1)108
in infant, (2)93
elevated blood level of, differential diagnosis, (3)23
homeostasis, in pregnancy, (3)23
in infant formula, (2)93
intake, in pregnancy, (2)7
malabsorption, osteoporosis associated with, (1)111
in milk, (2)93
placental transfer, (2)11; (3)59
requirements, (2)93
in lactation, (2)93
in pregnancy, (2)7
supplemental
and bone mass, in postmenopausal women, (1)111
in lactation
IgE reactivity and, (2)93
vegetarian diet and, (2)93
in preeclampsia-eclampsia prevention, (3)7
for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
Calcium channel blockers
for hypertension, in pregnancy, (3)5
for inhibition of preterm labor, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
as tocolytic agents, (3)87
Calcium flux, phosphatidylinositol turnover and, receptor effector system, (5)5
Calcium-phosphorus precipitation, total parenteral nutrition and, (4)63
Call-Exner bodies, (4)52
in follicular cysts, (1)29
Calories
inadequate
in breast-feeding mother, (2)93
in infant, (2)93
and luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
in infant formula, (2)93
in milk, (2)93
requirements, (4)63
in lactation, (2)93
multiple births and, (2)93
in nutritional prescription, (4)63
in pregnancy, (2)7
Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, (1)41
Camera, video, in hysteroscopy, (5)117
CAMP. See Adenosine monophosphate, cyclic (cAMP).
Campbell v. Pitt County Memorial Hospital, (1)99
Camper’ fascia, (1)48; (2)5
Camptomelic dysplasia, with 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis, (5)87
Canal of Nuck, cyst, (1)11
Cancer. See Carcinoma; Gynecologic cancer; Tumor(s); specific organ;specific tumor.
Candida, in amnionitis, (2)108
Candida albicans
in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
pseudohyphae, (1)37
vulvar vestibulitis syndrome and, (1)77
vulvovaginitis, (1)37. See also Candidiasis.
Candidiasis, (1)37,40
antibiotic therapy and, (1)37
clothing and, (1)37
diabetes mellitus and, (1)37
diagnosis, (1)37
epidemiology, (1)37
immunosuppression and, (1)37
oral contraceptives and, (1)37
pathogenesis, (1)37
in pediatric patient, (1)19
in pregnancy, (1)37; (2)41
treatment of, (3)35
recurrent, (1)40
chronic, (1)40
treatment, (1)37
symptoms and signs, (1)37
treatment, (1)37; (3)35
vaginal discharge characteristics, (1)37
and vulvovaginitis, in lesbians, (6)103
Cannibis abuse, in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
Cannulation, tubal
hysteroscopic, (1)117, 118
methotrexate by, (1)68
selective, radiologic, (5)52
Canterbury v. Spence, (1)99
Capillary fluid shift, in fetal blood volume control, (3)58
Capoten (captopril), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Capreomycin, (3)60
Capsaicin, intravesical, in overactive bladder management, (1)88
Captopril (Capoten), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Caput succedaneum, (2)97; (3)63
Caramel test, in ovulation documentation, (5)54
Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
coagulopathy with, (3)60
in lactation, (6)79
metabolism, in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60; (6)79
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Carbohydrate(s)
and hCG function, (5)39
metabolism of
disorders of, 46, XX gonadal dysgenesis with, (5)86
hCS and, (5)39
with implantable contraceptives, (6)38
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
cardiovascular effects of, (6)24
progestogens and, (6)19
in pregnancy, (2)13
pharmacologic implications, (3)60
placental transfer, (3)59
for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
requirements for
in lactation, (2)93
in nutritional prescription, (4)63
in pregnancy, (2)7
Carbon dioxide
end-tidal, assessment, in critically ill patient, (3)79
in fetal blood, (3)58
laser. See Laser therapy, CO2 laser.
placental transfer, (3)59
for uterine distention, in hysteroscopy, (1)118, 13, 121
Carbon dioxide laser vaporization, for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)4
Carbon dioxide tension, in pregnancy, (3)54
Carboplatin
in endometrial cancer, (4)21
in ovarian cancer, 4, (4)36
Carboprost, for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in cervical carcinoma, (4)6
Carcinogenesis, potential risk, oral contraceptive use and. See Oral contraceptives, carcinogenic risks.
Carcinoids
cervical, (4)6
ovarian, (4)31
adenocarcinoid type, (4)31
goblet cell, (4)31
insular, (4)31
mucinous, (4)31
strumal, (4)31
trabecular, (4)31
Carcinoma. See also Gynecologic cancer; specific carcinoma;specific organ.
in aging woman, (1)105; (6)110
anaplastic, nodules of, ovarian mucinous tumors with, (4)29
breast. See Breast, carcinoma of.
cervix uteri. See Cervix uteri, carcinoma of.
childhood, radiation exposure in utero and, (2)101
diagnosis, before elective hysterectomy, (1)54
embryonal, (4)31
aspiration cytology, (4)52
endometrial. See Endometrium, carcinoma of.
fallopian tube. See Fallopian tubes, carcinoma.
genetic predisposition, preimplantation diagnosis, (5)109
genital tract, reconstructive surgery after treatment for, (4)53
gynecologic. See also Gynecologic cancer.
genetics of, (4)53. See also Gynecologic cancer, genetics; Oncogenes, in gynecologic cancer.
oncogenes in. See Oncogenes, in gynecologic cancer.
immunology. See Immunology, cancer.
obesity and, (6)111
ovarian. See Ovaries, cancer of.
pathogenesis, cytokines and, (4)60
penile, circumcision and, (2)91
squamous cell. See Squamous cell carcinoma.
staging of, aspiration cytology in, (1)29
treatment of, in vitro fertilization after, (5)97
uterus. See Uterus, carcinoma.
vagina. See Vagina, carcinoma.
vulva. See Vulva, carcinoma.
yolk sac. See Yolk sac tumor.
Carcinoma simplex, vulvar. See Vulva, intraepithelial neoplasia of.
Cardiac. See also Heart.
Cardiac contractility, (3)79
Cardiac dysrhythmia. See Arrhythmia.
Cardiac filling pressure, assessment, in critically ill patient, (3)79
Cardiac glycosides, in pregnancy, (3)60
Cardiac index, (3)79
Cardiac output, (3)79
assessment
in critically ill patient, (3)79
thermodilution catheter for, (3)79
determinants of, (3)79
factors affecting, (3)79
fetal, regulation, (2)12; (3)58
in pregnancy, (2)13; (3)8, 79
Cardiac pacemaker
electrosurgery and, (1)34
magnetic resonance imaging and, (2)103
Cardiac rhythm, fetal
abnormalities of, (3)65
prognosis of, (3)65
treatment of, (3)65
assessment of, (3)65
normal, (3)65
Cardinal ligament. See Adnexa uteri, cardinal ligament.
Cardiomyopathy
fetal, ultrasound detection, (3)72
hypertrophic, in pregnancy, (3)11
peripartum, (2)90
Cardiopulmonary bypass, in pregnancy, (3)54
Cardiovascular drugs, in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)60
Cardiovascular system
adaptation to extrauterine life, (2)12
pulmonary-systemic pressure relationships, (2)12
sites of venous admixture, (2)12
aging and, (1)105
estrogen and, (1)109
IGF-1 and, (1)109
bupivacaine effects on, (3)90
congenital anomalies
genital ambiguity with, (5)83
oral contraceptives and, (6)37
ultrasound detection, (3)64
in delivery, alterations, (3)11
disease
contraception in, (6)14
obesity and, (6)111
obstetric anesthesia and, (3)90
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
with polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
postmenopausal hormone therapy in, (1)110
in pregnancy, (3)11. See also Heart disease, in pregnancy
in pregnant patient, anesthesia and, (3)91
effects of tocolytic agents on, (3)87, 12
evaluation
preconception, (3)11
in pregnancy, (3)11
exercise and, in pregnancy, (2)8
in labor, alterations, (3)11
noninvasive assessment. See specific procedure.
oral contraceptives and
combination pill, (6)19
progestogens in, (6)19
perimenopause and, (1)109
polycystic ovary syndrome and, (5)29
postpartum changes in, (2)90
in preeclampsia, (3)7
in pregnancy, (3)54; (5)43
alterations, (3)11
alterations in, (2)813
anatomic, (2)13
cardiodynamics, (2)13
in formed elements in blood, (2)13
in venous pressure, (2)13
cardiac output, (2)13
changes in, anesthesia and, (3)91
electrocardiographic changes, (2)13
exercise and, (2)8
heart rate, (2)13
intravascular volume changes, (2)13
lipoxygenase compounds and, (5)43
problems. See Heart disease, in pregnancy.
prostaglandins and, (5)43
thromboxane and, (5)43
preoperative considerations in gynecologic patient, (1)52
syphilis and, (1)45
vasectomy and, (6)49
Caries, dental, in pregnancy, (2)15
Carpal tunnel syndrome, in pregnancy, (3)19
Caruncles, urethral, (1)10
Casein, in human milk, (5)31
Casein hydrolysate formula, (2)93
Casey v. Planned Parenthood of SE Pennsylvania, (6)115
Catalytic receptor family, (5)5–6
Catamenia. See Menstruation.
Cataract, in newborn, (2)97
Catechol estrogens, (5)3
Catheterization
cardiac, in pregnancy, (3)11
central venous, in management of gynecologic cancer, (4)63B
in dilatation and curettage, (1)54
fallopian tube, selective, radiologic, (5)52
female circumcision and, (1)96
infection and, (4)63
postpartum, (3)39
in neonatal resuscitation, (3)68
pulmonary artery, (3)55
transfemoral artery, (1)73
Catheters
after surgery, for vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
Foley, in postpartum hemorrhage management, (2)80
pressure, intrauterine, (3)67
urinary tract infections and, (2)43
Word, (1)11
Catholics for a Free Choice, contact information, (6)122
Cauda equina lesions, neurophysiologic testing, (1)81
Caudal regression syndrome, maternal diabetes and, (3)13
Cavernous hemangioma
in newborn, (2)97
vulvar, (1)9
Cavitational mechanism, in ultrasound, (3)71
bioeffects related to, (3)71
CBG (corticosteroid-binding globulin), (5)36
CDNA microarray techniques, in ovarian cancer detection, (4)28
CEA. See Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), in cervical carcinoma, (4)6
Cefamandole, in prevention of postcesarean endometritis, (3)35
Cefazolin
cost of, (3)35
for obstetric infection, microbial susceptibility to, (3)35
pharmacokinetics of, in pregnancy, (3)60
in prevention of postcesarean endometritis, (3)35
prophylactic use, for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
for pyelonephritis, in pregnancy, (3)35
for sepsis, neonatal, with group B staphylococcal infection, (3)35
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Cefixime, for gonorrhea, in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)35
Cefonicid, in prevention of postcesarean endometritis, (3)35
Cefoperazone, transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Cefotaxime
cost of, (3)35
in gonorrhea, (3)42
neonatal, (3)42
for obstetric infection, microbial susceptibility to, (3)35
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Cefotetan
cost of, (3)35
for endometritis, postpartum, (3)35
for obstetric infection, microbial susceptibility to, (3)35
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44; (5)57
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
in prevention of postcesarean endometritis, (3)35
Cefoxitin
in acute salpingitis, (1)44; (5)57
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44; (5)57
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
in prevention of postcesarean endometritis, (3)35
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Ceftizoxime
for gonorrhea, in pregnancy, (3)42
in prevention of postcesarean endometritis, (3)35
for salpingitis, (3)42 (5)57
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Ceftriaxone
for acute salpingitis, (1)44; (5)57
for chancroid, in pregnancy, (3)35
for gonorrhea, (2)42; (3)42
neonatal, (3)42
in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)35
with oocyte retrieval, for in vitro fertilization, (5)97
for pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44; (5)57
for syphilis, (1)45
Cefuroxime
cost of, (3)35
pharmacokinetics of, in pregnancy, (3)60
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Celestone (betamethasone), in pregnancy, (2)6
Celexa (citalopram), in pregnancy, (6)79
Celioscopy. See Laparoscopy.
Celiotomy, in cervical cancer staging, (4)7
extraperitoneal approach, (4)7
laparoscopic approach, (4)7
Cell adhesion molecules
in endometriosis, (1)20
in endometrium, before implantation, (5)47
Cell-mediated (cellular) immunity
in endometriosis, (1)20
in reproduction, (5)58
Cell membrane hormone receptors, (5)5
alternate or novel modes of hormone regulation by, (5)5
in behavior, (5)5
biosynthesis, (5)5
catabolism, (5)5
catalytic, (5)5–6
channel-linked, (5)5–7
downregulation, (5)5
dual or multiple regulatory systems, (5)5
effector systems, (5)5–9
glycoprotein subfamily, (5)5
G-protein-coupled, (5)5
LH/hCG, nongonadal distribution, (5)5
macromolecular nature, (5)5
methods for study of, (5)5
nuclear, for peptide hormones and related ligands, (5)5
in pathologic states, (5)5
regulation, (5)5
spare, (5)5
upregulation, (5)5
Cellulitis
pelvic, after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
postirradiation, vulvar carcinoma and, (4)43
postpartum, (3)39
vaginal cuff, bacterial vaginosis and, (1)40
Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, contact information, (6)122
Central nervous system (CNS)
defects, ultrasound detection in fetus, (3)64, 72
embryonic and fetal development, (2)12
fetal
sequential appearance of structures on ultrasound, (3)72
structural anomalies, ultrasound detection, (3)64
structural anomalies, ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
in fetal circulation regulation, (3)58
lesions of
and amenorrhea, (5)21
hormonal cytology, (1)29
in precocious puberty, (5)16
in male, (5)16
management of, (5)16
local anesthesia and, inadvertent intravascular injection, (3)90
metastases, gestational trophoblastic tumors and, (4)48
neoplasms of, in obstetric patient, management of, (3)57
neurologic sequelae of birth, (3)63
brachial plexus injury, (3)63
facial nerve palsy, (3)63
hemorrhage, (3)63
injury due to breech presentation, (3)63
skull fracture, (3)63
spinal cord injury, (3)63
obstetric trauma, (3)63
in preeclampsia, (3)7
in pregnancy, (3)19, 54
anesthetic implications, (3)90
back pain, (3)19
brain tumors, (3)19
cerebrovascular disease, (3)19
changes in, anesthesia and, (3)91
chorea gravidarum, (3)19
diagnostic procedures, (3)19
epilepsy, (3)19
headache, (3)19
multiple sclerosis, (3)19
myasthenia gravis, (3)19
neuropathy, (3)19
radiation exposure in utero and, (2)101
sex hormone effects, (6)20
Central venous access, (3)79
Central venous catheterization, in management of gynecologic cancer, (4)63B
Central venous pressure, (3)79
monitoring, in critically ill patient, (3)79
in pregnancy, (3)54
Cephalexin
for asymptomatic bacteriuria, in pregnancy, (3)35
in puerperal infections, breast, (3)39
Cephalhematoma, in newborn, (2)97; (3)63
Cephalic presentation. See Labor presentation, breech.
Cephalometry, ultrasonic, (3)1–20
Cephalosporins
for cystitis, in pregnancy, (3)35
for gonorrhea, in pregnancy, (3)42
for mastitis, (3)37
in postpartum endometritis, (3)39
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
for postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
in pregnancy, (1)42; (2)6
prophylactic use, for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
Cephalothin, prophylactic use, for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
Cephradine, pharmacokinetics of, in pregnancy, (3)60
Cerclage, (3)54
anesthesia, (3)90
for incompetent cervix, (3)53. See also Cervix uteri, incompetent.
cervicoisthmic, (3)53
complications, (3)53
in evolution, (3)53
McDonald, (3)53
patient selection, (3)53
perioperative considerations, (3)53
postcerclage management, (3)53
Shirodkar, (3)53
for labor prevention, in higher-order multiple gestation, (2)83
with placenta previa, (2)49
preterm premature rupture of membranes and, (2)47
Cerebellar ataxia, with 46, XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86 4–6
Cerebellum, fetal, ultrasound examination, (3)72
Cerebral palsy
after neonatal resuscitation, (3)68
intra-amniotic infection and preterm delivery and, (3)37
multiple gestation and, (2)83
Cerebral veins, thromboembolism of, oral contraceptives and, (6)23
Cerebrovascular disease
in aging woman, (1)105
screening for, (1)108
in pregnancy, (3)19
Cervical cap, (6)12
adolescent use, (6)9
care of, (6)17
contraindications to, (6)17
drawbacks with, (6)17
Dumas, (6)17
efficacy of, (6)3
FemCap, (6)17
indications for, (6)17
Lea’ shield, (6)17
Oves Cap, (6)17
Prentif, (6)17
spermicides and, use together, (6)17, 21
types of, (6)17
use of, (6)17
Vimule, (6)17
Cervical mucus
absolute dysmucorrhea, (5)51
analysis of, in ovulation documentation, (5)54. See also Ovulation, documentation of.
clomiphene citrate treatment and, (5)68
collection, for postcoital test, (5)51
fractional collection method, (5)51
hormonal regulation of, (6)12
interaction of, with sperm, in infertility, (5)63
nonovulatory, (5)51
in ovulation prediction, (6)12
postcoital test, (5)51
clinical approach and evaluation, (5)51
abstinence before testing, (5)51
interpretation, (5)51
method of mucus collection, (5)51
time interval after coitus, (5)51
clinical interpretation and treatment, (5)51
altered cervical mucus, (5)51
altered sperm deposition, (5)51
altered sperm penetration, (5)51
nonovulatory cervical mucus, (5)51
preovulatory, (5)51
properties, (5)51
relative dysmucorrhea, (5)51
sperm migration in, (5)45
spinnbarkeit, measurement, (5)51
structure, (5)45
treatment for quality improvement, (5)51
Cervical-vaginal hood, DES-associated, (1)10
Cervicitis, (1)44; (5)57
and bump dyspareunia, (6)87
Chlamydia trachomatis, (3)48
colposcopy in, (1)30
vaginal discharge in, (1)37
Cervicoisthmic cerclage, for incompetent cervix, (3)53
Cervix uteri
abnormalities
and preterm delivery, (3)87
ultrasonography, (1)101
absence, congenital, (5)90
adenocarcinoma of
clear cell, (4)6
endocervical type, (4)6
endometrioid type, (4)6
invasive, (4)6
mesonephric type, (4)6
microinvasive, (4)6
papillary serous type, (4)6
radiation therapy. See also Radiation therapy, for cervical carcinoma.
in situ, (4)6
adenomyosis, (1)31
adenosis, (1)31
DES-associated, (1)10
agglutination, postabortion, (6)123
anatomy, (1)101; (2)5
atresia, (5)90
benign lesions, (1)31
cancer of. See Cervix uteri, carcinoma of.
carcinoid tumor, (4)6
carcinoma of, (4)54
adenocarcinoma of. See Cervix uteri, adenocarcinoma of.
adenoid
basal, (4)6
cystic, (4)6
adenosquamous, (4)6
in situ, (4)6
in AIDS, (4)1
bone metastases, (4)7
bowel metastases, (4)7
CA-125 levels in, (4)7
CEA in, (4)6
cell type, prognosis and, (4)6
in cervical stump, after hysterectomy, (1)61
circumcision of partner and, (2)91
circumscribed, (4)6
clinical presentation, (4)6
CT scan in, (4)7–10
staging, (4)54
cytologic screening, (4)1
cost, (4)1
rescreening, (4)1
target populations, (4)1
techniques, (4)1
cytophotometric DNA quantitation, (4)59
degree of differentiation, prognosis and, (4)6
depth of stromal invasion, prognosis and, (4)6
diagnosis, (4)54–7
DNA ploidy analysis, (4)6
epidemiologic aspects, (4)1
epidemiology, (4)19
estrogen receptors, (4)6
estrogen therapy and, (1)110
evaluation of, (4)11
FIGO classification (staging), (4)6
fine-needle aspiration in, (4)7
flow cytometry, (4)6
gene therapy for, (4)64
genetics, (4)66
genital herpesvirus and, (4)1
with glandular differentiation, (4)6
growth patterns, prognosis and, (4)6
herpes simplex and, (3)46
HPV infection and, (4)2
human papillomavirus in, (4)1
testing for, (1)29
hysterectomy for, (4)9
patient selection for, (4)9
incidence, (1)33
and mortality, (4)1
in situ, natural history, (4)1
invasive, (4)6
HIV and, (1)46
laparoscopic surgery for, (1)119
laparoscopy in, (4)55
in lesbians, (6)103
liver metastases, (4)7, 31
lung metastases, (4)7
lymphangiogram in, (4)7
lymphatic dissemination of, (4)7
lymph node metastasis, prognosis and, (4)6
magnetic resonance imaging, (1)93; (4)7
staging, (4)54
microinvasive, (4)5, 6
carcinogenesis, (4)5
colposcopy, (4)5
cytology, (4)5
diagnosis, (4)5
histogenesis, (4)5
node involvement, (4)5–13
pathology, (4)5
staging, (4)7
treatment, (4)5
molecular biology, (4)65
morphogenesis, (1)29; (4)6
natural history, (4)6
neuroendocrine, (4)6
in obstetric patient, management of, (3)57
oncogenes, (4)6
oral contraceptives and, (6)19
pathogenesis, (1)33
pathogenetic mechanisms, (4)1
pathology, (4)6
positron emission tomography in, (4)7B
in pregnancy, (3)54
presentation of, (4)11
progesterone receptors, (4)6
prognosis, (4)6
cytophotometric DNA quantitation, (4)59
radiation therapy. See also Radiation therapy, for cervical carcinoma.
radiographic studies in
advanced, (4)7
routine, (4)7
recurrent, (4)6
DNA index and, (4)59
pelvic exenteration for, (4)10. See also Pelvis, exenteration of.
risk factors, (1)33
risks in various populations, (4)1
screening for, (1)33. See also Cytology.
in aging woman, (1)108
impact, (1)33
intervals, (1)33
in low-resource settings, (1)33
human papillomavirus in, (1)33
implementation of, (1)33
organized, vs. opportunistic, (1)33
participation rates, (1)33
program design, (1)33
target ages, (1)33
visual, (1)33
small-cell, radiation therapy. See also Radiation therapy, for cervical carcinoma.
specimen handling and processing, (4)6
spread, (4)7, 54
by direct extension, (4)7
distant, (4)7
nodal involvement, (4)6
to urinary system, (4)54
hematogenous, (4)7
by lymphatic embolization, (4)7
squamous cell. See Cervix uteri, squamous cell carcinoma.
squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) in, (4)7
staging, (4)7, 11
AJCC (TNM) system for, (4)7
clinical, (4)6
magnetic resonance imaging, (1)93
FIGO, (4)6, 11
imaging techniques, (4)7
microinvasion and, (4)7
serum studies in, (4)7
surgical, (4)7
stromal response, prognosis and, (4)6
treatment. See also Radiation therapy, for cervical carcinoma.
laparoscopic, (4)55
radiology in planning, (4)54
tumor dimension, prognosis and, (4)6
tumor markers, (4)6
ultrasound, (1)101; (4)54
staging, (4)54
vascular invasion, prognosis and, (4)6
verrucous, (4)6
cerclage. See Cerclage
changes, preceding labor, (2)68
circumscribed carcinoma, (4)6
color tone and response to acetic acid, (1)30–13
colposcopy. See Colposcopy.
competence of, as biologic continuum, (3)53
condylomata acuminata, (1)30; (4)2
congenital absence, (1)70
conization
combined excisional and vaporization, (1)34
fertility after, (5)61
laser excisional conization, (1)34
in microinvasive carcinoma, (4)5
as contraceptive target, (6)12
cryosurgery. See Cryosurgery.
cyclic changes in, in fertility regulation, (6)16
cysts of, nabothian, 1(31)
cytologic examination, (1)29. See also Cytology.
DES exposure, (1)10, 30
dilatation
in abnormal labor
graphing of, (2)73
protracted active phase, (2)73
secondary arrest of, (2)73
arrest, (2)68
for dilation and evacuation, (6)125, 5
in first trimester abortion, (6)123. See also Abortion, first trimester.
difficult, (6)123
methods of, (1)54
osmotic, (6)123
pharmaceutical, (6)123
postdatism and, (2)54
prostaglandins in, (1)54; (6)123
and uterine curettage. See Dilatation and curettage (D&C).
vasopressin in, (1)54
duplication, with double uterus, (1)70
dysplasia, (1)30
biologic behavior, (4)1
microhysteroscopy of, (1)118
natural history, (4)1
embryology, (1)30
endocervical polyps, (1)31
endometriosis, (1)31
enzyme inhibitors in, local administration of, (6)12
epithelial cells, HPV-infected, immune responses to, enhancement of, (4)60
epithelium, acetowhite, (1)30
examination, (1)6
vaginitis and, (1)40
grasping, in dilatation and curettage, (1)54
hyperkeratosis, (1)30, 9
incompetent, (3)53
adjunctive management strategies, (3)53
cerclage procedures, (3)53. See also Cerclage, for incompetent cervix
diagnosis, (3)53–8
in evolution, (3)53
history, (3)53
management, (3)53
with premature labor, pessary in, (1)39
and preterm delivery, (2)107
risk factors, (3)53
and spontaneous abortion, (3)69; (5)48
spontaneous preterm birth and, (3)53
surgical treatment
anesthesia for, (3)90
cerclage operations, (3)54
tests for, (3)53
ultrasound diagnosis, (3)53
cerclage for, (3)53
vaginal pessaries for, (3)53
inflammation. See Cervicitis.
intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31; (4)23,4
border with normal tissue, (1)30
classification, 2, (4)3
colposcopy in, (1)30; (4)3
cone biopsy in, (4)3
defined, (4)3
definition, (4)4
diagnosis, (4)3
screening, (4)3
evaluation of abnormal results, (4)3
endocervical curettage in, (4)3
etiology, (1)30; (4)2
evaluation, (1)31
historical perspective, (4)3
laser therapy, (1)34; (4)2
anesthesia, (1)34
combined excisional and vaporization conization, (1)34
excisional conization, (1)34
results, (1)34
vaporization, (1)34
loop electroexcision, (1)31
management, (1)4, 31; (4)2
natural history, (1)33
pathogenesis and, (1)30; (4)3
in pregnancy, (4)4
recurrent, treatment, (4)4
screening, (4)3
thermal ablation, (1)31
treatment, (4)24
complications, (4)4
indications, (4)4
investigational, (4)4
techniques, (4)4
laceration, in dilatation and curettage, (1)54–6
leiomyomas, (1)31
leukoplakia, (1)30
lymphoepithelioma, (4)6
magnetic resonance imaging of, (1)93
metastases to, (4)6
from endometrium, (4)15
microhysteroscopy of, (1)118
mucus. See Cervical mucus.
multiple gestation and, (2)81
nabothian cysts, (1)31
necrosis in, radiation toxicity and, in carcinoma treatment, (4)11
neoplasia. See also Cervix uteri, intraepithelial neoplasia.
in pregnancy, (3)54
Pap smear, (1)30. See also Papanicolaou (Pap) smear.
abnormal, colposcopy and, (1)30
pharmacologically active agents in, local administration of, (6)12
polyps, (1)31
pregnancy in, (1)69
premalignant squamous lesions, (1)31
in premature membrane rupture, (2)46
progestogens in, local administration of, (6)12
prolapse, pessaries for, (1)80
removal, in abdominal hysterectomy, (1)57
retention of, with hysterectomy, (1)61. See also Hysterectomy, subtotal.
secretions, in fertility regulation, (6)16
secretory activity, sex steroids and, (6)12
sex hormone effects, (6)20
sperm storage in, (5)45
squamous cell carcinoma
cell types, (4)6
DNA index, (4)59
genetics, (4)66
histologic grade, (4)6
papillary, (4)6
pathology, (4)6
radiation therapy. See also Radiation therapy, for cervical carcinoma.
spindle-cell, (4)6
variants, (4)6
squamous metaplasia, (1)30
atypical, (1)30
squamous papilloma, 1(31); (1)31
stenosis of, intrauterine device insertion through, (6)29
surface contour, (1)30
tears, during dilatation and curettage, (1)54
transformation zone, (1)30
abnormal, (1)30
normal, (1)30
tuberculosis, (1)49
tumors
dimension, prognosis and, (4)6
secondary, metastatic, (4)6
ultrasonic scan, (1)101
abnormalities, (1)101
vascular pattern, (1)30
verrucous carcinoma, (4)6
Cesarean delivery, (2)74
abdominal preparation, (2)74
after abdominal metroplasty, (1)70
after premature membrane rupture, (2)46
anesthesia in
general, (3)90
preeclampsia and, (3)90
regional, (3)90
general anesthesia vs., (3)90
antibiotic prophylaxis with, (3)37
in breech presentation, (2)76–13
cardiovascular system in, (3)8
closure of uterus, (2)74
complications, (2)74
delivery of fetus, (2)74
delivery of placenta, (2)74
endometritis after
antibiotics for, (3)35
prevention of, antibiotics in, (3)35
endomyometritis after, (2)74
epidemiology, (2)74
fertility after, (5)61
gastrointestinal tract injury, (2)74
history, (2)74
hysterectomy with, (2)75. See also Hysterectomy, cesarean
incisions
skin, (2)74
uterine, (2)74, 11
indications, (2)74
with intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
maternal HIV and, (3)47–19
maternal mortality, (2)74
medical abortion after, in first trimester, (6)126
in multiple gestation, (2)82
pain relief after, (3)90
perimortem, (2)74
placenta previa and, (2)49; (3)90
postoperative care, (2)74
and postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
previous
labor induction and, (2)71
and placenta previa, (2)49
primary, (2)74
repeat, (2)74
in secondary arrest of dilation, (2)73
severe preeclampsia and, (3)7
technique, (2)74
urinary tract injuries, (2)74
vaginal birth after, (2)65;(2)74; (2)74
anesthesia, (3)90
informed consent for, (1)99–15
intrapartum management, (2)65
labor induction for, prostaglandins in, (2)65B
in multiple gestation, (2)82
prenatal management, (2)65
risks vs. benefits, (2)65
uterine rupture, (2)65
wound infections, (2)74
Cesarean hysterectomy. See Hysterectomy, cesarean.
Cesium, in radiation therapy, for cervical carcinoma, (4)11
Cesium-137, fetal effects of, (5)88
Cestode infections, (3)51
C-Film vaginal contraceptive film, (6)17
Chagas’ disease, (3)51
Chancroid, (1)41
bacteriology, (1)41
clinical features, (1)41
diagnosis, (1)41
treatment, (1)41
in pregnancy, (3)35
Channel-linked receptor family, (5)5–7
Charcot-Böttcher filaments, in gonadoblastoma, (4)31
Chasteberry, in menopause, (1)114
Chemicals
in breast milk, (2)93
environmental, and abortion
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
recurrent, (3)69
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
teratogenic, (2)14
for tubal occlusion, (6)12
Chemoreceptors, in fetal circulation regulation, (3)58
Chemotherapy
for advanced ovarian cancer, (4)35
agents, and recurrent abortion, (3)69
amenorrhea and, (5)21
for beast cancer, (1)26
for breast cancer, in pregnancy, (3)57
in breast cancer, (1)26
breast feeding during, (2)93
for cervical carcinoma, with radiation therapy, (4)11
combination
in endometrial cancer, (4)21
ovarian effects of, (5)88
in uterine sarcoma, (4)23
cytologic changes with, (1)29
in endometrial adenocarcinoma, (4)25
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)21
anthracyclines, (4)21
cisplatin, (4)21
combination chemotherapy, (4)21
cyclophosphamide, (4)21
5-fluorouracil, (4)21
hormonal therapy, (4)20
adjuvant, (4)20
biochemical measurement problems, (4)20
cytosol receptor and, (4)20
historical background, (4)20
immunohistochemical measurement of estrogen and progesterone receptor, (4)20
indications, (4)20
intracavitary, (4)20
progestational agents, (4)20
dosage, (4)20
maintenance dose, (4)20
serum levels, (4)20
progesterone mechanism of action, (4)20
radiation therapy and, (4)20
steroid receptor assay role, (4)20
tamoxifen, (4)20
therapeutic response, (4)20
primary adjuvant therapy, (4)21
single-agent therapy, (4)21
Taxol, (4)21
for fallopian tube carcinoma, (4)46
fetal exposure to, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
for gestational trophoblastic tumors
metastatic
high-risk/poor prognosis, (4)48
low-risk/good prognosis, (4)48
nonmetastatic, (4)48
for gynecologic cancer, psychological response to, (4)68
for leukemia, in pregnancy, (3)60
for malignant melanoma, (3)57
malnutrition related to, (4)63. See also Nutrition therapy, in gynecologic malignancy.
molecular, (4)64
in ovarian cancer, (4)36
advanced, (4)36
combined with radiation therapy, (4)37
early stage, (4)36
epithelial, (4)36
experimental therapy, (4)36
germ cell tumors, (1)36
of low malignant potential, (4)29
radiation therapy vs., (4)37
second-line therapy, (4)36
stromal tumors, (1)36
for ovarian dysgerminoma, in children, (4)34
ovarian effects of, (5)88
for ovarian teratoma, immature, in children, (4)34
for ovarian yolk sac tumor, in children, (4)34
in pregnancy, (3)60. See also specific cancer.
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
preservation of ovarian function during, (5)88
pulmonary complications, (4)54
with radiation therapy, ovarian effects of, (5)88
for tuberculosis, genital, (1)49
for uterine sarcoma, (4)23
Cherney incision, (1)56; (2)74
Cherry angiomas, (1)11
Chest
circumference, in newborn, (2)97
compression of, in neonatal resuscitation, (3)68
radiography of. See Radiography, chest.
Chiari-Frommel syndrome, hormonal cytology, (1)29
Chickenpox. See Varicella.
Child(ren). See also Infant(s).
of adolescent mother, (6)75
cancer in, radiation exposure in utero and, (2)101
of dying patient, communication with, (6)95
genital examination in, (1)19
growth and development
in fetal transfusion survivors, (3)66
maternal diabetes and, (3)13
multiple gestation and, (2)83
gynecologic examination of, (1)19
labial agglutination in, (1)19
laparoscopy in, (1)119
legal rights of, (6)82
marital conflict effects on, (6)98
normal genital anatomy of, (1)19
obstructive vaginal disorders in, (1)19
ovarian cancer in, (4)34. See also Ovaries, cancer of, in children.
pelvic examination in, (1)19
primary care, (6)110
as source of marital conflict, (6)98
vulva of, noninfectious dermatologic conditions of, (1)19
vulvovaginitis in, (1)19
Child abuse, sexual, (1)21
defined, (1)21
documentation, (1)21
follow-up, (1)21
incidence, (1)21
physical examination, (1)21
prevalence, (1)21
psychosocial profile, (1)21
Childbirth. See also Delivery.
alternative birth movement, (6)77
choices, (2)19
cultural attitudes, (6)77
education, (2)18; (3)90; (6)77
content, (2)18
effects, (2)18
future directions, (2)18
methods, (2)18
for special needs groups, (2)18
emotional support during, (6)77
father’ experience, (6)77
and effects of labor support, (2)18
Lamaze method, (6)77
natural, prepared, (6)77
pain relief, anesthetic agents and drugs. See Labor, analgesics; Labor, anesthesia.
as positive experience, (2)18
single mother and, (6)77
societal view, (6)77
Child care, provision of, parenting and, (2)19. See also Parenthood.
Chimerism, (5)84, 5, 7
whole body, (5)84
China, contraception in, (6)8
Chlamydial infections
in lesbians, (6)103
in pregnancy, (2)41
pregnancy loss and, (5)48, 25
testing for, (1)29
Chlamydia trachomatis, (1)41; (2)42; (3)48
bacteriology, (1)41
and endometritis, (5)57
infections, (1)41
in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
clinical features, (1)41; (2)42
diagnosis, (1)41; (2)42; (3)48
epidemiology, (3)48
intra-amniotic, (3)37
neonatal, (3)48
in pediatric patient, (1)19
perinatal, (3)48
outcome, (3)48
postpartum endometritis, (3)48
in pregnancy, antibiotics for, (3)35
in prevention of premature birth, (3)35
puerperal, (3)37
spectrum, (3)48
treatment, (1)41; (2)42; (3)48
pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)44; (5)57
Chloasma, in pregnancy, (2)13
Chlorambucil, and premature ovarian failure, (5)88
Chlordiazepoxide
neonatal withdrawal with, (3)60
in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Chlorhexidine, perinatal HIV transmission and, (3)47
Chloride, in pregnancy, (3)54
Chlormadinone acetate, biological properties, (6)19
Chloroprocaine
in cesarean delivery, (3)90
in hysteroscopy, (1)118
obstetric pharmacology of, (3)60
Chloroquine (Aralen)
for malaria, (3)51
prevention, (2)41; (3)51
in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)20
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Chlorpromazine
in lactation, (6)79
for pediatric gynecologic examination, (1)19
in pregnancy, (6)79
Cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic retrograde, in pregnancy, (3)30
Cholecystectomy
laparoscopic, in pregnancy, (3)30
in pregnancy, (3)29
Cholecystitis
acute, in pregnancy, (3)30
in pregnancy, (3)54
Cholelithiasis, in pregnancy, (3)29
Cholestasis
preexistent, and pregnancy, (3)29
of pregnancy, (2)32; (3)29–6
Cholesterol, (6)24. See also Lipids.
in androgen synthesis, (5)82
levels in pregnancy, (3)54
in steroid hormone formation, (5)1-2
in steroidogenesis, (5)79
Cholesterol desmolase complex deficiency, (5)82
Chorangioma, (2)108
Chorangiosis, (2)108
Chorea gravidarum, (3)19
Chorioadenoma destruens, (4)48. See also Hydatidiform mole.
Chorioamnionitis. See also Infections, intra-amniotic.
acute, (2)108
after preterm premature rupture of membranes, (3)37
anesthesia and, (3)90
cerclage for incompetent cervix and, (3)53
chronic, (2)108
in HIV-infected (AIDS) patients, (2)108
microbes in, (3)35
placental abruption and, (2)50
in preterm premature rupture of membranes, (2)47
Choriocarcinoma
aspiration cytology, (4)52
epidemiology, (4)48
hydatidiform mole and, (2)106
hyperthyroidism and, (5)35
ovarian, (4)31
primary, in children, (4)34
pathology, (4)48
in pregnancy, (3)19
Choriodeciduitis/amnionitis, chronic, (2)108
Chorioepithelioma. See Choriocarcinoma.
Chorion
inflammation
acute, (2)108
chronic, (2)108
layers, (2)11
Chorionic gonadotropin. See Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
Chorionic plate, inflammation, acute, (2)108
Chorionic proopiomelanocortin peptides, (5)39
Chorionic villi, (2)12
in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis, (3)113
Chorionic villus sampling, (3)112
in cytomegalovirus, (3)45
in 21-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)79
and limb reduction deformities, (3)112
in multiple gestation, (3)112
with pregnancy reduction, (3)83
pregnancy loss after, (3)112
in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. See also Cytogenetics.
safety, (3)112
technique, (3)112
transabdominal, (3)112
transcervical, (3)112
transvaginal, (3)112
ultrasound guidance, (3)64
Choroid plexus cyst, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Chromatin, analysis, in primary amenorrhea, (5)21
Chromium deficiency, in aging woman, (1)108
Chromoperturbation, (1)118
Chromosomes, (5)73
abnormalities, (5)73. See also Genetic disorders; specific abnormality.
aneuploidy. See Aneuploidy.
antenatal diagnosis, (2)4; (3)113,114
in congenital heart disease, (3)72
future directions, (3)113
indications
accepted, (3)113
potential, (3)113
interpretation problems, (3)113
tissues, (3)113
in blastocysts, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome, (1)4, 16, 22
causes, (5)73
deletion, (4)65; (5)73
and sex differentiation, (5)77
Down syndrome, (1)4
duplication, (5)73
Edwards’ syndrome, (1)4
fetal growth and, (2)14
fragile X syndrome, and premature ovarian failure, (5)86
frequency, (5)73
hermaphroditism, (1)4; (5)84
hydrocephalus and, (3)72
incidence, (3)111
inversion, (5)73
and recurrent abortion, (3)69
isochromosome, (5)73
Klinefelter syndrome, (1)4; (5)92
Klippel-Feil syndrome, (1)4
mechanisms, (3)111
monogenic defects, (2)14
morphologic
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
in spontaneous abortions, (5)48
in natural family planning populations, (6)37
Noonan’ syndrome, (1)4
numerical, (5)73
aneuploidy, (5)73
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
polyploidy, (5)73
parental, and recurrent abortions, (3)69
polyploidy, (5)73
polysomy X, in females, (5)89
polysomy Y, in males, (5)89
preimplantation diagnosis, (3)113; (5)107
in preimplantation embryos, (5)48
significance of, (5)48
previous child with, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
in pseudohermaphroditism, (5)79
rearrangements, (4)65
in recurrent abortion, (3)69
and spontaneous abortion, (2)14; (3)69; (5)48
clinically recognized, (5)48
structural, (5)73
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
preimplantation diagnosis, (5)107
and spontaneous abortion, (3)69; (5)48
translocations, (5)73
and recurrent abortion, (3)69
trisomy 21, (1)4. See also Down syndrome.
Turner syndrome, (1)4, 16, 22. See also Gonads, dysgenesis; Gonad(s), dysgenesis of; Turner syndrome.
ultrasound detection of anomalies and, (3)114
analysis. See also Cytogenetics.
in preimplantation diagnosis, (5)102
specimen sources for, (5)73
autosomal, rearrangements of, and premature ovarian failure, (5)86
breakage, Mendelian disorders with, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
fragile sites, (5)73
inversions
crossing over, (5)48
paracentric, (5)48
parental, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
pericentric, (5)48
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Mendel’ laws and, (5)74
polysomy X, in females, (5)89
47, XXX, (5)89
48, XXXX, (5)89
49, XXXXX, (5)89
mosaicism, (5)89
polysomy Y, in males, (5)89
47, XYY, (5)89
48, XXYY, (5)89
48, XYYY, (5)89
49, XXXYY, (5)89
recombination, (5)48
sex, (5)77
abnormalities. See specific abnormality.
6 in band p21, rearrangements, in uterine leiomyomas, (5)96
studies, in preimplantation embryos, (5)48
translocations
balanced parental, (5)48
homologous, (5)48
parental, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
preimplantation diagnosis of, (5)108
reciprocal, (5)48
Robertsonian, (5)48
in uterine leiomyomas, (5)96
variants, parental, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
X, (5)73. See also X chromosomes.
polysomy in females, (5)89
Y, (5)73. See also Y chromosome.
polysomy in males, (5)89
Cigarette smoking. See Smoking.
Cilastatin, for pelvic infections, (1)48
Ciliated cell carcinoma, endometrial, (4)15
CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). See Cervix uteri, intraepithelial neoplasia.
Ciprofloxacin
in bacterial vaginosis, (1)40
in pregnancy, (2)10
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Circulation. See Blood, circulation.
Circulatory failure, (3)79
Circumcision, (2)91
anesthesia, (2)91
cervical cancer and, (2)91
complications, (2)91
avoidance, (2)91
contraindications, (2)91
controversies, (2)91
cultural practices, (2)91
female, (1)96
foreskin physiology and, (2)91
history, (2)91
indications, (2)91
neonatal urinary tract infection and, (2)91
pain perception and, (2)91
penile carcinoma and, (2)91
penile hygiene and, (2)91
phimosis and, (2)91
preoperative management, (2)91
procedure, (2)91
sexually transmitted diseases and, (2)91
social factors, (2)91
surgical technique, (2)91
Circumferential technique, for uterine fibroid removal, (1)103
Cirrhosis, in pregnancy, (3)29
Cisplatin
for cervical carcinoma, with radiation therapy, (4)11
for endometrial carcinoma, (4)21
combination chemotherapy, (4)21
for ovarian carcinoma, (4)36
for vulvar carcinoma, (4)43
Citalopram, in pregnancy, (6)79
Clavicle
injury at birth, (2)79
in newborn, (2)97
Clavulanate, ticarcillin with, for pelvic infections, (1)48
Clavulanic acid, transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Clear cell adenocarcinoma, cervical, (4)6
Clear cell carcinomas, endometrial, (4)15
Clear cell tumors, of low malignant potential, (4)29
Clear Path Fertility Monitor, in ovulation documentation, (5)54
Cleavage, (1)4
Cleft lip/cleft palate
with cardiac and genital anomalies, (5)83
fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
maternal benzodiazepine use and, (6)79
recurrence risk, by severity of defect, (5)75
Climacteric. See Menopause.
Clindamycin
in acute salpingitis, (1)44
in bacterial vaginosis, (1)37
in pregnancy, (3)35
in chlamydial infection, (3)48
for endometritis, postpartum, (3)35
in group B streptococcal infection, (3)41
for obstetric infection, microbial susceptibility to, (3)35
in pelvic infections, (1)48
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44; (5)57
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
in pregnancy, (2)6
for sepsis
neonatal, with group B staphylococcal infection, (3)35
pelvic, in abortion, (6)118
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Clip applicators, in laparoscopic sterilization, (6)41, 43
Clitoral reflexes, (1)79
Clitoridectomy. See Female circumcision.
Clitoris
anatomy, (1)1; (2)5
blood supply, (1)1
development, (5)77
physiologic changes in, during sexual arousal, (6)105
Clitoromegaly, (1)4
Cloaca, (2)12
Clobetasol propionate, for lichen sclerosus, in pediatric patient, (1)19
Clodronate, (1)111
Clomiphene citrate challenge test, (5)55
Clomiphene citrate (Clomid)
in challenge test, in documentation of ovulation, in infertility, (5)50
chemical structure of, (5)68
effects on cervical mucus, (5)51
for luteal phase deficiency, with implantation failure, (5)47
in male infertility, (5)65
in ovulation induction, (5)68. See also Ovulation, induction of.
pharmacology of, (5)68
in pregnancy, (2)6
Clonazepam, for myoclonus, opioid-induced, in cancer pain management, (4)58
Clonidine
for hot flushes (flashes), (1)110
for hypertension, in pregnancy, (3)5
Cloning, (5)102
Clorazepate, in pregnancy, (3)60
Clostridium difficile, and pseudomembranous colitis, (3)39
Clostridium sordellii-associated toxic shock syndrome, (1)48
Clotrimazole (Lotrimin)
in candidiasis, (1)37, 40
in pregnancy, (2)6
in trichomonal infection, (1)37; (3)51
Cloxacillin
for breast infection, (3)39
for mastitis, (3)37
Clozapine (Clozaril), in pregnancy, (6)79
Coagulation
defects, and neonatal scalp hemorrhage, (2)97
disorders, in pregnancy. See also Coagulopathies; specific disorder.
anesthesia and, (3)91
disseminated intravascular. See Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
normal, (2)31
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
in pregnancy, (2)31; (3)54
disorders. See also Coagulopathies; specific disorder.
tests, with postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
Coagulation factors. See also specific factor.
in pregnancy, (3)60
Coagulopathy(ies)
with anticonvulsant therapy, (3)60
obstetric anesthesia and, (3)90
in placental abruption, (2)50
placental pathology and, (2)108
abruption, (3)90
postpartum hemorrhage and, (2)80
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
in pregnancy, complications of, (2)108
pregnancy loss and, (2)108; (5)48
uterine bleeding and, (5)23
Coarctation of aorta, in pregnancy, (3)11
Cobalt, in radiation therapy, for cervical carcinoma, (4)11
Cobbs v. Grant, (1)99
Cocaine
abuse of. See also Substance abuse.
fetal effects of, (3)60
and placenta previa, (2)49
in pregnancy, (1)34; (2)33
anesthesia and, (3)91
anesthetic considerations, (3)90
fetal effects, (2)34
placental abruption and, (2)50
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Coccidioides immitis, (1)41
Coccidioidomycosis, (1)41
in pregnancy, (2)41
Coccobacilli, in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
Codeine
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy, (2)6
Coelocentesis, (3)112
Coelomic cells, (5)77
Coelomic metaplasia, endometriosis and, (1)20
Cogentin, in pregnancy, (6)79
Coital incontinence, after surgery for stress incontinence, (1)85
Coitus
contraception after. See Contraception, postcoital.
oxytocin levels during, (5)7
painful. See Dyspareunia.
during pregnancy, (2)8
Coitus interruptus, historical use, (6)8
CO2 laser. See Laser therapy, CO2 laser.
Cold-knife conization, for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)4
Cold stress
in newborn, (3)68
as stimulus to extrauterine breathing, (2)12
Colitis
pseudomembranous, postpartum, (3)39
ulcerative
in lactation, (2)93
and rectovaginal fistula, (1)91
Collagen diseases. See Connective tissue, diseases; specific disease.
Collagen vascular disease, in pregnancy, renal involvement in, (3)6
Colles’ fascia, (1)48; (2)5
Colloid oncotic pressure, in pregnancy, (3)54
Colloid oncotic pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, in pregnancy, (3)79
Colloid suspension, in Rh antibody detection, (3)66
Colon. See also Bowel.
cancer, (6)110
and endometrial carcinoma, (4)19
estrogen therapy and, (1)110
metastatic from gynecologic tumors, (4)54
obesity and, (6)111
oral contraceptives and, (6)25
in pregnancy, (3)57
screening for, in aging woman, (1)108
inflammation of, radiation toxicity and, in cervical carcinoma treatment, (4)11
injuries during gynecologic surgery, (1)74
obstruction, after gynecologic surgery, (1)74
in pregnancy, (3)30
reanastomosis of, to rectum, after pelvic exenteration, (4)10
rectosigmoid, resection of, in pelvic exenteration. See Pelvis, exenteration of.
transit studies, in rectocele, (1)83
Colonoscopy, flexible, in pregnancy, (3)30
Colony-stimulating factor-1, in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Colorectal cancer
in obstetric patient, management of, (3)57
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
Colostomy
diverting, with rectovaginal fistula repair, (1)91
transverse, during gynecologic surgery, (1)74
Colostrum, (5)31
Colpocleisis, (1)39
Latzko partial, for vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
Colpoperineorrhaphy, posterior, for pelvic relaxation, (1)80
Colpopexy, sacral. See Sacrocolpopexy.
Colpophotography, (4)3
Colporrhaphy, anterior, (1)62
anatomic defects requiring, (1)62
complications, (1)62
for pelvic relaxation, (1)80
technique, (1)62
Colposcopy, (1)30
cervical biopsy with, for premalignant squamous lesions, (1)31
in cervical carcinoma, (4)5
in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)30–14; (4)3
diagnostic criteria, (1)30
border between normal and abnormal areas, (1)30
color tone and response to acetic acid, (1)30–13
equipment, (1)30; (4)3
errors
of interpretation, (1)30
of omission, (1)30
of technique, (1)30
in immunosuppressed patients, (1)30
inflammation affecting, (1)30
method, (1)30
Pap smear and, (1)30
patient selection, (1)30
postmenopausal, (1)30
in pregnancy, (1)30
satisfactory, criteria, (1)30
surface contour, (1)30
in vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)30
vascular pattern, (1)30
in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)30
in woman with disabilities, (1)102
Colposuspension
Burch. See Burch colposuspension.
laparoscopic
needle, (1)123
retropubic
extraperitoneal approach to, (1)123
transperitoneal approach to, (1)123
Colpotomy, incision, (6)39
Coma, myxedema, (5)35
Communication, and marital conflict, (6)98
Complement, (3)33
red blood cell hemolysis mediated by, in erythroblastosis fetalis, (3)66
Complete blood count, in pregnancy, (3)54
Compliance, patient
in contraception, (6)10
adolescent, (6)9
with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, (6)28
with oral contraceptives, (6)27
in adolescents, (6)75
Computed tomography (CT) scan
in Addison’ disease, (5)37
in cervical carcinoma, (4)54
staging, (4)7–10
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)54, 17
staging, (4)54
guidance, for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in lymph nodes, (4)52
magnetic resonance imaging vs., (1)93
in ovarian carcinoma, (4)54
staging, (4)54
pelvic abscess, (1)48
pelvimetry, (2)67
in percutaneous fine-needle aspiration, (4)54
in pituitary tumors, (5)25
renal, in pregnancy, (3)6
of vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
Computerized thermometers, in fertility regulation, (6)16
Computers/computerization, (1)100
ACOG Web site, (1)100, 8, 9
administrative applications
accounting, (1)100
insurance, (1)100
practice promotion, (1)100
scheduling, (1)100
CANCER-CD database, (1)100
COSTAR system, (1)100
in cytologic screening, (1)29
in gynecology
administrative applications of, (1)100
clinical applications, (1)100
databasing, (1)100
dosing and calculation, (1)100
electronic mail, (1)100
expert systems, (1)100
information processing, (1)100
networking, (1)100
patient care, (1)100
personal assistants, (1)100
reference support, (1)100
risk assessment, (1)100
simulations, (1)100
educational applications, (1)100
hardware, (1)100
of medical records, (1)100
historical aspects of, (3)2
perinatal, (3)2
technological issues in, (3)2
MEDLINE database, (1)100
nonstress test, automated analysis, (3)78
research applications, (1)100
in semen analysis, in infertility, (5)63
software, (1)100
terminology, (1)100
tools, (1)100
URO-GEN system, (1)100 5
VERGYNIA system, (1)100
wetware, (1)100
Comstock, Anthony, (6)8
Concentric needle electromyography
in anal sphincter evaluation, (1)81
in bulbocavernosus evaluation, (1)81
interpretation of, (1)81
in levator ani evaluation, (1)81
in lower extremity evaluation, (1)81
in pelvic floor disorders, (1)81
in urethral sphincter evaluation, (1)81
Conception
counseling before, (2)22. See also Preconceptional counseling.
prevention of. See Contraception.
Conceptus. See also Fetus.
age calculation, (2)14
magnetic resonance imaging effects on, (2)103
radiation exposure, (2)101
Condom, (6)13. See also Contraception, barrier methods.
adolescent use, (1)22; (6)9
advantages of, (6)17
contraindications to, (6)17
disadvantages, (6)17
in disease prevention, (6)17
failure rates, (6)17
female, (6)917
in disease prevention, (6)17
efficacy of, (6)3
in HIV prevention, (6)14–11
indications for, (6)17
male, (6)17
characteristics of, (6)17
efficacy of, (6)3
failure rates, (6)17
and latex allergy, (6)17
and spermicide, simultaneous use of, (6)17
adverse effects and side effects of, (6)17
efficacy of, (6)3
use of, patient education about, (6)17
Condyloma, flat, (4)2
Condyloma acuminatum. See also Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
cervical, (1)30
in pediatric patient, (1)19
perianal, (1)97
in pregnancy, (2)32
urethral, 1(78)
vaginal, (1)10
vulvar, (1)9; (4)40, 2
histopathology, 2, (4)40
laser therapy, (1)34
verrucous carcinoma vs., (4)40
Condyloma lata, (1)45
Cone biopsy. See Conization.
Confined placental mosaicism (CPM), (2)106; (5)48
and intrauterine growth retardation, (5)48
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). See Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital.
Congenital anomaly(ies). See also Birth defects, congenital; Teratogenicity; specific anomaly;specific organ.
adrenal cortical, (5)36
antenatal diagnosis, (3)72
biophysical profile, (3)77
breech presentation and, (2)76
clomiphene citrate treatment and, (5)68
contraception-related, (6)37
disorders of growth and differentiation, (2)14
of heart. See Heart disease, congenital
high risk for, contraceptive compliance and, (6)10
maternal diabetes and, (3)13
multifactorial inheritance. See also Inheritance, polygenic/multifactorial.
definition of, (5)75
multiple, oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
natural family planning and, (6)37
preimplantation diagnosis, (5)109
psychologic impact, (3)3
spermicides and, (6)17
from toxicant exposures, (2)10
ultrasonic scan, (1)101
structural anomalies and, (3)72
indications for targeted imaging, (3)72
Conization, cervical
for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)4
fertility after, (5)61
for intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)3
anesthesia, (1)34
combined excisional and vaporization, (1)34
complications, (1)34
laser excisional conization, (1)34
in pregnancy, (3)54
results, (1)34
for microinvasive carcinoma, (4)5
Conjunctivitis
chlamydial, in newborns, (3)48
prophylaxis, (3)48
gonococcal, in newborns, (3)42
Connective tissue
diseases. See also specific disease.
mixed, (3)20
postpartum, (2)90
in pregnancy, (3)20
endopelvic, (1)80
pelvic
histology, (1)1
planes and spaces, (1)1
Conscious sedation, for abortion, in second trimester, (6)125
Consent, informed. See Informed consent.
Constipation
in pregnancy, (2)13; (3)30
urinary stress incontinence and, (1)87
Contact dermatitis, vulvar, (1)11
Contact hysteroscopy, (1)118
in endometrial ablation, (1)38
Contiguous gene syndromes, (5)73
Contraception. See also Contraceptives; Fertility regulation.
abortion as, historical perspective on, (6)8
in adolescence, (1)22; (6)9
attitudes about, (6)11
availability, in United States, (6)11
barrier methods, (6)1317
characteristics, (6)17
in disease prevention, 4-5, (6)17
effectiveness, (6)17
efficacy, (6)17
fertility awareness methods combined with, (6)16
general indications for, (6)17
and HIV prevention, (6)17
patient compliance, (6)10
postpartum use, (6)15
and safe sex, (6)17–5
benefits, (6)1–5
costs and, (6)1
in cardiovascular disease, (6)14
cervix as target for, (6)12
in China, (6)8
church and, conflict between, (6)8
compliance, (3)10
in adolescents, (6)10–14
with barrier methods, (6)10
correct use and, (6)10–10
defined, (6)10
focus on continuation, (6)10
high risk for fetal anomalies and, (6)10
methods less dependent on, (6)10
with oral contraceptives, (6)10
patient education and, (6)10
in women with medical problems, (6)10
congenital malformations and, (6)37
counseling, preabortion, (6)122
Darwin and, (6)8
in diabetes mellitus, (6)14
in diabetics, (3)13
disease prevention and, (6)17
efficacy, (6)3, 17
age and, (6)3
factors affecting, (6)3
frequency of intercourse and, (6)3
with imperfect use, (6)3
inherent, (6)3
in isotretinoin patients, (6)3
over time, (6)3
research on
influence of investigator and, (6)3
methodologic pitfalls in, (6)3
user characteristics and, (6)3
vs. risk of pregnancy, (6)3
emergency, (6)10
postabortion, (6)122
emerging services (1880-1950), (6)8
in epilepsy, (6)14
failure rates, (6)3, 17
during imperfect use, (6)3
lifetime, (6)3
during perfect use, (6)3
during typical use, (6)3
fallopian tubes as target for, (6)12
fertility awareness methods, (6)16. See also Fertility awareness methods; Fertility awareness methods.
in heart disease, valvular, (6)14
history, (1)6; (6)18, 17
for HIV-infected woman, (1)46
for HIV-positive women, (3)47
hormonal. See also Oral contraceptives.
injectable, (3)28. See also Medroxyprogesterone.
in human immunodeficiency virus infection, (6)14
in hypercoagulability, (6)14
hypothalamic-pituitary axis and, (6)12
immunologic methods, (6)12
implantable, (6)38. See also Norplant contraceptive system.
acceptance of, (6)38
acne with, (6)38
advantages of, (6)38
bone density loss with, (6)38
breast tenderness with, (6)38
and cancer risk, (6)25–5
contraindications to, (6)38
disadvantages of, (6)38
discontinuation of, fertility after, (6)38
drug interactions with, (6)38
ectopic pregnancy risk with, (6)38
efficacy of, (6)38
future of, (6)38
Implanon system in, (6)38
indications for, (6)38
insertion of, (6)38
mechanism of action of, (6)38
menstrual changes with, (6)38
metabolic effects of, (6)38
progestin release rates in, (6)38
removal of, (6)38
weight changes with, (6)38
importance, (3)1
injectable, (6)1028. See also Medroxyprogesterone, as long-acting injectable contraceptive
efficacy of, (6)3
international interest in, historical perspective on, (6)8
intrauterine. See Intrauterine devices (IUDs).
during lactation, (6)36
Malthus and, (6)8
in medical disorders, principles of, (6)14
methods. See also specific method.
emerging, (6)1
historical perspective on, (6)1
less compliance-dependent, (6)10
simultaneous use of, efficacy of, (6)3
in migraine headache, (6)14
national policies on, (6)8
nineteenth-century, (6)8
nonusers of, (6)11
ovaries as target of, (6)12
ovulation prediction and sexual abstinence method, (6)12
in perimenopause, (1)109
pioneers of, (6)8
postabortion, (6)122
postcoital, (6)1026. See also Pregnancy interception.
intrauterine device in, (6)29
over-the-counter agents for, (6)26
postpartum, (2)90; (3)15
barrier methods, (6)15
initiation, (6)15
IUD, (6)15
lactational amenorrhea method, (6)15
long-acting, progestin-only methods, (6)15
oral contraceptives, (6)15
physiology and, (6)15
sterilization, (6)15
subdermal implants, (6)15
protective effect of, against ovarian cancer, (4)27
research on, historical perspective on, (6)8
rhythm method, aged gametes and, congenital malformations and, (6)37
risk of pregnancy with, (6)17
during typical and perfect use, (6)3
vs. efficacy, (6)3
risks and benefits, (6)1
science and, (6)8
first steps, (6)8
historical perspective on, (6)8
service providers, (6)11
services, historical perspective on, (6)8
in sickle cell disease, (3)16; (6)14
side effects of, historical perspective on, (6)8
steroidal. See also Oral contraceptives.
and cancer risk, (3)25
long-acting delivery systems. See also Oral contraceptives.
subdermal implants, (6)38. See also Norplant contraceptive system.
long-acting systems. See Norplant contraceptive system.
in systemic lupus erythematosus, (6)14
targets for, in female, (6)12
transdermal, (6)30
adverse effects of, (6)30
efficacy of, (6)30
patient instruction on, (6)30
pharmacology of, (6)30
United Nations conferences on, (6)8
use of, patterns, (6)11
users
historical perspective on, (6)8
perfect, percentage of, (6)3
uterus as target for, (6)12
vagina as target for, (6)12
vaginal rings in, (6)31. See also Vaginal rings, contraceptive
vulnerable targets in female, (3)12
withdrawal method
effectiveness, (6)16
fertility awareness methods combined with, (6)16
in woman with disabilities, (1)102
Contraceptives. See also Contraception; specific contraceptive.
barrier, (6)12
cervical, (6)12
condom. See Condom.
diaphragm. See Diaphragm.
effectiveness, (6)1
intrauterine. See Intrauterine devices (IUDs).
male, (3)13
barriers to sperm, (6)13
hormonal, (6)13
reproductive physiology and, (6)13
sperm immunization, (6)13
sperm production prevention, (6)13
testosterone, (6)13
testosterone with GnRH analogues and progestins, (6)13
mifepristone. See Mifepristone (RU486).
Norplant system. See Norplant contraceptive system.
oral. See Oral contraceptives.
spermicides. See Spermicides.
teratogenesis, (6)37
use in United States, (6)1
vaginal, (6)12
vaginal inserts, (6)17
commercially available, (6)17
effectiveness, (6)17
types of, (6)17
Contractility
cardiac, (3)79
uterine. See Uterus, contractility of.
Contraction stress test, (2)58; (3)178
background, (3)78
clinical considerations, (3)78
compared with biophysical profile, (3)77
compared with nonstress test, (3)78
contraindications, (3)78
equivocal, (3)78
hyperstimulation, (3)78
indications, (3)78
instrumentation, (3)78
interpretation, (3)78
intravenous oxytocin infusion, (3)78
negative, (3)78
nipple stimulation, (3)78
positive, (3)78
in postterm gestation, (2)54
reliability, (3)78
suspicious, (3)78
technique, (3)78
unsatisfactory, (3)78
Contrast venography, in deep venous thrombosis, (2)31
Conus medullaris lesions, neurophysiologic testing, (1)81
Conversion disorder, (6)70
Convulsions. See Seizure disorders
Cooley’ anemia, (3)16
Coombs’ test, (3)16
Copper
deficiency, (2)93
intake, in pregnancy, (2)7
in intrauterine devices. See also Intrauterine devices (IUDs).
allergy to, (6)29
endometrial inflammatory response to, (6)29
T-shaped, (6)29
efficacy, (6)17
placental transfer, (3)59
Cordocentesis, (3)80, 112
benefits vs. risks, (3)80
in congenital infection, (3)80
cytomegalovirus, (3)45
in fetal thrombocytopenia, (3)80
future, (3)80
indications, (3)80
for rapid karyotype, (3)80
in red blood cell alloimmunization, (3)80
in severe early-onset growth restriction, (3)80
technique, (3)80
Cornual-isthmic reanastomosis, in tubal sterilization reversal, (6)46
Coronary artery disease. See Heart disease, coronary artery.
Corpus cavernosum, blood vessels, (1)1
Corpus luteum, (1)2; (5)14
as contraceptive target, (6)12
cysts, (1)17
aspiration cytology, (4)52
in pregnancy, (3)54
in early luteal phase
abnormalities of, (5)14
inhibin secretion by, (5)14
steroid secretion by, (5)14
structure of, (5)14
formation of, (5)14
function and regression, ultrasound imaging, (5)55
insufficiency, abortion and, recurrent, (3)69
in late luteal phase
abnormalities of, (5)14
apoptosis in, (5)14
inhibin secretion by, (5)14
luteolysis in, (5)14
steroid secretion by, (5)14
luteolysis, prostaglandins and, (5)41
in menstrual cycle, (5)6
abnormalities of, (5)6
in mid luteal phase
abnormalities of, (5)14
hypothalamic-pituitary regulation of, (5)14
inhibin secretion by, (5)14
steroid secretion by, (5)14
structure of, (5)14
physiology of, (5)56
in pregnancy
early
abnormalities of, (5)14
peptide secretion by, (5)14
steroid secretion by, (5)14
structure of, (5)14
late
progesterone secretion by, (5)14
relaxin secretion by, (5)14
structure of, (5)14
rescue by human chorionic gonadotropin, (5)38
Corpus uteri
anatomy, (2)5
cancer. See also Endometrium, carcinoma of.
epidemiology, (4)19
Corticosteroid(s). See also Glucocorticoid(s); Steroid hormone(s); specific corticosteroid.
antepartum administration of, and prevention of hyaline membrane disease, (3)60
for atopic dermatitis, in pediatric patient, (1)19
for fetal pulmonary maturity induction in preterm premature rupture of membranes, (2)47
for hyperemesis gravidarum, (2)9
injections, for vulvar pruritus, (1)11
for lichen planus, in pediatric patient, (1)19
for lichen sclerosus, in pediatric patient, (1)19
for lichen simplex lichenification, in pediatric patient, (1)19
osteoporosis due to, (1)111
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)20
fetal effects, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
intracranial hemorrhage and, (3)54
multiple gestation, (2)81
systemic lupus erythematosus and, (3)20
for psoriasis, in pediatric patient, (1)19
secretion of, (5)79
in septic shock, (1)48
synthesis, biosynthetic defects in, (3)23
Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), (5)36
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), (5)10
adrenal regulation, (5)36
in hypothalamic-pituitary axis inhibition, and amenorrhea, (5)6
in labor, (5)39
maternal levels, in prediction of preterm delivery, (5)39
placental, (5)39
secretion
regulation, (5)39
in response to stress, (5)39
in steroidogenesis, (5)38
structure, (5)39
synthesis
regulation, (5)39
sites, (5)39
vasodilation caused by, (5)39
receptors, expression, in placenta, (5)39
secretion, patterns, (5)39
in stimulation test, in oligogalactia and agalactia, (5)31
testing, (5)36
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-binding protein, (5)39
Cortisol
in ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors, (5)25
in Addison’ disease, (5)37. See also Addison’ disease.
in adrenal crisis, (5)37
adrenal secretion
evaluation, (5)36
suppression, (5)37
in anorexia nervosa, (5)26
congenital adrenal hyperplasia treatment and, (5)37
conversion to cortisone, in pregnancy, (5)38
excess secretion. See Cushing’ syndrome.
in lactogenesis, (5)31
metabolism, placental, estrogen and, (5)38
and postpartum depression, (6)84
secretion, adrenal, (5)79
Cortisol-binding globulin, (5)2
Cortisone, metabolism, placental, estrogen and, (5)38
Cough stress test, (1)85
Coumadin. See Warfarin sodium.
Coumestans, (1)114
Counseling
abnormal fetal lie and, (2)76
after abortion, (6)80
before abortion, (1)80
referral in, (6)122
telephone counseling, (6)122
before conception, (6)77
on contraception, preabortion, (6)122
genetic. See Genetic counseling.
grief, perinatal loss and. See also Perinatal death, psychological considerations in.
marital, (3)98
maternal cytomegalovirus and, (3)45
neural tube defects and, (3)116
on occupational and environmental exposure during pregnancy, (2)10
PDC model, (6)98
preconception, for HIV-infected woman, (1)46
in pregnancy planning, (6)77
psychotherapeutic, in anxiety and depressive disorders, (6)73
in Rokitansky’ syndrome, (1)70
sexual, (3)105
in-office, (6)105
on sexual function, in menopause, (6)86
before therapeutic donor insemination, (5)67
before tubal sterilization, (6)39
before vasectomy, (6)47
Counsellor-Flor modification, of McIndoe split-thickness graft vaginoplasty, (1)70
Cow’ milk. See Milk, cow’.
Coxsackie virus, placental pathology with, (2)108
CPM. See Confined placental mosaicism (CPM).
Crab louse infestation [SAME AS Pediculosis pubis], in pregnancy, treatment of, (3)35
Crack cocaine. See Cocaine abuse.
Cranberries/cranberry juice, in urinary tract infection prevention, (2)43
Craniopharyngioma, (5)25
Craniosynostosis, and abnormal labor, (2)73
Creatine phosphokinase, in sperm, (5)63
Creatinine
clearance
in pregnancy, (3)6
values during pregnancy, (3)54
values during pregnancy, (3)54
CRH. See Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
CRH stimulation test, in oligogalactia and agalactia, (5)31
Cri du chat syndrome, (5)73
Crisis intervention, in rape, (6)96
Crixivan (indinavir), in pregnancy, (3)47
Crohn’ disease
in lactation, (2)93
and rectovaginal fistula, (1)91
vulvar, (1)11
Cromolyn sodium (Intal), in pregnancy, (2)6
Cromolysis, for uterine fibroids, (1)103
Crown-rump length, and gestational age, (2)106
Cryobiology, principles, (5)99
Cryocautery, in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)30
Cryomyolysis, laparoscopic, (1)119
Cryopreservation
animal research, and human application, (5)99
cell damage, (5)99–5
of conceptus, after in vitro fertilization, (5)97
gamete and embryo, (5)99
of oocytes, during radiation/chemotherapy, (5)88
principles, (5)99
research, (5)99
sperm, (5)99
donor
insemination results, (5)99
selection and screening, (5)99
husband/partner, (5)99
survival, (5)99
Cryosurgery
for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)4
endometrial ablation, (1)38
Cryosurvival
embryo, (5)99
sperm, (5)99
Cryotherapy
cervical, cytologic changes with, (1)29
for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31
Cryptorchidism, orchiopexy for, (5)66
Crystallization, in ovulation documentation, (5)54
Crystals of Reinke, (4)31
CT scan. See Computed tomography (CT).
Cube pessary, (1)39
CUE Fertility Monitor, (5)54
Cul-de-sac
fluid accumulation, ultrasonic scan, (1)101
Halban closure of, (1)84, 6
hysterectomy and, assessment of, (1)57
hysterectomy and, enterocele prevention and, (1)84, 6
Moschcowitz closure, (1)84
Culdocentesis
in ectopic pregnancy, (1)68
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
Culposuspension, laparoscopy in, (1)119
Cultural attitudes
and psychologic adjustment to parenthood, (6)82
and psychosomatic medicine, (6)70
toward childbirth, (6)77
toward circumcision, (2)91
Culture(s)
in gonorrhea, (2)42
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
in tuberculosis, (1)49
in urinary tract infection diagnosis, (2)43
in vaginitis, (1)40
Curettage
alternatives to, (1)54
endocervical. See Endocervical curettage (ECC).
endometrial, in tuberculosis, (1)49
history of, and placenta previa, (2)49
postpartum, anesthesia, (3)90
suction, in hydatidiform mole evacuation, (4)48
uterine, and cervical dilatation. See Dilatation and curettage (D&C).
vacuum, for first trimester abortion, (3)57
Cushing’ disease, (5)25
hirsutism in, (5)28
Cushing’ syndrome, (5)2537
adrenal tumors and, (5)37
anovulation in, (5)22
and 5α-reductase deficiency, (5)81
clinical manifestations, (5)37
diagnosis, (5)37
imaging techniques, (5)37
etiology, (5)37
hormonal cytology, (1)29
osteoporosis in, (1)111
in pregnancy, (3)23
treatment, (5)37
vs. polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
Cutaneous leishmaniasis, (3)51, 23
Cyanocobalamin. See Vitamin B12.
Cyanosis, peripheral, in newborn, (2)97
Cyanotic congenital heart disease, in pregnancy, (3)11
anesthesia and, (3)91
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). See Adenosine monophosphate, cyclic (cAMP).
Cyclooxygenase enzyme, (5)43
Cyclooxygenase inhibitors, for menorrhagia, (5)23
Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, for pain, in gynecologic cancer, (4)58
Cyclophosphamide, (3)60
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)21
combination chemotherapy, (4)21
in fallopian tube carcinoma, (4)49
in ovarian carcinoma, (4)36
premature ovarian failure and, (5)88
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Cyclosporine (Sandimmune)
in pregnancy, (3)20
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Cycrin. See Medroxyprogesterone.
CYP11A gene, in congenital adrenal lipoid hyperplasia, (5)82
CYP17 gene
in 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-desmolase deficiency
with 46, XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86
with 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis, (5)87
in 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, with 46, XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86
CYP19 gene, in aromatase mutations, with 46, XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86
Cyproterone
effects on sperm, (6)13
for hirsutism, (5)28
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
pseudohermaphroditism, male and, (5)83
Cyst(s)
Bartholin’ gland, (1)9, 11
branchial cleft, in newborn, (2)97
breast, aspiration cytology, (1)27; (4)52
canal of Nuck, (1)11
cervical, nabothian, 1(31)
choroid plexus, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
corpus luteum, (1)17
aspiration cytology, (4)52
dermoid, ovarian, (1)17; (4)31
genetics, (4)66
in pregnancy, (3)54
endometrioid, cytology, (1)29
follicular, (1)17; (5)55
cytology, (1)29
functional, (1)17
Gartner’ duct, (1)10
inclusion
aspiration cytology, (4)52
female circumcision and, (1)96
vaginal, (1)10
keratinous, aspiration cytology, (4)52
lung, congenital, (2)12
fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
nabothian, (1)2
cervical, (1)31
of neck, in newborn, (2)97
neoplastic, cytology, (1)29
ovarian
aspiration cytology, (4)52
benign, (1)17
cytology, fine-needle aspiration, (1)29
malignant, rupture, (4)55
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
and precocious puberty, (5)16
in pregnancy, (3)54
and pseudoprecocious puberty, (1)19
ultrasonography, (1)101
vs. serous cystadenomas, (4)30
paramesonephric duct, (1)10
paraurethral, (1)11
parovarian, (1)17
Skene’ duct, (1)9
theca-lutein, (1)17
thyroglossal, in newborn, (2)97
vaginal, (1)10
vulvar, (1)9
Cystadenofibroma, ovarian, (4)30
with atypia, (4)29
serous, (1)17
Cystadenoma
mucinous
daughter cysts, (4)30
ovarian, (1)17
of low malignant potential, (4)29
intestinal type, (4)29
müllerian or endocervical type, (4)29
in pregnancy, (3)54
ovarian, (4)30
mucinous, (4)30
serous, (4)30
serous, ovarian, (4)29
in pregnancy, (3)54
Cystic adenomatoid malformation, pulmonary, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Cystic fibrosis
DNA-based diagnosis, (5)76
gene for, vas deferens agenesis with, (5)63–9
infant, breast feeding and, (2)93
maternal, breast feeding and, (2)93
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
in pregnancy, (3)27
prenatal diagnosis, (3)115
Cystic hygroma
amniotic fluid AFP and, (3)116
fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Cystitis
persistent, (2)43
in pregnancy, (3)35
radiation and, (4)54
in cervical carcinoma treatment, (4)11
recurrent, (2)43
Cystocele
colporrhaphy, anterior, (1)62
paravaginal repair, laparoscopic, (1)123
pathogenesis of, (1)80, 9, 12
urinary incontinence due to, (1)79
Cystography, (1)79
Cystomas
classification, (4)30
mucinous, (1)17; (4)30
serous, (1)17; (4)30
Cystometry, (1)79
eyeball, (1)79
multichannel, (1)85
retrograde incremental, (1)79
subtracted, (1)79
urethrocystometry, (1)79–17
Cystoscopy, (1)79. See also Endoscopy.
in cervical cancer staging, (4)7
historical background, (1)78
in pregnancy, (3)6
Cystourethroscopy, of vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
Cytochrome P-450
activity
fetal, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
gender differences in, (3)60
placental, (3)60
Cytochrome P-450 aromatase, in steroidogenesis, (5)38
Cytogenetics, (1)4; (5)73. See also Genetic disorders.
analysis, (5)73
clinical conditions, (5)73
interpretation, (5)73
special considerations, (5)73
antenatal studies. See also Chromosomes, abnormalities, antenatal diagnosis.
fetal karyotyping, (3)80; (5)73
chromosome aberrations and their clinical significance, (5)73. See also Chromosomes, abnormalities.
fragile sites, (5)73
germ cell neoplasia, (5)73
human chromosome complement, (5)73
hydatidiform mole, teratoma vs., (5)73
intrauterine growth retardation, (5)73
karyotypes, (5)73
of male pseudohermaphroditism, 45, X/46, XY, (5)84
molecular, (5)73
specimen sources for, (5)73
spontaneous abortion and
clinically recognized, (3)69
preclinical, (3)69
of true hermaphroditism, (5)84
of uterine leiomyomas
nonrandom changes, (5)96
other abnormalities, (5)96
Cytokines, (2)14. See also specific cytokine.
in antitumor responses, (4)60
of blastocyst/embryo, and implantation, (5)38
cancer pathogenesis and, (4)60
dysregulation
diagnosis of, (5)49
in pregnancy, (5)49
in endometriosis, (1)20
intraperitoneal therapy with, (4)60
in labor induction, (2)71
local production of, induction of, by paclitaxel, (4)60
ovarian, as target for fertility regulation, (6)12
Th 1, abnormalities, and recurrent abortion, (5)48
in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Cytology
anal, (1)29
aspiration. See Aspiration cytology.
in carcinoma detection, cervical, (4)5
cervix uteri, intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)33
classification systems
Bethesda, (1)29
Papanicolaou, (1)29
computerized screening, (1)29
educational notes, (1)29
in endometrial hyperplasia
cervical/vaginal, (4)12
histologic methods in, (4)12
endometrial sampling for, (1)29
endometrioid cysts, (1)29
endometriosis, (1)29
fine needle aspiration. See Aspiration cytology.
general categorization, (1)29
glandular epithelium, (1)29
endocervical neoplasia, (1)29
endometrial hyperplasia, (1)29
hormonal evaluation, (1)29
human papillomavirus testing, (1)29
hyperkeratosis, (1)29
inflammatory changes, (1)29
interpretation, (1)29
intrauterine devices and, (1)29
microglandular hyperplasia, (1)29
microorganisms, (1)29
nonneoplastic changes, (1)29
ovarian, (1)29
parakeratosis, (1)29
peritoneal, and endometrial carcinoma prognosis, (4)19
peritoneal washing, (1)29
postmenopausal, (1)30
quality assurance, (1)29
regenerative changes, (1)29
report recommendations, (1)29
sampling techniques, (1)6
specimen adequacy, (1)29
specimen handling, (1)29
squamous epithelium, (1)29
atypical cells, (1)29
carcinoma, (1)29
classification, (1)29
intraepithelial lesions, (1)29
management, (1)29
neoplasia, in pregnancy, (1)29
terminology, (1)29
therapy-related changes, (1)29
in tuberculosis, (1)49
vaginal
lesions in, (1)29
in ovulation documentation, (5)54
vulvar lesions, (1)29
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, (1)41
chorionic villus sampling, (3)45
clinical features, (1)41; (3)45
congenital
neonatal diagnosis, (3)45
prenatal diagnosis, (3)45
prognosis, (3)45
symptomatic vs. asymptomatic at birth, (3)45
diagnosis, (1)41; (3)45
fetal, (3)45
neonatal, (3)45
epidemiology, (3)45
immunology, (3)45
placental involvement in, (2)108
in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)45, 47
clinical features, (3)45
diagnosis, (3)45
management, (3)45
primary vs. recurrent infection, (3)45
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
serologic diagnosis, fetal, (3)45
spontaneous abortion and, (5)49
transmission, (3)45
treatment and prevention, (1)41; (3)45
ultrasound diagnosis, prenatal, (3)45
vaccine, (3)45
virology, (1)41; (3)45
virus isolation from amniotic fluid, (3)45
Cytophotometric DNA quantitation, (4)59
in cervical carcinoma, (4)59
cytophotometric methods, (4)59
DNA histogram characteristics, (4)59
DNA index, (4)59
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)59
flow cytometry in, (4)59
in ovarian carcinoma, (4)59
static cytophotometry in, (4)59
Cytoplasm, of oocyte, transfer of, in in vitro fertilization, (5)102
Cytoreductive surgery, for advanced ovarian cancer, (4)35
Cytotoxic drugs. See also specific drug.
in pregnancy, (3)20
Cytotoxicity, cellular, antibody-dependent, natural killer cells and, (4)60
Cytotrophoblasts, (2)12
differentiation of, (2)12
in embryonic implantation, (5)47
Cytoxan. See Cyclophosphamide.

 

Subject Index D

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Dactinomycin. See Actinomycin D.
Dairy products, in diet, and ovarian cancer, (4)2–3
Dalkon Shield intrauterine device, (6)29, 9
Danazol (Danocrine)
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
before endometrial ablation, (1)38
for endometriosis, (1)20; (5)59
in fibrocystic breast disease, (5)30
in mammary hyperplasia, (5)30
for menorrhagia, (5)23
for postcoital contraception, (6)26
in pregnancy, and pseudohermaphroditism, male, (5)83
side effects, (1)20
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Dandy-Walker malformation, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Dang gui, (1)114
Danocrine. See Danazol
Dapsone, in HIV infection, in pregnancy, (3)47
Darkfield examination, in syphilis, (1)45; (3)42
Darvon (propoxyphene), in pregnancy, (2)6
Darwin, Charles, (6)8
Database
computer, (1)100
computer systems. See also Computers/computerization.
perinatal, risk assessment and. See also Risk assessment.
Datril. See Acetaminophen.
Davajan’ method of cervical mucus collection, (5)51
Davydov vaginoplasty, (1)70
DAX-1, (5)78
in 46, XY gender reversal, with X short-arm duplication in, (5)87
D&C. See Dilatation and curettage (D&C).
DdC. See Zalcitibine.
DdI. See Didanosine.
17-Deacetylnorgestimate, in transdermal contraception, (6)30
Deafness, hereditary, (5)74
Death
with dignity, (6)95
fetal, gestational age at, calculation of, (2)106
impending, in aging woman, (1)108
maternal, cesarean delivery after, (2)74
maternal, with placenta previa, (2)49
neonatal
intra-amniotic infection and, (3)37
with placenta previa, (2)49
perinatal, with placenta previa, (2)49
Debridement, for necrotizing fasciitis, (1)48
Decadron (dexamethasone), in pregnancy, (2)6
Decapeptyl, for precocious puberty, (5)16
Decidua, inflammation
acute, (2)108
chronic, (2)108
Decidual granular lymphocytes, in female reproductive tract, (5)49
Decidualization, (5)38
Decongestants, teratogenicity of, (2)6
Decubitus ulcers, in pregnant woman with disabilities, (1)102
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in pregnancy, (3)17–6. See also Thromboembolic disease, in pregnancy
diagnosis, (3)17
Defecation, (1)98
anal incontinence and. See Anal incontinence.
disorders of, and rectocele, (1)83
imaging of, in rectocele, (1)83
Defecography, (1)98
Dehydroemetine, (3)51
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). See also Androgen(s).
adrenal, (5)79
tumors producing, (5)79
adrenal secretion, (5)2, 78
for hot flashes (flushes), (1)110
metabolic clearance rate for, (5)2
metabolism, (5)2
by fetoplacental unit, (5)38
perimenopause and, (1)109
plasma levels
in postmenopausal women, (5)2
in premenopausal women, (5)2
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
in puberty, (5)16
synthesis of, (5)2, 82
in 3-β-hydroxysteroid deficiency, (5)82
transport, (5)2
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). See also Androgen(s).
adrenal, tumors producing, (5)79
in adrenarche, (5)9
metabolic clearance rate, in pregnancy, (5)38
metabolic clearance rate for, (5)2
perimenopause and, (1)109
plasma levels
in postmenopausal women, (5)2
in premenopausal women, (5)2
in puberty onset, (5)9
synthesis and secretion of, (5)2
in vasodilation, in pregnancy, (3)8
Dehydroisoandrosterone. See Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Deinfibulation, (1)96
Deladumone (testosterone-estradiol), in lactation suppression, (5)31
Delavirdine, in pregnancy, (3)47
Del Castillo’ syndrome, hormonal cytology in, (1)29
Delestrogen. See Estradiol.
Delirium, in aging woman, (1)108
Delivery. See also Childbirth; Labor; Labor presentation.
abdominal. See Cesarean delivery.
analgesia and anesthesia, (3)90. See also Labor, anesthesia.
asphyxia during, (3)63
asthma management in, (3)27
blood loss, (3)16
breech, (1)76
anesthesia, (3)90
CNS injury due to, (3)63
cardiovascular changes in, (3)8
cesarean. See Cesarean delivery.
delayed, multiple gestation and, (2)81
depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use after, (6)28
diabetes and
metabolic management, (3)13
time and route, (3)13
drugs given in, (3)60
endometritis after, antibiotics for, (3)35
episiotomy. See Episiotomy.
erythroblastosis fetalis and, (3)66
female circumcision and, (1)96
fluid replacement. See Fluid replacement, in obstetric patient.
forceps in, (2)72. See also Forceps delivery.
hemodynamic changes during, (1)11
hemorrhage after. See Hemorrhage, postpartum.
in higher-order multiple gestation, (2)83
human immunodeficiency virus transmission in, prevention of, (3)35
with intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
lacerations during, (2)68
classification, (2)69
with episiotomy, (2)69. See also Episiotomy.
timing for prevention, (2)69
high genital tract, (2)69
perineal, (2)68
and postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
rectal, (2)68
repair, (2)69
vaginal, (2)68
anterior, (2)69
posterior, (2)69
vulvar, (2)69
method of
in herpes simplex infection, (2)42
HIV transmission and, (3)47
hydrocephaly and, (3)72
maternal diabetes and, (3)13
spina bifida and, (3)72
in multiple gestation, (2)82
normal, (2)68
postdatism and, (2)54
preparation for, in high-risk pregnancy, (3)1
preterm. See also Labor, premature (preterm).
bacterial vaginosis and, (1)40
with higher-order multiple gestation, (3)83
intra-amniotic infection, and cerebral palsy, (3)37
management of, (3)87
prediction of, maternal CRH levels in, (5)39
puerperal infection and, (3)37
risk scoring for, (3)1
sexual activity during late pregnancy and, (2)20
preterm, in cervical carcinoma, (3)57
in prolapse of umbilical cord, (2)78
Rh prophylaxis after, (3)66
route
with intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
and postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
stressful, and postpartum mood disorders, (6)84
surgical technique. See Cesarean delivery.
timing of
with intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
maternal diabetes and, (3)13
in Rh isoimmunization, with intrauterine transfusions, (3)81
trauma in
and rectocele, (1)83
and rectovaginal fistula, (1)91
and vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
in twin gestation, (2)82
urinary tract infection after, (3)35
vacuum extraction in, (2)72
informed consent for, (1)99
vaginal
after cesarean delivery, (2)65, 74. See also Cesarean delivery, vaginal birth after.
breech. See Delivery, breech.
operative, anesthesia, (3)90
version, external cephalic, in breech presentation, (2)76
anesthetic considerations, (3)90
water immersion at, (2)68
Deltasone (prednisone), in pregnancy, (2)6
Dementia, in aging woman, (1)108
Demerol. See Meperidine.
Demography, (6)1
aging population, (1)105
information in first prenatal visit, (2)1
multiple gestation, (2)81
Dendritic cells, in antitumor responses, (4)60
Dental abnormalities, in congenital syphilis, (1)45
Dental care, during pregnancy, (2)15
Dental caries, in pregnancy, (2)15
Dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy, (5)74
Denys-Drash syndrome, (5)83
gonadal dysgenesis in
46, XX, (5)86
46, XY, (5)87
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
bending, steroid hormone receptor binding and, (5)4
cellular content in gynecologic malignancies, cytophotometric analysis. See Cytophotometric DNA quantitation.
dot blots, (5)76
in human papillomavirus identification, (1)33; (4)2
hybridization, (5)73
mitochondrial, (5)74
ploidy
in cervical carcinoma, (4)6
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)15
polymerase chain reaction, (5)76. See also Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
in preimplantation diagnosis, (5)102
in prenatal diagnosis
advantages, (5)76
basic techniques, (5)76
congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)76
cordocentesis vs., (3)80
cystic fibrosis, (5)76
direct method, (5)76
indirect method, (5)76
sickle cell anemia, (5)76
recombinant. See Molecular genetics.
RFLP analysis, (5)76
cystic fibrosis, (5)76
indirect method, (5)76
sequences, and insertional mutagenesis, (4)65
sequential PB1 and PB2 analysis, in avoiding genetic disorder misdiagnosis, (5)109
synthesis during endometrial cycle, (5)18
and true hermaphroditism, (5)84
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) index, (4)59
in cervical carcinoma, (4)59
recurrence and, (4)59
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)59
in ovarian carcinoma, (4)59
Depakene (valproic acid), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Depakote, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate. See Medroxyprogesterone.
Depo-Provera. See Medroxyprogesterone.
Depression, (6)73–10
in aging woman, (1)108
diagnosis, (6)73
dysthymic disorder, (6)73
with gynecologic cancer, (4)68
management of, (4)58
in gynecologic surgery patient, assessment, (6)89
hysterectomy and, (6)89
in lesbians, (6)103
major depressive disorder, (6)73
in menopause, (6)86
postabortion, (6)125
postpartum, (2)90; (3)3; (6)84. See also Postpartum blues.
causal factors in, (6)84
clinical management, (6)84
consequences, (6)84
prevalence, (6)84
prevention, (6)84
treatment studies, (6)84
in pregnancy, (3)3
pharmacologic implications, (3)60
treatment of, (6)73
fetal effects of, (3)60
Dermatitis
atopic
in pregnancy, (2)32
vulvar, in pediatric patient, (1)19
contact, vulvar, (1)11
papular, of pregnancy, (2)32
seborrheic
in pediatric patient, (1)19
in pregnancy, (2)32
vulvar, (1)11
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, vulvar, (4)40
Dermatologic diseases. See Skin, diseases; specific disease.
Dermatome, (2)12
Dermatomyositis, and pregnancy, (3)20
Dermatosis, in pregnancy, (2)32
Dermoid cyst, ovarian, (1)17; (4)31
genetics, (4)66
malignant, (4)31
in pregnancy, (3)54
DES. See Diethylsyilbestrol (DES).
Desipramine, for depressive disorders, postpartum, (6)84
Deslorelin, for precocious puberty, (5)16
Desmethylimipramine, neonatal withdrawal with, (3)60
Desmogenic cells, (5)77
Desmolase deficiency
46, XX gonadal dysgenesis with, (5)86
pseudohermaphroditism with, male, (5)82
20,22-Desmolase deficiency, (5)37
Desmopressin (DDAVP)
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
for overactive bladder, (1)88
Detrusor muscle
dysfunction, after anterior colporrhaphy, (1)62
hyperreflexia, (1)88. See also Bladder, overactive
urinary incontinence due to, (1)79
instability, (1)88. See also Bladder, overactive; Bladder, overactive.
urinary incontinence due to, (1)79
sphincter dyssynergia, (1)79
Development. See also Fetus, growth, and development.
defined, (2)14
Dexamethasone (Decadron)
for congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)37
prenatal administration of, (5)79
in hirsutism, (5)28
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy, (2)6
Dexamethasone suppression tests, (5)36
in ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors, (5)25
Dextran, for uterine distention, in hysteroscopy, (1)118, 23, 121
Dextromethorphan, in pain management, in gynecologic cancer, (4)58
Dextrose, in hysteroscopy, (1)118
DFRX gene, in ovarian dysgenesis, (5)85
DHEA. See Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
DHT. See Dihydrotestosterone.
Diabetes insipidus
cranial, vasopressin levels in patients with, (5)7
idiopathic, oxytocin levels in patients during labor, (5)7
nephrogenic, lithium-related, (3)60
in newborn, (6)79
in pregnancy, (3)23
Diabetes mellitus
breast feeding and, (2)93; (3)14
candidiasis and, (1)37
classification, (3)14
in pregnancy, (3)13
contraception in, (3)13; (6)14
endometrial carcinoma and, (4)13
gestational, (3)13. See also Diabetes mellitus, in pregnancy.
glucose tolerance testing, (3)13
history of, and contraceptive use, (6)14
management, (3)13
postpartum, (3)14
screening for, (3)13
in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
and placental drug transfer, (3)60
polycystic ovary syndrome and, (5)27
treatment of, (5)27
postmenopausal hormone therapy in, (1)110
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
in pregnancy, (3)13,14. See also Diabetes mellitus, gestational.
anesthesia management, (3)90
biophysical profile, (3)77
classification, (3)13
congenital anomalies and, (3)13
diagnosis, (3)13
prenatal screening and, (3)13
diet and, (3)14
exercise and, (3)14
fetal/neonatal problems associated with, (3)13
fetal growth and, (2)14
prenatal screening and diagnosis, (3)13
fetal-placental function testing, (3)13
fetal surveillance, (3)14
glucose control in, (3)13
glycated hemoglobins and, (3)14
insulin and, (3)14
insulin-dependent, (3)14
ketoacidosis, (3)13
macrosomia and, (3)13
maternal problems associated with, (3)13
medical problems, maternal, (3)13
mortality and
maternal, (3)13
perinatal, (3)13
nephropathy in, (3)6
placental problems associated with, (3)13
postpartum management, (3)14
preexisting diabetes, (3)13
psychologic issues, (3)14
treatment, (3)13, 14
delivery and, (3)13
diabetic ketoacidosis and, (3)13
fetal-placental function testing and, (3)13
goals, (3)14
intrapartum management, (3)14
maternal glucose control, (2)37; (3)13–16
metabolic management for labor and delivery, (3)13
prenatal diagnosis and, (3)13
team approach, (3)14
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
preoperative considerations, (1)52
screening for, in aging woman, (1)108
spontaneous abortion and, recurrent, (3)69
type 2, obesity and, (6)111
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)
female orgasmic dysfunction, (6)104
somatoform disorders, (6)70
Dialysis, in pregnancy, (3)6
Diaphragm, (3)26; (6)11–15. See also Contraception, barrier methods.
adolescent use, (1)22; (6)9
All-Flex, (6)17
arcing spring, (6)17
care of, (6)17
coil spring, (6)17
contraindications to, (6)17
in disease prevention, (6)17
efficacy, (6)3
fitting, (6)17
preabortion, (6)122
flat spring, (6)17
hinged spring, (6)17
historical perspective on, (6)17
indications for, (6)17
insertion
technique, (6)17
timing, (6)17
patient education about, (6)17
removal, timing, (6)17
spermicide use with, (6)17
types of, (6)17
Diaphragmatic hernia, congenital
neonatal resuscitation in, (3)68
ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Diarrhea
antibiotic-associated, (3)39
giardiasis and, (3)51
in pregnancy, (3)30
radiation toxicity and, in cervical carcinoma treatment, (4)11
Diastasis recti, (2)97
Diazepam
biodisposition, gender differences in, (3)60
coagulopathy with, (3)60
for heroin addiction, in newborn, (2)33
in lactation, (6)79
in pregnancy, fetal effects of, (6)79
sensitivity to, in aging woman, (1)108
DIC. See Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Dicloxacillin
for breast infection, (3)39
for mastitis, (3)35
Didanosine, in pregnancy, (3)47
Didronel (etidronate), in osteoporosis, (1)111
Diet. See also Nutrition.
after rectovaginal fistula repair, (1)91
caloric restriction in, and luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
and candidiasis, (1)40
low-salt, in preeclampsia-eclampsia prevention, (3)7
in luteinizing hormone inhibition, (5)6
modifications, for hemorrhoids, (1)97
and ovarian cancer, (4)27
in pregnancy. See Pregnancy, nutrition in.
premenstrual syndromes and, (1)23
requirements for lactation, (2)93; (5)31
soy in, (1)110
Diethylcarbamazine citrate, for filariasis, (3)51
Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
placenta previa and, (2)49
for pregnancy prevention
emergency postcoital, (6)26
in rape victim, (6)96
prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
in utero exposure
cervical changes, (1)10, 30
cervical incompetence and, (3)53
female offspring, pseudohermaphroditism, (5)79
ultrasonography of abnormalities due to, (1)101; (3)53
vaginal cancer and, (4)44
vaginal changes, (1)10
Differentiation. See also Growth and differentiation; Sexual differentiation.
defined, (2)14
DiGeorge syndrome, (5)73
Digoxin
absorption of, in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)60
for supraventricular tachycardia, fetal, (3)65
transplacental therapy with, (3)60
Digoxin-like substance, endogenous, (3)60
Dihydrotestosterone. See also Androgen(s).
biology of, in humans, (5)81
formation, (5)81
in male sexual differentiation and development, (5)81
metabolic clearance rate for, (5)2
metabolism, (5)2
plasma levels, in premenopausal women, (5)2
in puberty, (5)16
synthesis of, (5)82
transport, (5)2
Dilantin. See Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin).
Dilapan, (1)54
Dilatation and curettage (D&C), (1)54
anesthesia for, (1)54
complications, (1)54
management of, (1)54
minimization of, (1)54
in dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (1)54; (5)20
in ectopic pregnancy diagnosis, (1)68
in endometrial hyperplasia and neoplasia, (4)12
and hysteroscopy, comparison of, (1)118
indications, (1)54
postoperative care, (1)54
preoperative care, (1)54
procedure
curettage of uterus, (1)54
dilatation of cervix, (1)54
endocrine and anatomic variations and, (1)54
sounding the uterus, (1)54
technique, (1)54
risks of, (1)54
Dilators, (1)54
selection, for first trimester abortion, (6)123
Dilaudid, in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Diloxanide, in Entamoeba histolytica infection, (3)51
Dimetane. See Brompheniramine.
Diphenhydramine, in pregnancy, (6)79
Diphenylhydantoin. See Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin).
Diphtheria, vaccination against, in pregnancy, (3)52, 6
Diphyllobothrium latum, (3)51, 25
Directed masturbation, in orgasmic dysfunction treatment, (6)104
Direct fetal transfusion. See Transfusion, intrauterine.
Disabilities
infants with, psychologic response to, (3)3
mothers with, (2)19
women with
gynecologic issues confronting, (1)102
obstetric issues confronting, (1)102
Disability issues, in prenatal record, (2)17B
Disasters, pregnancy and, (2)10
Discharge summaries, computerized, (1)100
Disomy, uniparental, (5)48
Disopyramide, in pregnancy, (3)60
Dispermy, (5)48
Disseminated gonococcal infection, (3)42
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
abruptio placentae and, (3)90
amniotic fluid embolus and, (6)125
with placenta creta, (2)49
in placental abruption, (2)50
postabortion, (6)125
postpartum hemorrhage and, (2)80
treatment, (6)125
Diuretics
in preeclampsia-eclampsia prevention, (3)7
in pregnancy, for intracranial hemorrhage, (3)54
thiazide. See Thiazides.
Divalent cations, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Diverticulum(a)
distal, (1)11
Meckel’, (1)4
urethral, (1)78
Divorce
marital counseling and, (6)98
single-parent families and, (2)19
DMPA. See Medroxyprogesterone.
Dmrt1 gene, (5)78
DNA. See Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Dobutamine
in septic shock, (1)48
for shock, in septic abortion, (6)118
Docetaxel (Taxotere), for ovarian cancer, (4)36
Döderlein’ bacilli, in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
Doe v. Bolton, (6)115
Dolophine. See Methadone.
Domestic violence, (3)107; (6)107. See also Abuse.; Intimate partner violence (IPV)
against aging woman, (1)108
in lesbian couples, (6)103
marital counseling and, (6)98
in postpartum period, (2)90
in pregnancy, (3)54
screening for, in preconceptional counseling, (2)22
Dong quai, (1)114
Donohue syndrome, (5)90
Donovania granulomatis (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis), (1)41
Dopamine
prolactin secretion and, (5)32
in septic shock, (1)48
for shock, in septic abortion, (6)118
Dopamine antagonists, for hyperemesis gravidarum, (2)9
Doppler ultrasound. See Ultrasound/ultrasonography, Doppler (continuous wave).
Dorsal arteries, (1)1
Dot blots, (5)76
in HPV identification, (4)2
Double-bubble sign, (3)64
Douching
ectopic pregnancy and, (1)44
pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)44
salpingitis and, (1)44
Doughnut pessary, (1)39
Down syndrome, (1)4; (5)73
AFP and, (3)116
chromosomal translocations in, (5)48
maternal meiotic errors in, (5)48
paternal meiotic errors in, (5)48
prenatal screening for, biochemical, (3)114
risk of
maternal age and, ultrasound findings and, (3)72
spermicides and, (6)17
Doxorubicin
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)21
combination chemotherapy, (4)21
in ovarian carcinoma, (4)36
Doxycycline
in acute salpingitis, (1)44
in chlamydial infection, (1)41; (3)48
for granuloma inguinale in HIV, (1)46
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44; (5)57
prophylactic, with hysterosalpingography, (5)50
in syphilis, (1)45
Doxylamine (Unisom), in pregnancy, (2)6
DPT vaccination, in pregnancy, (3)52, 6
DRE25 gene, in ovarian dysgenesis, (5)85
Droloxifene, and osteoporosis, (1)111
Drotrecogin alpha, in treatment of septic abortion, (6)118
Drugs. See also specific drug.
absorption of
determinants of, (3)60
gender differences in, (3)60
in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60
abuse of. See Substance abuse.
accumulation in amniotic fluid, (3)60
addiction to. See Substance abuse.
adrenocortical insufficiency related to, (5)37
adverse reactions to
in aging woman, (1)108
gender differences in, (3)60
in pregnancy, risk assessment for, (3)60
amenorrhea and, (5)21
anabolic, hirsutism related to, (5)28
androgenic, hirsutism related to, (5)28
anovulation caused by, (5)22
bioavailability of, (3)60
biodisposition
gender differences in, (3)60
in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60
biotransformation
gender differences in, (3)60
in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60
birth defects and, (2)6
in breast milk, (5)31. See also Milk, human (breast), drugs and.
cardiovascular, in pregnancy. See also specific drug.
in chemotherapy. See Chemotherapy, agents.
clinical trials of, (3)60
development of, (3)60
disposition, gender differences in, (3)60
distribution of, (3)60
in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60–7
dosing calculations, computers in, (1)100
elimination of, (3)60
excretion of
in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60–9
pathways of, (3)60
renal, (3)60
fetal dose of, (3)60
fetal effects, (3)60. See also Perinatal pharmacology; Teratogenicity.
animal models, (3)60
risk assessment, (3)60
fetal therapy with, (3)60
fetal toxicity of, (3)60
glucuronidation
fetal, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
interactions
in aging woman, (1)108
oral contraceptives, (6)27
with oral contraceptives, (6)19
intrapartum use, (3)60
labeling, (3)60
in labor inhibition, (3)87
metabolism
extrahepatic, (3)60
in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60–8
off-label prescribing, in pregnancy, (3)60
for overactive bladder, (1)88
peripartum use, (3)60
pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models for, use in pregnancy, (3)60
placental transfer. See Perinatal pharmacology; Placenta; Pregnancy, pharmacology of.
in polycystic ovary syndrome, (5)29
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)60. See also Teratogenicity; specific drug
advances in (future directions for), (3)60
autoimmune disorders and, (3)20
clinical considerations, (3)60
for gastrointestinal complications, (3)30
risk assessment, (3)60
studies of, (3)60
animal models for, (3)60
ethical issues in, (3)60
legal issues in, (3)60
pharmaceutical industry and, (3)60
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
pregnancy risk classification of, (3)60
for premature labor, (3)60
psychotropic, in pregnancy, (3)60
response to, gender differences in, (3)60
social, teratogenicity of, (2)6
teratogenic potential of, assessment, (3)60
transplacental therapy with, (3)60
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85
DSM-IV. See Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,Fourth Edition (DSM-IV).
D4T. See Stavudine.
Duchenne’ muscular dystrophy, prenatal diagnosis, (3)112
Ductal carcinoma in situ, (1)26
treatment, (1)26
Ductal hyperplasia, breast, (1)27
Duct ectasia, (1)26
Ductus arteriosus, patent
in pregnancy, (3)11
in premature infant, (2)12
prostaglandins and, (5)41
Dulla effect, (2)68
Duloxetine, for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85
Dumas cervical cap, (6)17
Duodenal atresia, prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Duodenal feeding, (4)63
Duodenum, embryonic development, (2)12
Duragesic. See Fentanyl.
Dura mater, allografts, in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
Duramorph. See Morphine.
Dutch Cap. See Diaphragm.
DVT. See Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Dwarfism. See also Skeletal dysplasia.
Dying patient
death with dignity, (6)95
gynecologist and, (6)95
communication after sudden loss, (6)95
communication when death is sudden, (6)95
communication when mishap has occurred, (6)95
communication with adolescents, (6)95
communication with children, (6)95
communication with family, (6)95
communication within team, (6)95
communication with patient, (6)95
teaching house officers, (6)95
interventions, (6)95
hospice care, (6)95
pain control, (6)95
Dynorphin, placental, (5)39
Dyschezia, endometriosis and, (1)20
Dysfibrinogenemia, congenital, placental abruption and, (2)50
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding. See Bleeding, uterine, dysfunctional.
Dysgenesis, gonadal. See also Gonad(s), dysgenesis of.
Dysgerminoma, (4)31
aspiration cytology, (4)52
chemotherapy, (4)36
genetics, (4)66
gonadoblastoma with, (4)31
ovarian
in children, (4)34
and precocious puberty, (5)16
treatment, (1)36
Dyskeratocytes, papillomavirus infection, (1)29
Dyslipidemias, polycystic ovary syndrome and, (5)29
Dysmaturity. See Pregnancy, postdatism.
Dysmenorrhea, (1)18
in adolescent, (1)22
with double uterus and obstructed hemivagina, (1)70
in endometriosis, (1)20
female circumcision and, (1)96
imperforate hymen and, (1)19
incidence, (1)18
primary, (1)18; (6)87
clinical features, (1)18
differential diagnosis, (1)18
etiology, (1)18
treatment, (1)18
in adolescent, (1)22
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, (1)18
oral contraceptives, (1)18
presacral neurectomy, (1)18
TENS, (1)18
prostaglandins in, (5)42
secondary, (1)18; (6)87
differential diagnosis, (1)18
etiology, (1)18
prostaglandins and, (1)18
treatment, (1)18
transdermal contraception and, (6)30
Dysmucorrhea, (5)51
Dyspareunia, (6)87102
assessment, (6)102
couple, (6)102
general, (6)102
individual, (6)102
pelvic, (6)102
summary, (6)102
bump, cervicitis and, (6)87
deep, pelvic congestion syndrome and, (6)87
definition, (6)102
in endometriosis, (1)20
etiology, (6)102
incidence, (6)102
postpartum, (2)20
psychophysiologic factors, (6)102
superficial, (1)77
classification, (1)77
etiology of, (1)77
evaluation, (1)77
identification, (1)77
incidence, (1)77
therapy, (1)77
vulvar vestibulitis and, (1)77–7. See also Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS)
treatment, (6)102
surgical, (1)76
Dysphoric disorder, premenstrual, diagnosis, (1)23
Dyspnea, in pregnancy, (3)27
Dysrhythmia. See Arrhythmia.
Dysthymic disorder, (6)73
Dystocia, (1)79; (2)73, 74. See also Labor, abnormal.
Dysuria syndromes. See also Urinary tract infections.
differential diagnosis, (1)79

 

Subject Index E

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E1. See Estrone (E1).
E2. See Estradiol.
Early growth response factor-1, in corpus luteum formation, (5)14
Early pregnancy factor, (2)2
East African trypanosomiasis, (3)51
Eating disorders, (5)26. See also Anorexia nervosa; Bulimia.
Ebstein’ anomaly
maternal lithium use and, (6)79
in pregnancy, (3)11
ECC. See Endocervical curettage (ECC).
Ecchymosis, in newborn, (2)97
Echinococcus granulosus, (3)51
Echocardiography
in critically ill patient, (3)79
fetal, (3)65
in pregnancy, (1)11; (3)11
Echovirus, in pediatric vulvovaginitis, (1)19
Eclampsia, (3)7. See also Hypertension, pregnancy-induced; Preeclampsia-eclampsia.
diagnosis, (3)7
management, (3)7
prevention, (3)7
Ectoderm, development of, (2)12
Ectopic pregnancy, (1)68,69. See also Tubal pregnancy.
combined with uterine pregnancy, in higher-order multiple gestations, (2)83
defined, (1)68
diagnosis, (1)68
ultrasound in, (5)55
vaginal sonography in, (2)4
douching and, (1)44
epidemiologic studies of, (6)124
genital tuberculosis and, (1)49
hCG titer in, (1)68
hysteroscopy in, (1)121
implantable contraceptive use and, (6)38
incidence, (1)69
induced abortion and, (6)115
in infundibular portion of tube, (1)69
intrauterine device use after, (6)29
in isthmic portion of tube, (1)69
laparoscopy in, (1)69; (5)62
laparotomy vs., (1)68–11
laser, (1)34
management, (1)68,69
cost analysis, (1)68
methotrexate for, local administration of, (1)121
nonoperative, (1)68
surgical management vs., (1)68
surgical, (1)68; (3)54
adjunctive therapy, (1)69
concomitant oophorectomy and, (1)68
conservative vs. nonconservative, (1)68
fertility after, (1)68–16
historical aspects, (1)68
medical management vs., (1)68
operative considerations, (1)68
postoperative considerations, (1)68
preoperative considerations, (1)68
tissue removal, (1)68
mortality rate, (1)69
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
pathologic and anatomic considerations, (1)69
pathophysiology, (1)69
pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)44; (5)57
persistent, (1)68
prognosis, (1)68
recurrence risks, (1)68; (3)69
repeat, management, (1)68
reproductive potential after, (1)68
Rh isoimmunization and, (1)68
risk factors, (1)68
therapeutic score and, (1)68
salpingectomy in, (1)69
salpingo-oophorectomy vs., (1)68
salpingostomy vs., (1)69
salpingostomy in, (1)69–15
salpingectomy vs., (1)69
salpingotomy vs., (1)69
salpingotomy in, salpingostomy vs., (1)69
signs and symptoms, (1)69
sites, (1)69
sterilization failure and, (6)45
ultrasonic scan, (1)69
vaginal, (2)4
Edema
in newborn, (2)97
pulmonary
in pregnancy, (3)10
tocolytic-induced, (3)27
Education
medical, computers in, (1)100
patient. See Patient education
Edwards’ syndrome, (1)4
Efamol. See Evening primrose oil.
Efavirenz, in pregnancy, (3)47
Effexor, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
E2F gene, in ovarian dysgenesis, (5)85
Eflornithine
for hirsutism, in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
for trypanosomiasis, (3)51, 23
EGF. See Epidermal growth factor (EGF).
Egg. See Ovaries; Ovulation; Ovum.
Eicosanoids, (5)43. See also Leukotrienes; Prostaglandins; Thromboxanes.
oxygen radicals and, potential parallel roles in reproduction, (5)41
Eisenmenger’ syndrome, in pregnancy, (1)11; (3)11
Ejaculation
frequent, infertility and, (5)65
retrograde
complicating transurethral ejaculatory duct resection, (5)66
infertility and, pharmacologic treatment of, (5)65
urinalysis after, in infertility, (5)63
volume of, in infertility, (5)63
Ejaculatory ducts
obstruction, diagnosis, (5)66
transurethral resection technique, (5)66
Elavil (amitriptyline), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Elcometrine, as implantable contraceptive, (6)38. See also Contraception, implantable.
Elderly. See Aging woman.
Electrical stimulation, for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85
Electrocardiogram
in hypothyroidism, (5)35
in pregnancy, (2)13; (3)11
Electrocautery
cervical, cytologic changes with, (1)29
for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)4
for laparoscopic sterilization, (6)41
problems, (6)43
ovarian, in ovulation induction, (5)70
Electrocoagulation
endometrial ablation, (1)117
for hemorrhoids, (1)97
laparoscopic sterilization, (6)41
problems, (6)43
in partial salpingectomy, (6)43
for vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
Electroconvulsive treatment, for depression, (6)73
Electrodiagnostic testing, fundamentals, (1)81
Electroejaculation, (5)66
Electrofulguration, of vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
Electrolytes. See also Fluid therapy.
giardiasis and, (3)51
in patients on hyperalimentation, (4)63
postoperative considerations, (1)53
postoperative disturbances, (1)53
postpartum mental disorders and, (6)84
pregnancy values, (3)54
preoperative considerations, (1)52
Electromagnetic fields, and spontaneous abortion, (2)22
Electromyography
in pelvic floor disorders, (1)81
concentric needle, (1)81
kinesiological, (1)81
single-fiber, (1)81
in rectocele, (1)83
in urethral sphincter incontinence, intrinsic, (1)92
Electronic medical records, (3)2. See also Computers/computerization.
Electron microscopy
of regenerative endometrium, (5)18
of secretory endometrium, (5)18
Electrophoresis, RFLP detection by, (5)76
Electrosurgery, (1)32
bipolar circuit, (1)32
blended currents, (1)32
capacitive grounding circuitry, (1)32
clinical results, (1)32
coagulation current, (1)32
coagulation in, (1)32
complications, (1)32
cutting current, (1)32
desiccation in, (1)32
direct grounding in, (1)32
electrical circuit and, (1)32
endometrial ablation, (1)38
fulguration in, (1)32
in general gynecologic surgery, (1)32
generators, (1)32
frequency, (1)32
grounding in, (1)32
hysteroscopic, (1)117
for infertility, (1)32
isolated grounding circuitry, (1)32
physics, (1)32
return electrode in, monitoring, (1)32
safety issues, (1)32
tissue effects, (1)32
types of currents, (1)32
unipolar circuit, (1)32
vaporization in, (1)32
wound healing after, (1)32
Electrosurgical injuries, in laparoscopy, (1)119
ELISA. See Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Embolism
amniotic fluid. See Amniotic fluid, embolism.
pulmonary. See Pulmonary embolism.
after pelvic exenteration, (4)10
with thrombosis. See Thromboembolic disease.
Embolization, uterine artery. See Uterine artery, embolization
Embolization therapy
for leiomyoma, (1)14
for pelvic hemorrhage, (1)73
Embryo. See also Conceptus.
adrenal cortical function, (5)36
animals, development, (2)14
cardiac development, (2)12
central nervous system development, (2)12
cryopreservation, (5)99
research, (5)99
thawing
cryosurvival and, (5)99
transfer and, (5)99
development, (2)11
abnormalities
of external genitalia, (1)4
of urogenital system, (1)4
clomiphene citrate treatment and, (5)68
stage of, cryopreservation and, (5)99
steroid endocrinology of, (5)38
foregut, (2)12
derivatives, (2)12
hemoglobin, (2)12
hemopoiesis, (2)12
hindgut derivatives, (2)12
malformations, (2)12
implantation of, (5)47. See also Implantation.
midgut, (2)12
derivatives, (2)12
malformations, (2)12
ovary, (5)77
preimplantation
chromosomal abnormalities in, (5)48
significance of, (5)48
events, (5)47
immunologic reactions to sperm, (5)58
stage of development of, teratogenicity and, (2)6
storage, low temperature, (5)99
testis, (5)77
transfer. See Embryo transfer; Fertilization, in vitro.
transformation zone, (1)30
urinary tract development, (2)12
visualization, embryoscopy, (3)112
Embryogenesis, (2)12
Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, vaginal, (4)44
Embryonic disk, (2)12
Embryopathy, warfarin, (3)60
Embryoscopy, (3)112
microhysteroscope in, (1)118
Embryotoxicity, of antineoplastic agents, (3)60
Embryo transfer, (1)101. See also Fertilization, in vitro.
after in vitro fertilization, (5)97
with genital tuberculosis, (1)49
thaw and, (5)99
results, (5)99
ultrasound guiding, (5)55
Emergency, hypertensive, in pregnancy, (3)5
Emergency care
for abortion complications, (6)122
informed consent not required for, (1)99
Emotional abuse, and psychosomatic medicine, (6)70
Emotions. See also Psychological considerations.
analgesic requirements in labor and, (3)90
postpartum depression. See Psychoses, postpartum.
pregnancy and, (3)77
Employment, of breast-feeding mother, nutritional considerations, (2)93
Empty sella syndrome, (5)25
Emx2 gene, (5)78
Enalapril (Vasotec), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Encare, (6)17
Encephalocele
and abnormal labor, (2)73
ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Encephalopathy, hypertensive, in pregnancy, (3)5
clinical features, (3)5
eclamptic, (3)19
treatment, (3)5
Enclomiphene, (5)68
Endocardial cushion defect, (3)72
Endocarditis, in pregnancy, prevention of, antibiotics in, (3)35
Endocervical broom, in cytologic sampling, (1)29
Endocervical brush, in cytologic sampling, (1)29
Endocervical curettage (ECC), (1)54
and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)3
in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia diagnosis, (4)4
Endocervical polyps, (1)31
Endocervical type mucinous tumors, of low malignant potential, (4)29
Endocoagulation, in laparoscopic sterilization, (6)42
Endocoagulator, Semm, (6)41
Endocrine diseases. See also specific disease.
and osteoporosis, (1)111
in pregnancy, (3)23
Endocrine etiology, of female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Endocrine system. See also Hormone(s).
abnormalities, in endometriosis and infertility, (5)59
anorexia nervosa and, (5)26
diseases of, in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
disruption, steroid hormone receptors and, (5)4
effects on endometrial adenocarcinoma, (4)14. See also Endometrium, adenocarcinoma of, endocrine aspects.
and male reproductive physiology, (5)65
menopausal changes, (1)106
perimenopausal, (1)109
psychological aspects of, (6)86
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
in pregnancy, anesthetic implications, (3)90
pubertal changes, (1)16
secondary amenorrhea and, (5)21
vasectomy effects on, (6)49
Endoderm, development of, (2)12
Endodermal sinus tumor
ovarian, (4)31
vaginal, (4)44
vulvar, (4)40
Endolymphatic stromal myosis, (4)22
Endometrial cycle, (5)18
DNA synthesis during, 4, (5)18–8
estradiol in, (5)18, 9, 11, 14
menstrual period, (5)18
morphophysiologic interpretation of, (5)18
postovulatory phase, (5)18–15
progesterone in, (5)18
proliferative phase, (5)18
Endometrial sampling. See Endometrium, biopsy of.
Endometrioid cysts, cytology, (1)29
Endometrioid tumors, ovarian. See Ovaries, tumors of.
Endometrioma, (1)17; (5)59
diagnosis, (1)20
prevalence of, (1)25
ultrasonography, (1)101
Endometriosis, (1)20
cervical, (1)31
classification, (1)20; (5)61
clinical presentation, (1)20
continuous chronic pelvic pain and, (1)20; (6)87
cytology, (1)29
defined, (1)20
diagnosis, (1)20; (5)59
dysmenorrhea and, (1)20; (6)87
endometrioid ovarian carcinoma associated with, (4)30
environmental component, (5)95
epidemiology, (1)20
genetics, (5)95
familial aggregates, (5)95
mechanism, (5)95
infertility and, (1)20–18; (5)59, 61
assisted reproductive technology and, (1)20; (5)59
biologic mechanisms linking, (5)59
cause vs. effect in, (5)59
clinical approach to, (5)59
endocrine abnormalities in, (5)59
and fecundity, (5)59
in vitro fertilization in, (5)97
laboratory findings, (1)20
laparoscopy in, (1)20–17; (5)62
laser therapy, (1)34
magnetic resonance imaging, (1)20
molecular basis, (5)95
ovarian involvement in, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
pathogenesis, (1)20
cell adhesion molecules, (1)20
coelomic metaplasia, (1)20
direct extension, (1)20
embryonic cell rests, (1)20
endometriotic disease theory, (1)20
environmental factors, (1)20
immunologic factors, (1)20
induction, (1)20
transplantation, (1)20
uterotubal extension, (1)20
pathology, (1)20
physical findings, (1)20
postmenopausal hormone therapy in, (1)110
prevalence, (1)20
staging, (5)59
treatment, (1)20
laser, (1)20
outcome data, (1)20
pharmaceutical, (5)59
pharmacologic (hormonal) suppression, (1)20; (5)59
danazol, (1)20
gestrinone, (1)20
GnRH analogues, (1)20
oral contraceptives, (1)20
progestins, (1)20
surgery, (1)20; (5)59
laparoscopic, (1)20
ultrasonography, (1)20
vaginal, (1)10
vulvar, (1)9
Endometritis, (5)57
after cesarean delivery, prevention of, antibiotics in, (3)35
classification, (5)57
and placenta previa, (2)49
postabortion, (6)123
postpartum
antenatal chlamydiae and, (3)48
antibiotics for, (3)35
bacterial vaginosis and, (1)40
early, (3)39–4
genital mycoplasmas and, (3)48
late, (3)39
microbes in, (3)35
Endometrium
ablation, (1)38, 117
balloonless hot water systems, (1)38
cryosurgical, (1)38
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
electrocoagulation, (1)117
electrosurgical, (1)38
equipment, (1)38
hysteroscopic, (1)38
laser, (1)34
contact vs. noncontact, (1)38
microwave, (1)38
nonhysteroscopic, (1)38
patient selection, (1)38
preparation, (1)38
radio-wave electrode intrauterine balloon, (1)38
results, (1)38
technique, (1)38
thermal balloon system, (1)38
abnormalities, ultrasonography, (1)101
adenoacanthoma, (4)15
adenocarcinoma of. See also Endometrium, carcinoma of.
chemotherapy for, (4)25
endocrine aspects, (4)14
animal data, (4)14
clinical profile, (4)14
endocrinologic profiles, (4)14
estrogen
conversion, (4)14
effects on endometrium, (4)14–17
levels and life stages, (4)14
potencies, (4)14
synthesis and metabolism, (4)14
human therapeutic data, (4)14
medically inoperative, radiation therapy alone for, (4)25
molecular biology, (4)65
radiation therapy, (4)25
in operable stage I disease, (4)25
postoperative, (4)25
in recurrent disease, (4)25
in stage II disease, (4)25
in stage III disease, (4)25
in stage IVA disease, (4)25
recurrence, without radiation therapy, (4)25
recurrent, radiation therapy for, (4)25
with squamous differentiation, (4)15
therapy, surgical management, (4)13
ultrasonography, (1)101
variants, (4)15
adenomatous hyperplasia, (4)13
anatomy, (1)2
biopsy of, (1)52; (5)18
hysteroscopic, (1)117
in infertility, (5)53
in ovulation documentation, (5)50
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)48
in ovulation documentation, (5)54
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
in tuberculosis, (1)49
in uterine bleeding, (5)23
carcinoma of, (4)15,54. See also Endometrium, adenocarcinoma of
adenosquamous, (4)15
aggressive types, (4)15
ancillary studies, (4)15
breast cancer and, (4)13
cancers associated with, (4)19
cervical extension, (4)15
chemotherapy. See Chemotherapy, in endometrial carcinoma.
cigarette smoking and, (4)13
ciliated cell, (4)15
clear cell, (4)15
contraceptive implants and, (6)25
CT scan in, (4)54, 17
staging, (4)54
cytology of, (1)29
peritoneal washing, (1)29
cytophotometric DNA quantitation, (4)59
depth of myometrial invasion, prognostic significance of, (4)19
diagnosis, (1)54–17
diagnosis of, (4)12
differentiation, prognostic significance of, (4)19
DNA ploidy analysis, (4)15
endometrioid ovarian carcinoma associated with, (4)30
epidemiology, (4)13, 15
changing patterns of occurrence, (4)13
endocrine hypothesis, (4)13
incidence data and geographic considerations, (4)13
personal (nondemographic) risk factors, (4)13
cancers of other sites, (4)13
diabetes mellitus, (4)13
familial history, (4)13
granulosa-theca cell tumors, (4)13
hypertension, (4)13
menstrual history, (4)13
nulliparity, (4)13
obesity, (4)13
polycystic ovary disease, (4)13
radiation exposure, (4)13
estrogen receptor status in, (4)15
estrogens in, (4)13
exogenous, (1)106
sources, (4)13
unopposed, (4)13
extent of
determination, (4)19
prognostic significance of, (4)19
FIGO staging, (4)15, 5, 54
genetics, (4)15
gross findings, (4)15
histopathologic features, general, (4)15
histopathologic grading, (4)15
cytophotometric DNA quantitation and, (4)59
proliferative activity and, (4)59
hyperplasia in, (1)13; (4)12. See also Endometrium, hyperplasia.
laparoscopic surgery for, (1)119
laparoscopy in, (4)55
complications, (4)55
lymph node involvement in, prognostic significance of, (4)19
magnetic resonance imaging, (1)54, 16
staging, (4)54
metaplasias and, (4)15
metastases, (4)15
to bowels, (4)54
to chest, (4)54
skeletal, (4)54
to urinary system, (4)54
mixed, (4)15
mucinous, (4)15
myometrial invasion, (4)15
obesity and, (4)13, 9, 19; (6)111
oncogenes, (4)15
oral contraceptives and, (4)13; (6)25
pathology, (4)15
peritoneal cytology in, prognostic significance of, (4)19
phenotypic status and, prognostic significance of, (4)19
polycystic ovary syndrome and, (5)29
progesterone receptor status in, (4)15
prognostic factors, (4)19
cytophotometric DNA quantitation, (4)59
radiation therapy for, (4)19
recurrence, trocar site, (4)55
reduced risk of, intrauterine device and, (6)29
risk factors for, (1)13; (4)12
risk in long-term estrogen users, (4)13
screening for, (4)12
in aging woman, (1)108
with tamoxifen therapy, (4)12
secretory, (4)15
serous, (4)15
squamous cell, (4)15
squamous differentiation in, (4)15
staging, (4)19
clinical, (4)19, 54
radiologic, (4)54
surgical, (4)19–5
steroid hormone receptors in, (5)4
surgery for, (4)19
outcome, (4)19
synchronous ovarian carcinoma, (4)15
tamoxifen and, (4)19
treatment planning, radiology in, (4)54
ultrasonography in, (1)54
staging, (4)54
undifferentiated, (4)15
uterine bleeding and, (5)23
vascular space invasion, (4)15
verrucous, (4)15
villoglandular, (4)15
as contraceptive target, (6)12
cytologic evaluation. See Cytology.
endometrioma, (1)17; (5)59
estrogen effects on, (4)14, 16–17
in pregnancy, (5)38
evaluation, before clomiphene citrate treatment, (5)68
examination of, in uterine bleeding, (5)23
hormonal regulators of, (6)12
hyperplasia, (1)14
adenocarcinoma and, (4)13. See also Endometrium, adenocarcinoma of.
adenomatous, (4)13
atypical, (4)14
carcinoma and, (4)13. See also Endometrium, carcinoma of.
cytology of, (1)29
endometrioid ovarian carcinoma associated with, (4)30
as precursor to carcinoma, (4)12; (5)23
progesterone challenge test in, (4)12
treatment of, (4)12
intraepithelial neoplasia in, as precursor to carcinoma, (4)12
irregular shedding, (5)18
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)48
magnetic resonance imaging of, (1)93
menstrual, 4, (5)18
menstruation and. See Menstruation.
metaplasias, (4)15
microhysteroscopy of, (1)118
morphologic criteria for dating during menstrual cycle, (5)18
neoplasia, estrogen therapy and, (1)110
in normal menstrual cycle, (5)20
polyps of
hysteroscopic removal, (1)117
and uterine bleeding, (5)23
postmenopausal, thickness, (1)110
postmenstrual, (5)18
postovulatory, (5)18–15
preovulatory, (5)18
preparation of, for implantation, (1)38; (2)11
biochemical changes in, (5)47
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
structural changes in, (5)47
progesterone effects on, in pregnancy, (5)38
proliferative, (1)2; (5)18
pseudo functional dysvascular, (1)118
receptivity, evaluation before oocyte donation, (5)100
reepithelialization, (5)18
regenerative, (5)18
sampling. See Cytology; Dilatation and curettage (D&C).
sarcoma, stromal, (4)22, 23, 6
secretory, (5)18–15
sex steroids and, (6)12
specimens, (5)18
methods for obtaining, (5)18
timing, (5)18
steroid endocrinology of, in early pregnancy, (5)38
tamoxifen effects on, and uterine bleeding, (5)23
tuberculosis, (1)49
tuberculosis of, amenorrhea and, (5)21
ultrasonography, (1)101
Endomyometritis, postpartum, (3)37
after cesarean delivery, (2)74
diagnosis of, (3)37
microbiology of, (3)37
prophylaxis, (3)37
risk factors for, (3)37
treatment of, (3)37
β-Endorphin
in menstrual cycle, (5)6
placental, (5)39
and postpartum depression, (6)84
Endosalpingiosis, (4)30
Endosalpingoblastosis, (6)42
Endoscopy. See also Cystoscopy; Hysteroscopy; Laparoscopy; Salpingoscopy; Urethroscopy.
diagnostic, in tuberculosis, (1)49
for gastrointestinal disorders, in pregnancy, (3)30
history of, (1)119
operative. See Surgery, endoscopic.
in urinary incontinence, (1)79
Endotracheal intubation, (3)26
failed, in pregnancy, (3)26
anesthesia and, (3)90
in neonatal resuscitation, (3)68
Endovasculitis, hemorrhagic, (2)107
End-tidal carbon dioxide pressure, assessment, in critically ill patient, (3)79
Energy requirements. See also Calories, requirements.
for growth and differentiation, (2)14
Entamoeba histolytica infection, (1)41; (3)51
clinical manifestations, (3)51
diagnosis, (3)51
epidemiology, (3)51
organism and its transmission, (3)51
in pregnancy, (3)51
treatment, (3)51
Enteral feeding, (4)63
order form, (4)63
Enteritis, radiation-induced, (4)63
Enterobacter, postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
Enterobius vermicularis, (1)19; (3)51
Enterocele
after hysterectomy, preventing, (1)84, 6
pathogenesis of, (1)80
Enterococci
in obstetric infection, antibiotic susceptibility of, (3)35
in postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
in puerperal infection, (3)37, 13
in urinary tract infections, (2)43
Enterotest, in giardiasis, (3)51
Entex LA. See Phenylpropanolamine.
Environmental pollutants, prenatal exposure to, (2)10
Environmental toxins
congenital heart disease and, (3)72
congenital malformations and, (3)111
endometriosis and, (1)20
infertility and
female, (5)72
male, (5)65
recurrent abortion and, (3)69
Enzyme(s)
activity, in fetus, (2)12
adrenal, defects, in female pseudohermaphroditism and virilization, (5)79
defects
in erythrocytes, (3)16
in female pseudohermaphroditism and virilization, (5)79
in male pseudohermaphroditism, (5)79
liver, in HELLP syndrome. See HELLP syndrome.
in Rh antibody detection, (3)66
Enzyme inhibitors, as vaginal spermicides, (6)17
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
of steroid hormones, (5)1
for tuberculosis, (1)49
Eosinophilic granuloma, (3)27
Eosinophilic thrombus, (2)108
Epicanthus, with blepharophimosis and ptosis, and premature ovarian failure, (5)86
Epidermal growth factor (EGF)
ovarian, (5)11
and prostaglandin synthesis, (5)43
in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Epidermal inclusion cysts
aspiration cytology, (4)52
female circumcision and, (1)96
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and HPV infection, (4)2
Epididymis
aspiration
microsurgical, (5)66
percutaneous, (5)66
examination, before vasectomy, (6)47
fusion defects, (5)90
obstruction, (5)65
surgery of, (5)66
vasectomy effects on, (6)49
Epididymitis, complicating transurethral ejaculatory duct resection, (5)66
Epidural block. See also Spinal anesthesia.
in cesarean delivery, (3)90
headache after, (3)90
in labor, (3)90
nerve injury from, (3)90
postpartum back pain and, (2)90
preeclampsia-eclampsia and, (3)90
Epidural blood patch, for postural puncture headache, (3)90
Epiestriols, (5)3
Epilepsy. See also Seizure disorders.
contraception in, (6)14
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
in pregnancy, (3)19
anesthesia and, (3)91
management, (3)1
pharmacologic implications, (3)60
Epinephrine (Adrenalin)
local anesthetics and, in labor, (3)90
in neonatal resuscitation, (3)68
in pregnancy, (2)6
in regional anesthesia, (3)60
Epirubicin, for cervical carcinoma, with radiation therapy, (4)11
Episiotomy, (2)69, 70
advantages and disadvantages, (2)68
implications for clinical practice and research, (2)70
anatomy, (2)69
anterior, (1)96
complications, (2)69
female circumcision and, (1)96
contraindications, (2)69
dyspareunia and, (2)20
dystocia and, (2)70
effects of, implications for clinical practice and research, (2)70
female circumcision and, (1)96
historical perspective, (2)69
indications, (2)69
implications for clinical practice and research, (2)70
infections, (3)39
in introital stenosis, (1)11
lacerations with, (2)69
timing for prevention, (2)69
mediolateral
advantages and disadvantages, (2)68
technique, (2)69
midline
advantages and disadvantages, (2)68
technique, (2)69
and pelvic floor protection, (2)70
perineal trauma with, (2)69
postoperative care, (2)69
routine, (2)69
techniques, (2)69
timing, (2)69
types, advantages and disadvantages, (2)68
urinary incontinence and, (2)70
wound healing with, (2)70
Epithelioid sarcoma, vulvar, (4)40
Epithelium
cervical, acetowhite, (1)30
ovarian, cancer of. See Ovaries, cancer of, epithelial.
vaginal, (1)1
DES-associated changes, (1)10
Epivir. See Lamivudine (3TC).
Epoophoron, (1)2
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), in pediatric vulvovaginitis, (1)19
Epstein’ pearls, (2)97
Equanil (meprobamate), in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Erb’ palsy, (2)79; (3)63
Ergonovine maleate, for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
Ergot derivatives
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
Eros-CTD, for female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Erythema
palmar, in pregnancy, (2)13
vulvar, in candidiasis, (1)37
Erythema toxicum, in newborn, (2)97
Erythroblastosis fetalis, (3)66
atypical blood group, (3)66
delivery of fetus with, (3)66
pathogenesis, (3)66
prevention, (3)66
Rh system and, (3)66. See also Rh isoimmunization.
screening for, (3)66
severity
assessment, (3)66
classification, (3)66
treatment, (3)66
ultrasound, (3)66
Erythroblasts
definitive, (2)12
primitive, (2)12
Erythrocytes
alloimmunization, cordocentesis and, (3)80
composition, (3)16
decreased production, (3)16
bone marrow failure, (3)16
maturation disturbances, (3)16
hemolysis. See also Erythroblastosis fetalis.
mechanism, (3)66
increased destruction, (3)16
increased loss, (3)16
mass of, in pregnancy, (1)16; (2)13; (3)8
transfused, dynamics in fetal circulation, (3)81
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, in pregnancy, (3)54
Erythromycin
in chancroid, (1)41
in chlamydial infection, (1)41
in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)35
in gonorrhea, (3)42
in group B streptococcal infection, (3)41
for mastitis, (3)35
for obstetric infection, microbial susceptibility to, (3)35
in pregnancy, (2)6
in prevention of premature delivery, (3)35
for sepsis, neonatal, with group B staphylococcal infection, (3)35
in syphilis, (2)42
during pregnancy, (3)42
Erythroplasia of Queyrat. See Vulva, intraepithelial neoplasia of.
Erythropoiesis, (3)16
embryonic development, (2)12
E1S. See Estrone sulfate (E1S).
Escherichia coli
antibiotic resistance in, in bacteriuria, in pregnancy, (3)35
neonatal sepsis and, prevention of, antibiotics in, (3)35
in obstetric infection, antibiotic susceptibility of, (3)35
pelvic abscess and, (1)48
postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
pudendal nerve infection, (3)37
puerperal infections and, (3)37
urinary tract infections and, (2)43
Eskalith (lithium), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Esmolol, for supraventricular tachycardia, fetal, (3)65
Esophageal atresia
fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
Esophageal varices, cirrhosis and, (3)29
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, in pregnancy, (3)30
Esophagus
embryonic and fetal development, (2)12
in pregnancy, (3)30
Essential fatty acids. See Fatty acids, essential.
ESSURE micro-insert system, in hysteroscopic sterilization, (6)40
clinical results, (6)40
deployment, (6)40
evaluation
histologic, (6)40
methodology, 5
results, (6)40
in prehysterectomy study, (6)40
insertion technique, (6)40
present status, (6)40
Estetrol
placental production of, (5)38
plasma levels, in pregnancy, (5)38
Estraderm, (5)3
Estradiol
biosynthesis, by fetoplacental unit, (5)38
deficiency of, and pregnancy outcome, (5)38
ethinyl. See Ethinyl estradiol.
in menstrual cycle, (5)6
in ovarian follicle development, (5)6
in ovarian-hypothalamic-pituitary feedback, (5)6
abnormal, (5)6
in ovulation documentation, in saliva, (5)54
plasma levels
abnormalities, and pregnancy loss, (5)38
in pregnancy, (5)38
in pubertal growth, (5)9
in puberty, (5)9
precocious, (5)16
ratio of, to testosterone, in male infertility, (5)63
secretion of
by corpus luteum, in pregnancy, early, (5)14
corpus luteum in, (5)56
serum level of, with implantable contraceptives, (6)38
structure of, (5)38
Estradiol-17β, placental, (2)11
Estradiol cypionate, medroxyprogesterone acetate combined with, in injectable contraceptive, (6)28
Estradiol (E2). See also Estrogen(s).
blood levels, monitoring estrogen dosage with, (1)110
in endometrial cycle, (5)18, 9, 11, 14
micronized, (5)3
percutaneous, (1)110
perimenopausal levels, (1)109
hot flushes and, (1)109
transdermal, (1)109
Estranes, in oral contraceptives, (6)24
Estriol, (5)3
biosynthesis, by fetoplacental unit, (5)38
placental production of, (5)38
plasma levels, in pregnancy, (5)38
in pregnancy, high-risk, (3)1
in prenatal screening, for chromosomal abnormalities, (3)114
structure of, (5)38
Estrogen(s), (6)20. See also Steroid hormone(s).
17α-ethinyl. See Ethinyl estradiol.
in anorexia nervosa, (5)26
assay of, in ovulation documentation, (5)54
biosynthesis, by fetoplacental unit, (5)38
breast cancer and, (1)26
breast development and, (5)30
carbohydrate metabolism and, (6)24
catechol, (5)3
cellular autoregulation, (5)3
cervical dilation with, (1)54
in cervical mucus treatment for quality improvement, (5)51
conjugated, (5)3
equine
oral administration, (5)3
for precocious puberty, (5)16
excretion, (5)3
in contraception, with progesterone, postpartum, (2)90
in contraceptives, metabolic effects of, (6)14
conversion, (4)14
deficiency of, and pregnancy outcome, (5)38
effect on breast growth and development during pregnancy, (5)31
effect on endometrium, (4)
endogenous
kinetics, (5)3
postmenopause, (5)3
premenopause, (5)3
regulation of expression, (5)3
endometrial carcinoma and, (4)13–5
endometrial effects of, in implantation, (5)38
in endometrium, (4)20
estriol and epiestriols, (5)3
exogenous, kinetics, (5)3
expression, regulation, (5)3
for female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
in fertility regulation, (6)20
growth hormone and, (1)109
high-dose, for emergency postcoital contraception, (6)26
for hirsutism, (5)28
hypertension and, (6)24
immunomodulatory effects
in pregnancy, (5)49
therapauetic applications, (5)49
injectable, (5)3
interaction with progestogens, (6)19
kinetics, (5)3
leiomyoma and, (1)14
levels and life stages, (4)14
after menopause, (4)14
perimenopause, (1)109
puberty, (4)14
reproductive age, (4)14
in luteolysis, (5)14
for menorrhagia, (5)23
in menstrual cycle, (5)54
metabolites, (5)3
microvascular extraction, (5)3
oral, (5)3
oral effects, (1)110
and osteoarthritis, (1)110
parenteral, kinetics, (5)3
percutaneous, (1)110
pharmacology, (6)19
phytoestrogens, for hot flashes (flushes), (1)110
pituitary lactotroph and, (6)24
pituitary response to GnRH and, (5)8
placental cortisol-cortisone metabolism and, (5)38
effects on fetal pituitary adrenocortical axis, (5)38
placental production of, (2)11; (5)38
enzymes for, (5)38
fetal adrenal c19 steroids and, (5)38
regulation of, (5)38
uteroplacental blood flow and, (5)38
plasma levels, in pregnancy, (5)38
plasma protein binding, (5)3
postpartum mood disorders and, (6)84
potencies, (4)14
in pregnancy, (2)6
fetal effects, (5)79
function, (5)38
serum levels, (5)38
for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
in prevention of breast engorgement, (2)90
production and clearance, (5)1
progesterone production in pregnancy and, (5)38
progestin combination. See also Oral contraceptives, combination pills.
for emergency postcoital contraception, (6)26
in endometriosis, (5)59
receptors of, (4)33. See also Steroid hormone receptors.
in cervical carcinoma, (4)6
in cytosol, (4)20
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)15
in implantation, (5)47
molecular mechanisms, (4)33
selective modulators, in osteoporosis, (1)111
rheumatic disease and, (1)110
secretion of, in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
subcutaneous pellets, (1)110; (5)3
synthesis and metabolism, (4)14
synthetic, in fertility regulation, (6)20
in therapy
for aging woman, (1)108
in Asherman’ syndrome, (5)21
asthma and, (1)106
breast cancer and, (1)26
complications, (1)106
contraindications, (1)106
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
endometrial cancer and, (1)106
gallbladder disease and, (1)110
in hypoestrogenic amenorrhea, (5)21
injectable estrogen, (5)3
kinetics, (5)3
in menopause. See also Menopause, estrogen replacement therapy.
oral, (5)3
in perimenopause, (1)109
subcutaneous pellets, (1)110; (5)3
systemic lupus erythematosus and, (1)106
topical, (1)110
for labial agglutination, (1)19
transdermal, (1)110; (5)3
in Turner’ syndrome, (5)85
vaginal, (1)110; (5)3
in vaginitis, atrophic, (1)40
in therapy, in urinary stress incontinence, (1)87
transdermal, (1)110; (5)3
uteroplacental circulation and, (2)11
vaginal administration, (1)110; (5)3
vaginal ring containing progestin and, (6)31
in vasodilation, in pregnancy, (3)8
Estrogen breakthrough bleeding, (5)20
Estrogen receptor modulators, for uterine fibroids, (1)103
Estrogen replacement therapy. See Estrogen(s), in therapy.
Estrogen stimulation test, (1)29
Estrogen withdrawal bleeding, (5)20
Estrone (E1). See also Estrogen(s).
biosynthesis, by fetoplacental unit, (5)38
placental, (2)11
plasma levels, in pregnancy, (5)38
structure of, (5)38
Estrone sulfate (E1S)
conjugation, E1S pool and, (5)3
oral administration, (5)3
Estroven, (1)114
Etabolic syndrome, intra-abdominal adiposity and, (6)111
Ethacridine lactate, in labor induction abortion, (6)127
Ethambutol (Myambutol)
in pregnancy, (2)6
safety of, in pregnancy, (3)60
for tuberculosis, genital, (1)49
in tuberculosis, in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)49
Ethanol. See Alcohol.
Ethereal copulation, (6)8
Ethics
in biochemical prenatal screening, for genetic disorders, (3)114
marital counseling and, (6)98
in multifetal pregnancy reduction, (3)83
in neonatal resuscitation, (3)68
selective reduction and, (6)80
Ethinyl estradiol, (5)3
in breast milk, oral contraceptive use and, (2)93
in oral contraceptives. See also Oral contraceptives.
for pregnancy prevention, in rape victim, (6)96
Ethisterone, prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
Ethosuximide
coagulopathy with, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
Ethylene oxide, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Etidronate, in osteoporosis, (1)111
Etonogestrel, in Implanon contraceptive system, (6)38. See also Contraception, implantable.
Etoposide
in gestational trophoblastic tumors, (4)48
in ovarian cancer, (4)36
ovarian effects of, (5)88
Etretinate (Tegison), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Eunuchoidism, ovarian, hormonal cytology in, (1)29
Euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia, (5)34
Evening primrose, in menopause, (1)114
Evra patch, efficacy of, (6)3
Examination
under anesthesia (EUA), in cervical cancer staging, (4)7
gynecologic. See Gynecologic examination; Pelvis, examination of; Physical examination.
Exercise
in aging woman, (1)108
amenorrhea and, (5)21
amenorrhea and, gonadotropin-releasing hormone inhibition in, (5)6
breathing, in pregnancy, (2)8
Kegel
for pelvic relaxation, (1)80
postpartum, and sexual function, (6)99
in pregnancy, (2)8
luteal phase deficiency and, (5)56
postpartum, (2)90
during pregnancy, (2)78
cardiorespiratory response to, (3)8
diabetes mellitus and, (3)14
effects on fetus, (2)8
response of placental and uterine vasculature, (3)62
premenstrual syndromes and, (1)23
in puberty, and growth, (5)9
Exhibitionism, (6)96
Exophthalmos, in Graves’ disease, (5)35
Extrasystole, isolated, fetal, (3)65
Extremities
examination, in newborn, (2)97
lower
concentric needle electromyography, (1)81
nerve conduction studies, (1)81
Eye
fetal development, (2)12
injury at birth, (2)97
retrobulbar neuritis, ethambutol and, (1)49
trauma, in newborn, (2)97
Eyelids, absence of, with macrostomia, and genital ambiguity, (5)83

 

Subject Index F

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Facial nerve palsy, in newborn, (2)97
secondary to obstetric trauma, (3)63
Factor I. See Fibrinogen (factor I).
Factor V Leiden
and preeclampsia, (2)108
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Factor VIII, in pregnancy, (3)60
Fallopian tubes
in abdominal hysterectomy, total, (1)57
aberrant development, (1)17
absence, (5)90
adenomatoid tumor, (1)17
adhesions, (5)61
age-related changes, (5)72
ampulla, (1)2
pregnancy in, surgical management, (1)68
anatomic considerations, (4)46
anatomy, (1)2, 101
distortion, chronic pain due to, (6)87
anomalies, (1)4
blood supply, (1)2
cannulation, selective, radiologic, (5)52
carcinoma, (4)46
chemotherapy, (4)46
classification, (4)46
clinical characteristics, (4)46
epidemiology, (4)46
epithelial, (4)46
etiology, (4)46
hormonal therapy, (4)46
management, (4)46
natural history, (4)46
pathology, (4)46
preoperative evaluation, (4)46
presentation, (4)46
prognostic factors, (4)46
radiation therapy, (4)46
staging, (4)46
surgical goals, (4)46
ultrasonography, (1)101
as contraceptive target, (6)12
contraction, as contraceptive target, (6)12
disease
bipolar, surgery for, (5)106
distal, operative laparoscopy, (5)62
disorders of, and infertility, in vitro fertilization in, (5)97
distal obstruction, surgical management, (1)67
ectopic pregnancy. See Ectopic pregnancy; Tubal pregnancy.
egg transport, (5)46
embryology, (4)46
epithelium, (1)2
fibroma, (1)17
fimbriae, (1)2
fimbriolysis, (5)106
fimbrioplasty, (5)106
fluid, as contraceptive target, (6)12
function, as contraceptive target, (6)12
gamete transfer into. See Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT).
germ cell tumors, (4)46
infertility surgery. See Infertility, surgical treatment.
inflammation of. See Salpingitis.
infundibulum, (1)2
innervation, (1)2
isthmus, (1)2
laser surgery, (1)34
ligation of, and reduced risk of ovarian cancer, (4)27
local anesthesia in, for laparoscopic sterilization, (6)42
metaplasia in, vs. endocervical adenocarcinoma, (1)29
microsurgical reconstruction, (1)67. See also Microsurgery, tubal reconstruction.
motility
hysteroscopic study, (1)118
prostaglandins and, (5)42
neoplasms, malignant. See Fallopian tubes, carcinoma.
neosalpingostomy, (5)106
occlusion
for contraception
medical approaches to, (6)12
surgical method, (6)12
cornual, hysteroscopic treatment, (1)121, 15
distal, laparoscopy for, (1)119
distal, surgical management, (1)67
hysteroscopic treatment of, (1)117, 118
infertility and. See also Tubal sterilization.
management, (5)57
salpingitis and, (5)57
mechanical devices for, (6)39
proximal, surgical management, (1)67
patency evaluation, (5)52
comparative studies, (5)52
hysterosalpingography, (1)67; (5)52
hysteroscopy vs., (5)52
laparoscopy vs., (5)52
postoperative, (1)67
ultrasonography vs., (5)52
hysteroscopy, (1)118–27; (5)52
hysterosalpingography vs., (5)52
laparoscopy, (5)52
hysterosalpingography vs., (5)52
laparotomy, (5)52
operative, (5)52
radiologic, (5)52
radiologic selective cannulation, (5)52
salpingoscopy, (5)52
ultrasound, (5)52
pregnancy in. See Ectopic pregnancy; Tubal pregnancy.
prolapse into vagina, (1)10
proximal obstruction, surgical management, (1)67
radiology. See Hysterosalpingography.
reanastomosis, (5)106
reanastomosis of, laparoscopic, (1)119
recannulation of, (5)106
sarcomas, (4)46
secretions, as contraceptive target, (6)12
sperm transport through, (5)45
sperm transport to, (5)45
sterilization. See Tubal sterilization.
stromal tumors, (4)46
surgery, for infertility, (5)106
surgical interruption, for contraception, (6)12
transfer techniques for assisted reproduction, (5)101. See also specific technique.
transplantation, pregnancy outcome after, (5)61
tuberculosis of, (1)49
radiography, (1)49
tumors, benign, (1)17
ultrasonic scan, (1)101
in patency evaluation, (5)52
hysterosalpingography vs., (5)52
ultrasound imaging, (5)55
ultrastructure, (1)2
Falope ring, for laparoscopic sterilization, (6)41
failure, (6)41
Famciclovir, for herpes simplex infection, in pregnancy, (3)35
Family, of dying patient, communication with, (6)95
Family planning. See also Fertility regulation.
breast feeding and, (3)36
education on, (6)11
fertility awareness methods, (6)16. See also Fertility awareness methods
information on, (6)11
natural. See also Contraception, rhythm method; Fertility awareness methods.
aged gametes and, congenital malformations and, (6)37
Fansidar. See Pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine.
Fascia
in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
transversalis, (1)56
Fasciitis, necrotizing, (1)11
postpartum, (3)39
episiotomy, (3)39
Fasting
impaired glucose tolerance, in pregnancy, (3)14
labor and, anesthesia and, (3)90
and pituitary response to GnRH, (5)8
Fat. See also Lipoproteins.
body distribution, (5)29
brown, (2)12
deficiency, in infant, (2)93
in human milk, (2)93
requirements, in pregnancy, (2)7
Fatherhood. See Parenthood.
Fatigue, gynecologic cancer treatment and, (4)68
Fat necrosis
aspiration cytology, (4)52
breast, (1)26
subcutaneous, in newborn, (2)97
Fat tissue. See Adipose tissue.
Fatty acids
essential
in breast-feeding mother, (2)93
vegetarian, (2)93
in infant, (2)93
free, placental transfer, (2)11
FDG, in positron emission tomography, (4)54B
Fecal incontinence. See Anal incontinence.
Fecundity
age-related, oocyte donation and, (5)100
in infertile women with endometriosis, (5)59
Fellatio, in sexual battery, physical examination after, (6)96
Female circumcision, (1)96
complications
immediate, (1)96
long-term, (1)96
defined, (1)96
historical background, (1)96
obstetric implications, (1)96
prevalence, (1)96
reasons for practice, (1)96
types of procedures, (1)96
Female condom, (6)917
effectiveness, (6)17
Female orgasmic disorder, (6)105
Female sexual arousal disorder, (6)105
FemCap, (6)17
Femcept, (6)12
Feminization, testicular. See Testicular feminization syndrome.
Femur
fetal, length measurement, (3)73
and birth weight prediction, (3)74
fracture
in newborn, (2)97
osteoporotic, (1)111. See also Osteoporosis.
Fenoterol, for inhibition of preterm labor, (3)60
Fentanyl
epidural, in labor, (3)90
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Ferguson reflex, (5)7
Ferning, in ovulation documentation, (5)54
Fern test, for fetal membane rupture, (2)46
Ferritin, (3)16
in pregnancy, (3)54
Fertility. See also Infertility.
after appendectomy, (5)61
after cervical conization, (5)61
after cesarean delivery, (5)61
after contraceptive implant removal, (6)38
after intrauterine device removal, (6)29
after surgery for ectopic pregnancy, (1)68–16
in gynecologic history, (1)6
male
age and, (5)72
prevention of. See Contraceptives, male.
preservation, by early diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, (5)57
radiation exposure and, (5)88
regulation, steroid hormones in, (3)20
return of, after oral contraceptive cessation, (6)24
Fertility awareness methods, (6)16
abstinence in, (6)16
advantages/disadvantages, (6)16
after stopping hormonal methods, (6)16
barriers combined with, (6)16
basal body temperature monitoring, (6)16
behavior modification and, (6)16
birth defects and, (6)16
calculations in, (6)16
cervical secretion monitoring, (6)16
combining, (6)16
effectiveness of, (6)16
contraindications, (6)16
cost-effectiveness, (6)16
cycle length variability and, (6)16
effectiveness, comparing, (6)16
fertile time identification methods, (6)16
fertility-monitoring devices, (6)16
history, (6)16
lactational amenorrhea method, (6)16
ovulation detection in, (6)16
in perimenopausal years, (6)16
physiology, (6)16
postnatal, (6)16
sex selection and, (6)16
standard days method, (6)16
training and resources, (6)16
two-day method, (6)16
when breast feeding, (6)16
withdrawal combined with, (6)16
Fertility-monitoring devices, (6)16
Fertility operations. See Infertility, surgical treatment.
Fertility regulation. See also Contraception; Contraceptives; Family planning.
lactation and, (3)16,36
Fertilization, (1)4; (2)12; (5)46. See also Therapeutic (artificial) insemination.
abnormal, endometriosis and, (5)59
delayed, animal studies, (6)37
diandrogenetic, (2)106
digynic, (2)106
dispermic, (2)106
by GIFT. See Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT).
in vitro, (5)4697. See also Assisted reproductive technologies (ART).
assisted hatching in, (5)97
cryopreservation after, (1)99; (5)97
embryo coculture systems in, (5)97
embryo transfer after, (5)97
in endometriosis, (5)59
evaluation for, (5)97
with genital tuberculosis, (1)49
GnRH in, pulsatile, (5)71
heavy sperm concentration, (5)65
higher-order gestations with, (2)83; (3)83. See also Multiple gestation.
in HIV-infected woman, (1)46
indications for, (5)97
for infertility, (5)61
male, (5)65
insemination in, (5)97
with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, (5)66
luteal phase support after, (5)97
micromanipulation, (5)65102
assisted hatching in, (5)102
cloning in, (5)102
cytoplasm transfer in, (5)102
gene therapy in, (5)102
genetic diagnosis in, (5)102
germinal vesicle transfer in, (5)102
intracytoplasmic sperm injection in, (5)65
sperm viability in, (5)63
partial zona pellucida dissection, (5)65
stem cell technology in, (5)102
subzonal sperm insertion, (5)65
zona pellucida opening in, (5)102
oligospermic male and, (5)65
oocyte donation for, (5)97. See Oocyte(s), donation.
oocyte maturity in, (5)97
oocyte retrieval in, (5)97
outcome of, (5)97
ovarian cysts and, (4)52
ovarian hyperstimulation for, (5)97
psychoeducational preparation, (6)74
repeat, (5)65
repeated failure of, preimplantation aneuploidy diagnosis after, (5)108
sperm collection for, seminal vesicle aspiration in, (5)63
sperm retrieval techniques, (5)65
in tubal disorders, (5)97
ultrasonography, (2)2
in unexplained infertility, (5)53
Fetal alcohol syndrome, (2)6; (3)60
Fetal cells, in maternal circulation, in screening for chromosomal abnormalities, (3)114
Fetal hydantoin syndrome, (3)60
Fetal inflammatory response syndrome, intra-amniotic infection and, (3)37
Fetal lie, (2)67. See also Labor presentation.
abnormal, (2)76
Fetal lymphocytes, in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis, (3)113
Fetal monitoring
acute abdomen and, (3)54
antepartum, (2)58; (3)78
contraction stress test, (3)78
nonstress test, (3)78–19
biochemical
estriols, (3)1
in high-risk pregnancy, (3)1
human placental lactogen, (3)1
biophysical profile. See also Biophysical profile (BPP).
color flow Doppler, in intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
electrode for, (3)67
electronic, (2)58; (3)67,78
continuous vs. intermittent, (3)67–11
contraction stress test. See Contraction stress test; Fetal monitoring, electronic, oxytocin challenge test.
data interpretation, (3)67
equipment for, (3)67
evaluation of, (3)67
heart rate assessment, (3)67
baseline value, (3)67
electrode for, (3)67
equipment for, (3)67
limitations and pitfalls, (3)78
physiological basis, (3)78
reliability, (3)78
ultrasound in, (3)67
variability, (3)67
in high-risk pregnancy, (3)1
internal, and puerperal infection, (3)37
intrapartum, (2)68; (3)67
evolution, (3)67
in multiple gestation labor and delivery, (2)82
nonstress test, (3)1–19. See also Nonstress test.
oxytocin challenge test, (2)58; (3)1
indications, (3)1
in postdatism, (2)54
puncture wounds to fetus and, (2)97
reliability, (3)78
resistance to, among patients and professionals, (3)67
risks, (3)67
uterine activity assessment, (3)67
intrapartum, (2)68; (3)67
in labor, in protracted descent, (2)73
maternal blunt trauma and, (3)54
scalp blood sampling, (3)67
scalp electrode for, (3)67
Fetal muscle biopsy, (3)112
Fetal origins hypothesis, (2)7
Fetal presentation. See Labor presentation.
Fetal programming, (2)10
Fetal reduction procedures, (3)83. See also Multiple gestation, reduction in number of fetuses.
Fetal skin sampling, (3)112
Fetal tone, in biophysical profile, (3)77
Fetofetal transfusion, (2)81
Fetomaternal hemorrhage, after intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
Rh immunization and, (3)66
α-Fetoprotein (AFP). See AFP (α-fetoprotein).
Fetus
abdominal circumference, (3)73
intrauterine growth retardation and, (3)74
ultrasonographic determination of, (3)64
weight estimation and, (3)74
abnormalities
antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
cytogenetics, (5)73
ultrasound detection, (3)72
acid-base status, (3)67
adrenal hyperplasia, congenital
21-hydroxylase deficiency, diagnosis, (5)37
prenatal treatment, (5)37
age. See also Pregnancy, dating.
ultrasonic assessment, (3)1,73
amino acids, (2)11
anatomic age, (2)14
anemia in, (2)107
antibiotic effects on, (3)35
antibodies against, and recurrent abortion, (3)69
arrhythmia in, (3)65. See also Arrhythmia, fetal.
asphyxia, postdatism and, (2)54
aspirin effects on, low-dose, (5)43
assessment
Leopold’ maneuvers in, (2)67
in maternal diabetes, (3)14
in postdatism, (2)54
ultrasound, (3)72
asynclitic, (2)67
attitude, 2, (2)67
biophysical profile, (3)77. See also Biophysical profile (BPP).
biparietal diameter (BPD), (3)74
abnormal labor and, (2)73
biologic variations in, (3)73
fetal weight vs., (3)74
intrauterine growth retardation and, (3)74
pregnancy dating by, (3)73
ultrasonic determination, (3)1
neural tube defects and, (3)116
blood circulation. See Fetus, circulation.
blood constituents, (2)11
blood sampling. See Cordocentesis.
blood transfusion. See Transfusion, intrauterine.
body composition, changes in, (2)12; (3)60
bradycardia in
intrauterine transfusion and, (3)81
paracervical block and, (3)90
brain
androgens and, (5)2
development, (2)12
breast development, (5)30
breathing movements, in biophysical profile, (3)77
bregma, (2)67
cardiomyopathy, ultrasound detection, (3)72
cells of, in maternal circulation, in antenatal diagnosis, (3)113
circulation in, (3)58, 6068
blood flow distribution, (3)58
blood pressures, (3)58
carbon dioxide and acid-base balance, (3)58
cardiac output regulation, (3)58
heart rate, (3)58
hypoxia, (3)58
oxygen transfer to fetus, (3)58
prostaglandins and, (5)43
regulation, (3)58
transfused red blood cells in, dynamics, (3)81
umbilical blood flow, (3)58
uterine blood flow, (3)58
contraction stress test, (3) 78. See also Contraction stress test.
crown-heel length (CHL), (3)74
crown-rump length (CRL)
pregnancy dating by, (3)73
ultrasonic determination, (3)1
cytomegalovirus infection, (1)41; (3)45
death (demise)
anesthesia and, (3)90
causes of, gestational age and, (2)107
before clinically recognized abortion, (3)69
death-delivery interval in, calculation of, (2)107
multiple gestations and, (2)107
higher-order, (2)83
of one twin, (2)81
placental pathophysiology in, (2)107
defenses against infectious diseases, (3)33
deformity. See Birth defects, congenital.
delivery of. See also Delivery and Labor.
in cesarean delivery, (2)74
description, in preabortion counseling, (6)122
DES exposure. See Diethylstilbestrol (DES), in utero exposure.
development. See Fetus, growth, and development.
developmental anomalies, maternal infections and, (2)14; (3)33
distress, sexual activity during late pregnancy and, (2)20
drug effects, (3)60. See also Teratogenicity; specific drug.
β-sympathomimetic agents, (3)87
calcium antagonists, (3)87
drugs given to stop premature labor, (3)60
magnesium sulfate, (3)87
maternal antihypertensive drug use, (3)60
maternal drug addiction. See Pregnancy, in drug addict.
prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, (3)87
drug therapy for, (3)60
ethical issues in, (3)60
drug toxicity in, (3)60
ductus arteriosus, (2)12
ductus venosus, (2)12
enzyme activity in, (2)12
erythroblastosis. See Erythroblastosis fetalis.
erythropoiesis in, (2)12
exercise effects on, (2)8
external characteristics, changes in, (2)12
femur length
and birth weight prediction, (3)74
ultrasonic determination, (3)73
fetoplacental function evaluation, (3)1
foramen ovale, (2)12
gastrointestinal anomalies, ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
gastrointestinal motility, (2)12
genital differentiation, (5)79. See also Sex differentiation.
gestational age estimate, (2)14
organ weights and, (2)14
size discrepancies with, abortion and, (6)123
ultrasound assessment, (3)73. See also Pregnancy, dating.
gonads, development of, (5)38
group B streptococcal infections, (3)4
growth
abnormalities, ultrasound evaluation, (3)64
altered, (3)74. See also Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); Macrosomia.
assessment, (3)1, 73
GASA percentiles, (3)73
and abdominal circumference, (3)1
head to abdomen circumference ratios, (3)74
maternal systemic lupus erythematosus and, (3)20
multiple parameters in, (3)73–14
total intrauterine volume, (3)1
in twin gestation, (2)81
ultrasound, (2)81
chorionic somatomammotropin and, (5)39
chromosomal abnormalities and, (2)14
and development, (2)1214
brain, (2)12
breast, (5)30
central nervous system, (2)12
energy for, (2)14
gastrointestinal tract, liver, and pancreas, (2)12
genomic imprinting in, (5)74
hemopoiesis, (2)12
kidney, (2)12
local disturbances, (2)14
lung, (2)12; (3)93
muscle function, (2)12
factors affecting, (2)14–11
maternal diabetes and, (2)14
maternal height, weight, nutrition and parity and, (2)14
parameters, (3)74
placental size and, (2)14
potential, prediction, (3)74
retardation in, from toxicant exposures, (2)10
teratogens and, (2)14
hCG actions on, (5)39
hCS levels in, (5)39
head
circumference, (3)73
microcephaly and, (3)72
ultrasonic measurements, (3)1
head to abdomen circumference ratios, (3)1
heart, structural anomalies, ultrasound detection, (3)72
heart rate
accelerations, (3)67
evoked, (3)67
spontaneous, (3)67
after intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
baseline value, (3)67
and cellular events, (3)78
decelerations, (3)67
maternal factors, (3)78
monitoring, (3)6778. See also Fetal monitoring, electronic.
baseline value, (3)67
comparison of techniques, (3)78
contraction stress test, (3)78. See also Contraction stress test.
in IUGR, (3)74
limitations and pitfalls, (3)78
nonstress test, (3)78–19. See also Nonstress test.
in IUGR, (3)74
physiological basis, (3)78
reliability, (3)78
preterm premature rupture of membranes and, (2)47
reactivity, in biophysical profile, (3)77
and systemic influences, (3)78
uterine activity and, (3)78
variability, (3)67
heart tones, assessment on admission to labor and delivery, (2)68
hemoglobin, (2)12
hemolytic disease. See Erythroblastosis fetalis.
hydatidiform mole coexisting with, management, (4)48
hydramnios. See Hydramnios.
hydrops, ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
hyperthyroidism, (3)23
hypoxia and, (3)58
infection, maternal surgery and, (3)54
in initiation of parturition, (5)38
intolerance of labor in, cesarean delivery for, (2)74
intrauterine growth retardation. See Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).
intrauterine infection, (2)14; (3)33
limb length measurements, (3)73
long bone measurement, ultrasonographic, (3)64
longitudinal or vertical lie, (2)67
lung development, (2)12
anomalous, ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
canalicular period, (2)12
embryonic period, (2)12
pseudoglandular period, (2)12
terminal sac (alveolar) period, (2)12
lung fluid, (2)12
lung maturation
assessment, (3)1
assessment of, in preterm premature rupture of membranes, (2)47–7
induction in higher-order multiple gestation, (2)83
induction of, in preterm premature rupture of membranes, (2)47
L/S ratio, (3)1
lung profile, (3)1
surfactant assessment in high-risk pregnancy, (3)1
lung profile, (3)1
lungs of, prolonged oligohydramnios and, (2)47
lymphocytes, in chromosomal analysis. See also Cytogenetics.
macrosomia. See Macrosomia.
magnetic resonance imaging effects on, (2)103
malformations, ultrasound detection, (3)64, 13
malpresentation of, cesarean delivery for, (2)74
maternal anemia and, (3)16
maternal drug use and, (2)14
maternal hepatitis C and, (3)44
maternal sickle cell disease and, (3)16
maturity. See also Fetal monitoring, biochemical.
assessment, (3)1
membranes. See Membranes.
mendelian disorders in, antenatal diagnosis. See also Genetic disorders, mendelian.
mentum, (2)67
monitoring. See Fetal monitoring.
movement
actocardiography and, (3)78
in biophysical profile, (3)77
cardinal movements of labor, (2)67
muscle, biopsy, (3)112
neurobehavioral effects of toxicant exposure on, (2)10
nonstress test, (3)78–19
clinical considerations, (3)78, 11
follow-up, (3)78
management, (3)78
compared with contraction stress test, (3)78
historical background, (3)78
technique, (3)78
oligohydramnios, and IUGR, (3)74
ovary, (5)77
busulfan and, (5)88
radiation effects on, 4, (5)88
steroid physiology, (5)38
oxygen transfer to, (3)27
oxytocin challenge test. See Contraction stress test; Oxytocin challenge test (OCT).
paralysis, for intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
peristalsis in, (2)12
pharmacology. See Perinatal pharmacology.
physiology of, (3)68
pituitary adrenocortical axis, estrogen-induced changes in placental cortisol-cortisone metabolism and, (5)38
placental abruption and, (2)50
position of, (2)67. See also Labor presentation.
determination, (2)68
presentation, lie, and position, (2)67. See also Labor presentation.
radiation exposure, (2)14101. See also Radiation exposure, in utero.
risks to, in maternal chronic hypertension, (3)5
scalp blood sampling, (3)67
sickle cell disease in, (3)16
skin, and drug excretion, (3)60
skin sampling, (3)112
status, evaluation, (3)78. See also Fetal monitoring, biochemical.
contraction stress test, (3)78
nonstress test, (3)78–19
steroid endocrinology of, (5)38. See also Steroid hormone(s), in pregnancy.
stimulation maneuvers, nonstress test, (3)78
surgery on, anesthesia for, (3)91
surgical risks to, (3)54
swallowing in, (2)12
and drug excretion, (3)60
testis, (5)77
steroid physiology, (5)38
thrombocytopenia, cordocentesis in, (3)80
thyroid function, cordocentesis in evaluation, (3)80
transfusion. See Transfusion, intrauterine.
transverse or oblique lie, (2)67
incidence, (2)76
trauma to, (2)1497
ultrasound effects on, bone heating, (3)71
urination by, (2)12
variable or unstable lie, (2)67
vasopressin levels in, (5)7
wastage, recurrent. See Abortion, recurrent.
weight estimation, (3)74–14
comparison of formulas, (3)74
before delivery, (2)73
femur length in, (3)74
oligohydramnios and, (3)74
routine use, (3)74
ultrasound, (3)74
well-being, assessment, (3)1
hCS in, (5)39
in multiple gestations, (2)81
higher-order, (2)83
in preterm premature rupture of membranes management, (2)47
ultrasound, (3)64
Fetus papyraceous, (2)107
Fever
after pelvic exenteration, (4)10
labor analgesia and, (3)90
in mastitis, (3)37
postoperative, (1)53
postpartum
with endometritis, (3)35
in endomyometritis, (3)37
genital mycoplasmas and, (3)48
low-grade, (3)37
in septic pelvic thrombophlebitis, (3)37
in urinary tract infection, (3)37
Fiber, dietary, lactation and, (2)93
Fibrin, perivillous deposition of, (2)108
inflammation and, (2)108
Fibrinogen (factor I)
iodinated, contraindications to, in pregnancy, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)54
Fibrinoid, perivillous, (2)108
inflammation and, (2)108
Fibrinolytic system, (3)17
Fibroadenoma, breast, (1)26
histology and cytology, (1)26
Fibroblast growth factor 9, (5)78
Fibroblast growth factor, in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Fibrocystic disease, of breast, (1)26; (5)30
aspiration cytology, (4)52
histology and cytology, (1)26
Fibroepithelial polyps
vaginal, (1)10
vulvar, (1)9
Fibroids. See also Myoma(s).
and dysmenorrhea, (6)87
and endometrial ablation, (1)38
leiomyoma. See Leiomyoma.
and placenta previa, (2)49
postmenopausal hormone therapy and, (1)110
uterine. See also Leiomyoma.
biology of, (1)103
circumferential technique for, (1)103
cromyolysis for, (1)103
high-intensity ultrasound for, (1)103
hormonal treatment of, (1)103
laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of uterine vessels for, (1)103
myolysis for, (1)103
NDTAG laser for, (1)103
pregnancy and, (1)103
uterine artery embolization for, (1)103
biologic mechanism of, (1)103
complications of, (1)103
embolic material for, (1)103
procedure for, 4, 5
technique issues of, (1)103
Fibroma
ovarian, (1)17; (4)31
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
genetics, (4)66
nonfunctioning, (4)31
vulvar, (1)9, 11
Fibromyoma, vaginal, (1)10
Fibrosarcoma, ovarian, (4)31
Fick’ law, (3)59
FIGO staging
of cervical carcinoma, (4)6
of endometrial carcinoma, (4)15, 54
of ovarian carcinoma, (4)36
of vulvar carcinoma, (4)41
Filariasis, (3)51
Filshie clip, in laparoscopic sterilization, (6)41
Fimbrial biopsy, pregnancy prediction with, after distal tubal obstruction, (5)61
Fimbriectomy, Kroener, (6)39
Fimbriolysis, (5)106
Fimbrioplasty, (5)106
Final Pediatric Rule, (3)60
Finasteride
in hirsutism, (5)28
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
teratogenicity of, and male pseudohermaphroditism, (5)83
Fine-needle aspiration, (4)52. See also Aspiration cytology.
FISH. See Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
Fish oil supplementation, in preeclampsia-eclampsia prevention, (3)7
Fissure, anal, (1)97
Fistulas
anorectal, (1)97
arteriovenous
hypogastric, (1)73
pregnancy model, (2)13
gastrointestinal, after pelvic exenteration, (4)10
genital tuberculosis and, (1)49
rectovaginal, (1)91, 97
anatomy, (1)91
assessment, (1)91
classification, (1)91
etiology, (1)91
incidence, (1)91
in pediatric patient, (1)19
postoperative care, (1)91
presentation, (1)91
surgery, (1)91
tracheoesophageal, (2)12
ureteral, (1)78
urinary incontinence due to, (1)79
urethrovaginal, (1)90
anatomy, (1)90
diagnosis, (1)90
etiology, (1)90
postoperative care, (1)90
preoperative care, (1)90
surgery, (1)90
urogenital, after hysterectomy, radical, (4)9
vesicovaginal, (1)90
anatomy, (1)90
diagnosis, (1)90
etiology, (1)90
in pediatric patient, (1)19
postoperative care, (1)90
preoperative care, (1)90
radiation toxicity and, in cervical carcinoma treatment, (4)11
surgery, (1)90
urinary incontinence due to, (1)79
Flagellates, in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
Flagyl. See Metronidazole.
Flank muscles, (1)56
Flaps
bladder, in abdominal hysterectomy, (1)57
in fistula repair
rectovaginal, (1)91
vesicovaginal, (1)90
gluteal, (4)53
gracilis, (4)53
labial pedicle, (4)53
myocutaneous, in vaginal reconstruction, (4)53
perineal, (4)53
rhomboid, (4)53
tensor fasciae latae, (4)53
thigh, (4)53
Warren, anal incontinence and, (1)98
Flat condyloma, (4)2
Flecainide, transplacental therapy with, (3)60
Fletcher-Suit-Delclos applicator, in brachytherapy, for cervical carcinoma, (4)11
Florinef. See Fludrocortisone (Florinef).
Flow cytometry
in cervical carcinoma, (4)6
in cytophotometric DNA quantitation, (4)59
Fluconazole
for candidiasis
in pregnant AIDS patient, (1)40
recurrent, (1)37
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Fludrocortisone (Florinef)
for Addison’ disease, (5)37
for congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)37
Fluid balance, in hyperalimentation, (4)63
Fluid contamination, intravenous, postpartum, (3)39
Fluid-electrolyte balance. See Electrolytes.
Fluid intake
deficiency of, in infant, (2)93
in labor, (2)68
requirements during lactation, (2)93
Fluid management, in obstetric patient
complicated, (3)55
in hemorrhage, (3)55
in pregnancy-induced hypertension, (3)55
pulmonary artery catheter and, (3)55
in septic shock, (3)55
Fluid replacement, in obstetric patient. See also Fluid management, in obstetric patient.
in burns, (3)54
Fluid therapy. See also Fluid replacement.
postoperative, (1)53
for shock, in septic abortion, (6)118
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), (5)73
chromosomal studies, of preimplantation embryos, (5)48
in preimplantation diagnosis, of aneuploidy, (5)108
Fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) test, (2)41; (3)42
Fluorides, supplementation
for breast-fed infant, (2)93
in pregnancy, (2)15
2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG), in positron emission tomography, (4)54B
Fluoroquinolones
in acute pyelonephritis, (2)43
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
in urinary tract infections, (2)43
Fluoroscopy, of defecation, in rectocele, (1)83
5-Fluorouracil
for cervical carcinoma, with radiation therapy, (4)11
for endometrial carcinoma, (4)21
combination chemotherapy, (4)21
for gestational trophoblastic tumors, (4)48
for HPV infection, (4)2
for vulvar carcinoma, (1)43
for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)40
for vulvar Paget’ disease, (4)40
Fluoxetine (Prozac)
in lactation, (6)79
for postpartum depression, (3)3
in pregnancy, (6)79
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Fluphenazine, in pregnancy, (6)79
Flutamide
in hirsutism, (5)28
and pseudohermaphroditism, male, (5)83
Flutenamic acid, in dysmenorrhea, (1)18
Fluvoxamine, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Foams, spermicidal. See Spermicides.
Focal and segmental hyalinosis and sclerosis, in pregnancy, (3)6
Folate
deficiency, with anticonvulsant therapy, (3)60
intake, in pregnancy, (2)7
placental transfer, (3)59
requirements
preconception, (3)116
in pregnancy, (2)7; (3)116
Foley catheter
after surgery, for vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
in postpartum hemorrhage management, (2)80
Folic acid
deficiency, (3)16
in breast-feeding mother, (2)93
clinical features, (2)93; (3)16
differential diagnosis, (3)16
folate deficiency during pregnancy, (3)16
folic acid absorption, (3)16
folic acid metabolism, (3)16
therapy, (3)16
dietary
with phenytoin therapy, (2)22
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
in prevention of neural tube defects, (3)114
in infant formula, (2)93
in milk, (2)93
in pregnancy, toxoplasmosis and, (2)41
requirements, (2)93; (3)16
in lactation, (2)93
in pregnancy, (2)13
Folic acid antagonists, teratogenicity of, (2)6
Follicle, ovarian
atresia, (5)12
classification, (5)12
as contraceptive target, (6)12
cyst, (1)17
aspiration cytology, (4)52
development
fetal, (5)38
ultrasound evaluation, (5)55, 5
growth and development, (1)2–19; (5)12, 13, 54
abnormal, (5)55–5
autocrine/paracrine control of, (5)12
growth factors in, (5)11, 12
normal, (5)55
recruitment in, (5)12
regulation, (5)13
selection in, (5)12
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
maturation, ultrasonic monitoring, (1)101
primitive, (5)78
primordial, (5)38
rupture, (5)13
as contraceptive target, (6)12
structure, (5)12
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
anorexia nervosa and, (5)26
assay of, in infertility, male, (5)63
in corpus luteum abnormalities, (5)6
in corpus luteum formation, (5)14
effect of GnRH administration on. See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary response to.
in folliculogenesis, (5)12
in granulosogenesis, (5)12
in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
levels during menopause, (1)109
hot flushes and, (1)109
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
in menstrual cycle, (5)6
in dominant follicle growth, (5)6
in follicle cohort recruitment, (5)6
in late follicular phase, (5)6
in luteal phase, (5)6
ovarian effects of, (5)6
secretion of, (5)6
in ovarian stimulation, for in vitro fertilization, (5)97
in ovulation induction, (5)70
pituitary tumors secreting, (5)25
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
in pregnancy, (2)2
in premature thelarche, (5)30
in puberty, (5)9
at onset, (5)9
precocious, (5)16
with hypothyroidism, (5)16
receptor, signal transduction, (5)12
receptor of, mutation of, in 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86
recombinant, in ovulation induction
with clomiphene citrate, (5)68
hMG vs., (5)70
urinary FSH vs., (5)70
secretion of, as target for fertility regulation, (6)12
vasectomy and, (6)49
Follicular cyst(s), (5)55
cytology, (1)29
Folliculitis, pruritic, in pregnancy, (2)32
Folliculogenesis, (5)12, 13
chronology, (5)12
FSH interaction in, (5)12
growth factors in, (5)11
LH interaction in, (5)12–11
ovulation and, (5)12
process, (5)12
Folliculostatin. See Inhibins.
Follistatin, (6)12
in menstrual cycle, (5)54
placental, (5)39
Food allergies, breast feeding and, (2)93
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
drug labeling system for pregnant patients, (3)60
Final Pediatric Rule, (3)60
pregnancy classification of drugs, (3)60
Food intolerance, (4)63
Footdrop, postpartum, (3)19
Foramen of Bochdalek, (3)72
Foramen of Morgagni, (3)72
Forbes-Albright syndrome, hormonal cytology, (1)29
Forceps
anatomy, (2)72
applications, (2)72
Barton, (2)72
bipolar, (6)41
clinical use. See Forceps delivery.
in dilatation and curettage, (1)54
Elliot, (2)72
Kielland, (2)72–10
laparoscopic, (1)119
LigaSure cutting, (1)119
outlet, (2)72
Piper, (2)72, 15
PlasmaKinetic, (1)119
Simpson, (2)72
Tucker-McLane, (2)72, 9
unipolar, (6)43
Forceps delivery, (2)72
abnormal fetal lie and, (2)76
childbirth education and, (2)18
classification, (2)72
historical background, (2)72
indications, (2)72
occipitoposterior positions, (2)72
Pajot-Saxtorph maneuver, (2)72
prerequisites, (2)72
Ritgen maneuver, (2)72
Scanzoni maneuver, (2)72
techniques, (2)72
Foreign bodies
intrauterine, hysteroscopy of, (1)117
vaginal, pediatric, (1)19
Formaldehyde, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Formulas
nutrient content, (2)93
phenylalanine in, (2)93
Fortovase. See Saquinavir.
Fosamax. See Alendronate.
FOXL2 gene, in blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus syndrome, premature ovarian failure with, (5)86
Fractional cell kill, (4)35
Fractures. See also specific fracture;specific location.
in newborn, (2)97–13
osteoporosis and, postmenopausal, (1)111. See also Osteoporosis, postmenopausal.
Fragile sites, (5)73
Fragile X syndrome, (5)73, 21
antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
inheritance, (5)74
ovarian failure in, with expansion of triplet nucleotide repeats, (5)86
prenatal diagnosis, (3)115
Frankenhauser’ ganglion, (2)5
Frankenhauser’ plexus, (1)61
Frank-Starling law of the heart, (3)79
Fraser syndrome, (1)90; (5)83
Frasier syndrome
46,XX gonadal dysgenesis in, (5)86
46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in, (5)87
Free thyroxine index (FT4I), (5)34
in hypothyroidism, (5)35
Free triiodothyronine index (FT3I), (5)34
Frequency, definition, (1)88
Friedman labor graph, (2)68
Friedreich’ ataxia, (5)74
Frische-Revelle hypothesis, (5)16
FSH. See Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
FTA-ABS test, (1)45; (2)41; (3)42
FTZ1 gene, in steroidogenic factor-1 deficiency, (5)82
with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, (5)87
5-FU. See 5-Fluorouracil.
Functional cysts, (1)17
Functional electrical stimulation, for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85
Fundal perforation, during dilatation and curettage, (1)54
Fundal pressure, in shoulder dystocia, (2)79
Fungal infections. See also specific infection.
in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
drugs for, in pregnancy, (3)34
in pregnancy, (2)41
Funisitis, (2)107
necrotizing, (2)107
sclerosing (necrotizing), (2)108
Furazolidone, (3)51
Fusobacterium
placental infection, (2)108
and puerperal infections, (3)37

 

Subject Index G

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Gabapentin
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Galactocele, (1)26
Galactopoiesis, (5)31
Galactorrhea, (5)32
amenorrhea and, (5)21
hormonal cytology in, (1)29
causes, (5)32
historical aspects, (5)32
hyperprolactinemia and
long-term follow-up, (5)32
treatment, (5)32
menstrual dysfunction and, (5)32
patient evaluation, (5)32
pituitary tumors and, (5)25
presentation, (5)32
prolactin secretion and, physiology of, (5)32
Galactose, and ovarian cancer, (4)27
Galactosemia, (5)31
in infant, breast feeding and, (2)93
46,XX gonadal dysgenesis with, (5)86
Galanin, (5)10
Gallbladder
carcinoma, obesity and, (6)111
disease
estrogen use and, (1)106
in pregnancy, (3)54
in pregnancy, (3)30
Gallstones, obesity and, (6)111
Gamete(s)
aged, natural family planning and, congenital malformations and, (6)37
antisperm antibody effects on, (5)58
cryopreservation, (5)99
donation
genetic screening of donors, (3)111
in infertility, (6)74
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), (5)65101. See also Assisted reproductive technologies (ART).
endometriosis and, (5)59
with genital tuberculosis, (1)49
higher-order gestations associated with, (2)83
oocyte donation and. See Oocyte(s), donation.
Gametogenesis, (1)4
cleavage, (1)4
oogenesis, (1)4
ovum transport, (1)4
spermatogenesis, (1)4
Ganciclovir, transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Gantrisin. See Sulfisoxazole.
Garamycin (gentamicin), in pregnancy, (2)6
Gardnerella vaginalis, (1)37. See also Bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerella vaginalis vaginitis).
and puerperal infections, (3)37
Gardner-Silengo-Wachtel syndrome, (5)83
Gartner’ duct, (1)4
cyst, (1)2
Gas embolus, in laparoscopy, (1)119
Gases
electrosurgery and, (1)34
placental transfer, (3)59
Gas exchange, respiratory, (3)26
Gastrectomy, osteoporosis associated with, (1)111
Gastric acid, in pregnancy
aspiration, (3)27
decreased, pharmacokinetic effect of, (3)35
Gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y, for obesity, (6)111
Gastric feeding, (4)63
Gastric tonometry, in critically ill patient, (3)79
Gastroesophageal reflux, in pregnancy, (3)30
Gastrointestinal tract
adhesions, operative management, (1)74
congenital anomalies, ultrasound detection, (3)64, 13
diseases, osteoporosis associated with, (1)111
dysmotility of, hyperemesis gravidarum and, (2)9
Entamoeba histolytica infection, (1)41; (3)51
fetal, structural anomalies, ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
fistula of, after pelvic exenteration, (4)10
hemorrhage in, in pregnancy, (3)30
injury, during cesarean delivery, (2)74
in iron absorption, (3)16
maternal disorders, breast feeding and, (2)93
nematodes, (3)51
obstruction of
after pelvic exenteration, (4)10
prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
postoperative dysmotility, (1)53
in pregnancy, (2)13; (3)54
anesthetic implications, (3)90
changes in, anesthesia and, (3)91
complications, (3)30
endoscopy in, (3)30
medications for, (3)30
radiology in, (3)30
obstruction, (3)54
physiology, (3)30
preoperative considerations, (1)52
problems in gynecologic surgery, (1)74
differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, (1)74
management of postoperative complications, (1)74
colonic obstruction, (1)74
paralytic ileus and obstruction, (1)74
operative management, (1)74
exploration of abdomen, (1)74
intestinal complications, (1)74
injuries to colon, (1)74
injuries to small intestine, (1)74
preoperative evaluation, (1)74
specific operations, (1)74
appendectomy, (1)74
repair of wound dehiscence, (1)74
transverse colostomy, (1)74
in puerperium, pseudomembranous colitis, (3)39
Gastroplasty, vertical banded, for obesity, (6)111
Gastroschisis
AFP levels and, (3)116
in fetus, ultrasound detection, (3)64
ultrasound detection, (3)72
Gastrula, (2)14
Gate theory of pain, (6)87
Gehrung pessary, (1)39
Gellhorn pessary, (1)39
Gels, spermicidal. See Spermicides.
Gemcitabine (Gemzar), for ovarian cancer, (4)36
Gemeprost
in labor induction abortion, (6)127
with mifepristone, in abortion induction, (6)126
Gender
HIV and AIDS and, (1)46
overactive bladder and, (1)88
Gender identity
definition of, (5)81
development of, hormonal theory of, (5)81
male, testosterone in, (5)81
in male pseudohermaphrodites with 5α-reductase deficiency, (5)81
Gender reversal, in 46,XY females, (5)87
with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-desmolase deficiency, (5)87
autosomal deletions with, (5)87
autosomal duplication with, (5)87
camptomelic dysplasia with, (5)87
in Denys-Drash syndrome, (5)87
in Frasier syndrome, (5)87
with Leydig cell agenesis, (5)87
multiple malformations with, (5)87
partial, (5)87
SRY gene perturbations in, (5)87
steroidogenic factor-1 deficiency in, (5)87
in Swyer syndrome, (5)87
α-thalassemia with, (5)87
X-linked recessive, (5)87
X short-arm duplication in, (5)87
45,X/46XY mosaicism vs., (5)87
Gender role
definition of, (5)81
in male pseudohermaphrodites with 5α-reductase deficiency, (5)81
Generalized anxiety disorder, (6)73
Genes. See also Chromosomes.
amplification, (4)65
autosomal, affecting sex differentiation, (5)77
expression, tissue specificity, (5)4
GnRH, (5)8
HMGA, in uterine leiomyomas, (5)96
regulatory, (2)14
steroid hormone-regulated, structure, (5)4
structural, (2)14
Gene therapy
definition, (4)64
for gynecologic cancer, (4)64
adenoviral vectors, (4)64
cervical, (4)64
clinical trials, (4)64
experimental viral vectors, (4)64
immunopotentiation in, (4)64
molecular chemotherapy and, (4)64
mutation compensation and, (4)64
nonviral gene delivery, (4)64
ovarian, (4)64
replicative adenoviral vectors, (4)64
retroviral vectors, (4)64
treatment strategies, (4)64
uterine, (4)64
vector strategies, (4)64
virotherapy using replicative systems in, (4)64
intraperitoneal, (4)60
Gene therapy, preimplantation, in in vitro fertilization, (5)102
Genetic counseling, (3)111
in 47, XXX females, (5)89
in 47, XYY males, (5)89
after birth of abnormal child, (3)110
confidentiality, (3)110
of consanguineous couple, (3)111
of couple with mentally retarded child, (3)111
on cystic fibrosis, (2)22
diagnosis confirmation in, (3)110
genetic history and, (3)110
routine, (3)110
in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
late-onset disease and, (3)111
nondirective approach, (3)110
preconception, (2)22; (3)111
pregnancy termination and, (3)111; (6)80
prenatal diagnosis and, (3)111
principles, (3)110
providers, (3)110
risk estimation and interpretation in, (3)110
screening and, (3)110
of gamete donors, (3)111
spontaneous abortion and, recurrence risks, (3)69
Genetic determination (H), (5)75
Genetic disorders
environmental factors, (3)111
late-onset, (3)111
Mendelian, (3)115
autosomal dominant, (3)111
autosomal recessive, (3)111
diagnosis, (3)115
preimplantation, (5)109
prenatal
future, (3)115
laboratory methods for, (3)115
incidence, (3)111
mechanisms, (3)111
mitochondrial, (3)111
X-linked, (3)111
antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
preimplantation diagnosis, (5)109
Y-linked, (3)111
oocyte donation and, (5)100
polygenic/multifactorial
incidence of, (3)111
mechanism of, (3)111
preimplantation diagnosis, (1)102,107; (3)113
advanced maternal age and, (5)107
application of, expanding, (5)109
conditions tested by, (5)109
for couples with homozygous affected partners, (5)109
custom-made design, in avoiding misdiagnosis, (5)109
infertility and, (5)107
Mendelian disorders and, (5)109
misdiagnosis avoidance, (5)109
preimplantation HLA matching with, (5)109
problems and solutions, (5)107
recurrent pregnancy loss and, (5)107
structural chromosome rearrangements and, (5)107
with in vitro fertilization, (5)97
chromosomal analysis in, (5)102
in aneuploidy, (5)108. See also Aneuploidy.
in translocation, (5)108
DNA analysis in, mutations in, (5)102
prenatal diagnosis, (3)111114. See also specific technique.
amniocentesis, (3)112
chorionic villus sampling, (3)112
chromosomal abnormalities, (3)114
embryoscopy, (3)112
fetal muscle biopsy, (3)112
fetal skin sampling, (3)112
first-trimester, (3)114
hCG assay in, (5)39
higher-order multiple gestation and, (2)83
invasive techniques, (3)112
neural tube defects, (3)114
nuchal translucency, (3)114
percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, (3)112
principles of, (3)114
societal issues in, (3)114
trisomy 18, (3)114
Genetic engineering, stem cells in, (5)102
Genetic factors
in hyperemesis gravidarum, (2)9
premenstrual syndromes and, (1)23
Genetics. See also Chromosomes.
of androgen insensitivity syndrome
complete, (5)80
partial, (5)80
of 5α-reductase deficiency, (5)80
of azoospermia and oligozoospermia, (5)91
of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
cytogenetics. See Cytogenetics.
of endometriosis, (5)95
expressivity, (5)74
genomic imprinting, (5)74
in growth and differentiation, (2)14
of gynecologic cancer, (4)65. See also Gynecologic cancer, genetics.
heterogeneity, (5)74
of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)37
of male pseudohermaphroditism, (5)79, 13
mendelian inheritance, (5)74. See also Inheritance, mendelian.
mitochondrial inheritance, (5)74
molecular, (5)76. See also Molecular genetics.
multifactorial inheritance. See Inheritance, polygenic/multifactorial.
mutations, (4)65; (5)74
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
myasthenia gravis and, (3)63
of ovarian cancer, (1)66; (4)27
penetrance, (5)74
pleiotropism, (5)74
polycystic ovary disease, (5)94
polygenic/multifactorial inheritance in, (5)75
spontaneous abortion, first trimester, (3)69
translocation. See Translocation.
of uterine leiomyomas, (5)96
Genital ducts, development, (5)77
adrenal steroids in, (5)79
mesonephric ducts and mesonephros, (5)77
paramesonephric ducts, (5)77
female transformation, (5)77
male regression, (5)77
urogenital sinus, (5)77
Genital hiatus, (1)80–5
Genitalia. See also specific organ.
abnormalities, development, (1)4. See also under specific organ.
ambiguous, (1)19
drugs causing, (1)19
laboratory work-up for, (1)19
management of, (1)19
management of patients with, (5)79
in pseudohermaphroditism. See also Pseudohermaphroditism.
male, (5)79
in 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, (5)84
anatomy
in newborn, (1)19
in peripubertal girls, (1)19
in prepubertal girls, (1)19
development
adrenal steroids in, (5)79
timetable, (1)4
differentiation, (5)79. See also Sexual differentiation.
examination
in child, (2)19
in newborn, (2)97
external
abnormalities, (1)4
anatomy, (2)5
in newborn, (1)19
in peripubertal girls, (1)19
in prepubertal girls, (1)19
development, (1)80
feminization, (5)77
indifferent stage, (5)77
in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
masculinization, (5)77
malformation, due to female circumcision, (1)96
female, differentiation, adrenal steroids in, (5)79
male, differentiation, (5)79
malformations, congenital, causes, (1)4
tuberculosis of. See Tuberculosis, genital.
in 46,XX/46,XY true hermaphroditism, (5)84
in 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, (5)84
Genital mutilation, female. See Female circumcision.
Genital-palato-cardiac syndrome, (5)83
Genital ridge
mesenchymal cells, (5)77
mesoblastic cells, (5)77
Genital tract
androgen metabolism in, (5)2
anomalies, correction, psychologic aspects, (6)89
cancer, HPV infection and, (4)2
examination, in rape victim, (6)96
infection. See Genital tract infections.
infections. See also specific infection.
lower, and puerperal infection, (3)37
lower genital tract, after female circumcision, (1)96
puerperal, (3)37
anemia and, (3)37
cesarean delivery and, (3)37
endometritis
bacterial vaginosis and, (1)40
chlamydial, (3)48
genital mycoplasmas and, (3)48
internal fetal monitoring and, (3)37
labor duration and, (3)37
microbiology, (3)37
obesity and, (3)37
risk factors, (3)37
rupture of membranes and, (3)37
salpingitis, chlamydial, (3)48
socioeconomic status and, (3)37
surgical therapy for, (3)37
treatment, antibiotic(s), (3)37
vaginal examinations and, (3)37
upper genital tract, pelvic inflammatory disease. See Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
lesions, HPV infections and, (4)2
ligaments, (2)5
lower
endogenous flora, (5)57
infection, (5)57
neoplasia of, HIV and, (1)46
malignancies, reconstructive surgery after treatment for, (4)53
nerves, (2)5
obstructive disorders of, in pediatric patient, (1)19
surgery, mutilative, psychologic aspects, (6)89
upper, infection, (5)57
Genital wart. See Condyloma acuminatum.
Genitourinary system. See Urogenital system; specific disorder;specific organ.
Genomic imprinting, (5)74
Genotype, geratogenicity and, (2)6
Gen-Probe test, for tuberculosis, (1)49
Gentamicin (garamycin)
in acute salpingitis, (1)44
for endometritis, postpartum, (3)35
for intra-amniotic infection, (3)35
for obstetric infection, microbial susceptibility to, (3)35
for pelvic infections, (1)48
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44; (5)57
for pelvic sepsis, in abortion, (6)118
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)34
for pyelonephritis, in pregnancy, (3)35
Gentian violet, for candidiasis, (1)37
Genuine stress incontinence (GSI). See also Urinary stress incontinence.
definition of, (1)94
paravaginal repair for, laparoscopic, (1)123
retropubic urethropexy for, laparoscopic, (1)123
suburethral sling procedure for, (1)94
surgical approach to, (1)123
Geodon, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Geriatrics. See Aging woman.
German measles. See Rubella.
Germ cell(s), (5)38
development, (1)17; (5)77
differentiation of, (5)78
failure of
in male and female siblings, (5)86
and pseudohermaphroditism, (5)83
Germ cell tumors, (4)31. See also Ovaries, tumors of.
chemotherapy, (1)36
cytogenetics, (5)73
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
gonadoblastoma with, (4)31
mixed, (4)31
ovarian, in children, (4)34
mixed, (4)34
precocious puberty and, in male, (5)16
sex cord tumors and, mixed, (4)31
ultrasonography, (1)101
vulvar, (4)40
Germinal vesicle, transfer of, in in vitro fertilization, (5)102
Gestation
age assessment. See also Pregnancy, dating.
by ultrasound, (3)73
molar. See Hydatidiform mole.
multiple. See Multiple gestation; Twin gestation.
postterm. See Pregnancy, postdatism.
twin. See Twin gestation.
Gestational age
assessment
in preterm premature rupture of membranes management, (2)47
size discrepancies with, abortion and, (6)123
ultrasonographic, (3)64
crown-rump length and, (2)106
at fetal death, calculation of, (2)106
percentage nucleated red blood cells and, (2)106
Gestational diabetes. See Diabetes mellitus, gestational.
Gestational hypertension, (3)7
Gestational sac, mean diameter, and gestational age, 3, (3)73
Gestational trophoblastic diseases, (4)48. See also Choriocarcinoma; Gestational trophoblastic tumors; Hydatidiform mole; Trophoblastic disease.
clinical pathology, (4)48
diagnosis, (4)48–23
epidemiology, (4)48
genetics, (4)66
hCG in, (4)48; (5)39
history, (4)48
management, (4)48
oral contraceptives and, (6)25
and placenta, (4)48
Gestational trophoblastic tumors. See also Gestational trophoblastic diseases.
ABO blood type and, (4)48
antecedent pregnancy and, type of, (4)48
central nervous system metastases, treatment, (4)48
classification, (4)48
diagnosis, (4)48
postmolar, (4)48
disease duration, (4)48
hCG levels, (4)48
hepatic metastases, treatment, (4)48
management, (4)48
metastatic
drug-resistant, (4)48
high-risk/poor prognosis, treatment, (4)48
low-risk/good prognosis, treatment, (4)48
treatment, (4)48
nonmetastatic, (4)48
treatment, (4)48
number of metastases, (4)48
placental site, (4)48
postmolar
diagnosis, (4)48
risk factors, (4)48
prior chemotherapy and, (4)48
prognostic scoring, (4)48
recurrent, (4)48
site of metastases, (4)48
size of metastases, (4)48
staging, (4)48
treatment, (4)48
for metastatic tumors
high-risk/poor-prognosis, (4)48
low-risk/good-prognosis, (4)48
monitoring, (4)48
for nonmetastatic tumors, (4)48
placental site tumors, (4)48
pregnancy after, (4)48
recurrent disease after, (4)48
Gestrinone, for endometriosis, (1)20
Giant cell carcinoma, vulvar, (4)40
Giant roundworm of humans, (3)51
Giardia lamblia, (3)51
Giardiasis, (3)51
GIFT. See Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT).
Gilbert-Drefus syndrome, (5)80
Gingivitis, in pregnancy, (2)15
Ginseng, in menopause, (1)114
Gliomas, in pregnancy, (3)57
Glomerulonephritis
poststreptococcal, in pregnancy, (3)6
in pregnancy, (3)6
Glucocorticoid(s). See also Corticosteroid(s); Steroid hormone(s).
in Addison’ disease, (5)37
antepartum administration of, and prevention of hyaline membrane disease, (3)60
and clomiphene, in ovulation induction, (5)68
for congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)37
prenatal administration of, (5)79
in hirsutism, (5)28
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
osteoporosis due to, (1)111
prophylactic, (5)37
receptors. See Steroid hormone receptors.
secretion, adrenal, (5)79
Glucose
in fetus, (2)11
metabolism, during pregnancy, (2)13
Glucose intolerance. See Diabetes mellitus.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, (3)16
malaria and, (3)51
Glucose tolerance
impaired, (3)14
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
Glucose tolerance tests, in pregnancy, (3)13
oral, (3)13
Glucosuria, in pregnancy, (3)6
Glucuronosyltransferase, activity
fetal, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
Gluteal flaps, (4)53
Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes mellitus in pregnancy and, (3)14
Glycodelin, (5)38
in endometrium, before implantation, (5)47
Glycolysis, (2)14
β2-Glycoprotein, type 1, antibodies to, and pregnancy outcome, (5)49
Glycoprotein deficiency, carbohydrate-deficent, 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis with, (5)86
Glycoprotein hormone receptor subfamily, (5)5
β1-Glycoproteins, pregnancy-specific, (5)39
GnRH. See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
GnSAF (gonadotropin surge attenuating factor), (5)8
Goblet cell carcinoid, (4)31
Goiter
congenital, (3)60
exophthalmic. See Graves’ disease.
fetal, (3)80
lithium-related, (3)60
multinodular, (5)35
toxic, hyperthyroidism and, (5)35
neonatal, (3)60
in newborn, (2)97
toxic, diffuse. See Graves’ disease.
Goldman’ cardiac risk index, (1)52
Gold sodium thiomalate, in pregnancy, (3)20
Gonadal ridge, (5)78
Gonadal stromal tumors. See Sex cord-stromal tumors.
Gonadoblastoma, ovarian, (4)31
with germ cell tumor, (4)31
and gonadal dysgenesis, (4)31
Gonadotropic cells, (5)25
Gonadotropin(s). See also Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); Luteinizing hormone (LH).
deficiency
congenital, male infertility due to, (5)65
isolated, and response to GnRH, (5)8
exogenous, in ovulation induction, (5)70
growth hormone and, (5)70
pulsatile GnRH and, (5)70
growth factors and, (5)11
human chorionic. See Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
human menopausal. See Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG).
male infertility treatment with, (5)65
menopausal levels, (1)109
ovulation induction with, (5)69. See also Ovulation.
pharmacology, (5)69
pituitary tumors secreting, (5)25
in puberty, precocious, (5)16
recombinant DNA-derived, in ovulation induction, (5)70
response to GnRH. See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary response to.
secretion, prostaglandins and, (5)41
serum
high, anovulatory conditions associated with, (5)22
low, anovulatory conditions associated with, (5)22
structure, (5)69
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist stimulation test, (5)55
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), (5)10
agonists
before endometrial ablation, (1)38
for hirsutism, (5)28
hMG combined with, in ovulation induction, (5)70
for leiomyoma, (1)14
for menorrhagia, (5)23
during myomectomy, (1)58
in ovarian stimulation, for in vitro fertilization, (5)97
pituitary response to, (5)8
in precocious puberty, (1)19
structure, (5)8
for uterine fibroids, (1)103
analogs
in contraception, (6)12–6
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
for endometriosis, (1)20; (5)59
in male contraception, (6)13
for myomas, (1)58
pituitary response to, (5)8
and preservation of ovarian function in radiation/chemotherapy, (5)88
antagonists
for menorrhagia, (5)23
in ovulation induction, (5)70
pituitary response to, (5)8
in challenge test, (5)8
deficiency of
ovarian-hypothalamic feedback abnormalities and, (5)6
pulse generator failure in, (5)6
for endometrial hyperplasia, (4)12
FSH release and, in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)8
gene for, (5)8
lactational amenorrhea and, (6)36
for luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
in male infertility, (5)65
physiology, (5)71
pituitary response to, (1)8, (5)6
age and, (5)8
alcohol and, (5)8
in amenorrhea
hyperprolactinemic, (5)8
hypothalamic, (5)8
anovulation and, (5)8
dysfunctional uterine bleeding and, (5)8
estrogen effects on, (5)8
FSH and, (5)8
GnRH challenge test of, (5)8
GnRH gene and, (5)8
GnRH receptor and, (5)8
GnRH secretion and, (5)8
GnSAF and, (5)8
in hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, (5)8
inhibin and, (5)8
in isolated gonadotropin deficiency, (5)8
in isosexual precocious puberty, (5)8
LH and, (5)8
menstrual cycle and, (5)8
neuropeptide Y and, (5)8
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)8
in pregnancy, (5)8
progesterone effects on, (5)8
in puerperium, (5)8
regulation of, (5)8
self-priming action of GnRH and, (5)8
sex steroids in modulation of GnRH pulse generator and, (5)8
placental, and hCG secretion, (5)39
preovulatory increase n, (5)6
in puberty, (5)9
at onset, (5)9
precocious, (1)19
in stimulation test, (5)16
pulsatile, in ovulation induction, (5)7071
clinical monitoring, (5)71
clinical use and protocols, (5)71
complications, (5)70
cost, (5)71
exogenous gonadotropins and, (5)70
future considerations, (5)71
indications, (5)71
luteal support and, (5)70
outcomes, (5)71
patient selection, (5)71
and polycystic ovary syndrome, (5)71
pulse dosage, (5)71
pulse frequency, (5)71
route of administration, (5)71
pulse generator, sex steroids in modulation, (5)8
receptors, (5)8
ovarian, as target for fertility regulation, (6)12
secretion, (5)8
self-priming action, (5)8
stimulation test, in precocious puberty, (1)19
Gonadotropin surge attenuating factor (GnSAF), (5)8
Gonad(s). See also Ovaries; Testes.
abnormalities, primary amenorrhea and, (5)21
anatomy, (5)78
development, (5)77, 78
in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
male vs. female, (5)77
mesenchymal cells, (5)77
mesoblastic cells, (5)77
ovarian, (5)77
primordial germ cell, (5)77
testicular, (5)77
dysgenesis
in 45, X/46, XX mosaicism, (5)85
in 45, X/47, XXX mosaicism, (5)85
in 46, XY females, (5)87. See also Gender reversal.
amenorrhea with, hormonal cytology in, (1)29
anovulation and, (5)22
environmental causes of, (5)88
gonadoblastoma and, (4)31
mixed, (5)21
pure, (5)21
in Turner syndrome, (5)21
X chromosome abnormalities and, (5)2186
45,X. See also Monosomy X; Turner syndrome (monosomy X).
in X short-arm deficiencies, with X long-arm isochrome, (5)85
in X short arm deletions, (5)85
46,XX, (5)86
agonadia in, (5)86
17α-hydroxylase/17,20-desmolase deficiency, (5)86
17-α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency with, (5)86
aromatase deficiency with, (5)86
carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein deficiency with, (5)86
cerebellar ataxia with, (5)86
follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mutation and, (5)86
galactosemia with, (5)86
germ cell failure in, with germ cell aplasia in male sibling, (5)86
luteinizing hormone receptor mutation and, (5)86
mouse models of, (5)86
with neurosensory deafness, (5)86
without anomalies, (5)86
XY (testicular), (5)21
embryology, (5)78
fetal, steroid endocrinology of, (5)38
functions, (5)78
physiology, (5)78
sex hormone effects, (6)20
in true hermaphrodites, (5)84
Gonanes, in oral contraceptives, (6)24
Gonorrhea, (2)42; (3)42
antibiotics for, (3)35
clinical manifestations, (2)42
diagnosis, (2)42; (3)42
disseminated infection, (3)42
endometritis and, (5)57
epidemiology, (3)42
infections, (3)42
disseminated gonococcal infection, (3)42
neonatal, (3)42
salpingitis, (3)42
symptomatic gonococcal disease, (3)42
in lesbians, (6)103
Neisseria gonorrhoeae in, (3)42
penicillinase-producing, (3)42
pathogenesis, (3)42
in pediatric patient, (1)19
pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)44; (5)57
pregnancy outcome and, (3)42
premature birth risk in, antibiotic prophylaxis against, (3)35
puerperal infections and, (3)37
testing for, (1)29
treatment, (2)42
maternal, (3)42
Goodsall’ rule, for anal fistula, (1)97
Gore-Tex, in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
Gorlin’ syndrome, (4)31
Goserelin, for endometriosis, (5)59
G-protein-coupled receptor family, 3-5, (5)5
Graafian follicle. See Follicle, ovarian.
Gracilis flap, (4)53–9
Graded compression stockings, postoperative, for deep venous thrombosis prevention, (1)95
Grafts
pedicle, for pelvic floor covering, after exenteration, (4)10
skin. See Skin grafts.
Gram stain
in gonorrhea, (2)42
in vaginitis, (1)40
Granular cell tumor, vulvar, (1)9
Granulocytes, endometrial, (5)18
Granuloma
in pregnancy, (2)32
eosinophilic, (3)27
oral, (2)15
pyogenic, (1)11; (2)32
in tuberculosis, genital, (1)49
Granuloma gravidarum, (2)32
Granuloma inguinale, (1)41
in HIV-infected woman, (1)46
Granulosa cells, (5)78
in corpus luteum, in early luteal phase, (5)14
granulosogenesis, FSH control of, (5)12
luteal steroidogenic cells derived from, (5)56
Granulosa cell tumors, (1)17; (4)31
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
genetics, (4)66
ovarian, hormonal cytology, (1)29
Granulosa-stromal cell tumors, (4)31
in children, (4)34
Granulosa-theca cell tumors, (4)31
and endometrial carcinoma, (4)19
endometrial carcinoma and, (4)13
and precocious puberty, (5)16
Grasp reflex, (2)97
Graves’ disease, (5)35
autoimmune diseases associated with, (5)35
causes, (5)35
clinical manifestations, (5)35
diagnosis, (5)35
ophthalmopathy, (5)35
physical examination, (5)35
in pregnancy, (3)23
treatment, (5)35
propranolol, (5)35
radioactive iodine, (5)35
surgery, (5)35
thionamides, (5)35
Great arteries, transposition of, ultrasound detection, (3)72
Grief
in aging woman, (1)108
perinatal. See Perinatal loss, psychological considerations in.
Growth
deficiency of, in Turner’ syndrome, (5)85
defined, (2)14
fetal. See Fetus, growth
intrauterine restriction of, ultrasound diagnosis, (3)64
in puberty, (5)9
in athletes, (5)9
precocious, (5)16
Growth-adjusted sonographic age (GASA), (3)73
assigning fetuses a GASA, chart for, (3)73
validity of GASA chart, (3)73
Growth and differentiation, (2)12,14. See also Children, growth and development; Fetus, growth; Sexual differentiation.
disturbances, (2)14–15
prenatal diagnosis, (2)14
embryonal period, (2)14
energy for, (2)14
factors affecting, (2)14–11
fertilization and implantation, (2)12
fetal period, (2)12
gastrointestinal tract, (2)12
genetics and, (2)14
growth factors in, (2)14
heart, (2)12
hemopoietic cells, (2)12
human vs. animal, (2)14
lung, (2)12
normal, (2)14
perinatal period, (2)14
pre-embryonal period, (2)14
scope, (2)14
substances of basic developmental significance and, (2)14
teratogens and, (2)14
biological, (2)14
chemical, (2)14
physical, (2)14
terminology related to, (2)14
urinary system, (2)12
Growth factors, (2)14
blastocyst/embryo, (5)38
endometrial, in menstrual cycle, (5)38
in endometriosis, (1)20
ovarian, (5)11, 12
placental, (5)39
in placental angiogenesis, (5)38
progesterone production in pregnancy and, (5)38
in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Growth hormone
exogenous gonadotropins and, ovulation induction with, (5)70
fetal, hCS as, (5)39
for growth deficiency, in Turner’ syndrome, (5)85
hypersecretion of. See Acromegaly.
perimenopausal levels, (1)109
pituitary tumors secreting, (5)25
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
in puberty, (5)9
at onset, (5)9
supplemental, (5)9
variant, (5)39–17
biologic activities, (5)39
gene, (5)39
expression, regulation, (5)39
mutations, (5)39
structure, (5)39
Growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis, perimenopause and, (1)109
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), (5)10
and hCS secretion, (5)39
Growth retardation, intrauterine. See Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).
GSI. See Genuine stress incontinence (GSI).
Guanylate cyclase, receptor effector system, (5)5
Guarding reflexes, (1)88
Guillain-Barré syndrome, in pregnancy, (3)19
Gumma, syphilis and, (1)45
Gunshot wounds, in pregnancy, (3)54
Gynandroblastoma, (4)319
Gynecoid fat distribution, (5)29
Gynecologic cancer. See also specific cancer.
in aging woman, (1)107
emotional components. See Gynecologic cancer, psychological considerations in.
gene therapy for, (4)64. See also Gene therapy, for gynecologic cancer
genetics, (4)65
cervix uteri cancer, squamous cell, (4)66
endometrial cancer, (4)15
general molecular aspects, (4)66
models for origin of neoplasia, (4)66
ovarian cancer, (4)66
predisposition to sporadic cancer, (4)66
immunology. See also Immunology.
immunotherapy in, (4)60
laparoscopic surgery for, (1)119
laparoscopy, (1)119; (4)55
complications, (4)55
malignant transformation, (4)65
metastases from, (4)54
molecular biology, (4)65
nutrition therapy, (4)63
recent developments in, (4)63B
oncogenes in, (4)65
pain in, (4)58
relief of, (4)58. See also Pain, in gynecologic cancer, relief of.
in pregnancy, (2)36
management of, (3)57
psychological considerations in, (4)68
long-term, (4)68
in prevention, (4)68
in recovery from treatment, (4)68
in recurrent disease, (4)68
in response to diagnosis, (4)68
in response to treatment, (4)68
sexual dysfunction in, (4)68
radiology, (4)54
risk, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and, (6)28
sexual function in, (4)68; (6)99
psychological interventions in, (4)68
risk predictors in, (4)68
studies of, (4)68
steroid receptors in, (4)33
treatment
complications, (4)54
monitoring, (4)54
planning, (4)54
Gynecologic examination, (1)6. See also Pelvis, examination of.
in adolescent, (1)22
history taking, (1)22
interview, (1)22
procedure, (1)22
in aging woman, screening recommendations, (1)107
history, (1)6
history taking, (1)22
in pediatric patient, (1)19
preoperative, (1)52
in woman with disabilities, (1)102
Gynecologic surgery
difficult patient, (6)89
electrosurgery, (1)32. See also Electrosurgery.
emotional preparation, (6)89
informed consent and competency, (6)89
intestinal problems in, (1)74. See also Gastrointestinal tract, problems in gynecologic surgery.
lasers in, (1)34. See also Laser therapy.
physician-patient relationship, (6)89
preoperative evaluation
assessment of depression, (6)89
awareness of psychologic issues, (6)89
preoperative management. See also Preoperative care.
psychiatric consultant, (6)89
psychologic aspects, (6)8990
recommendations for improved emotional response, (6)90
Gynecologist. See also Physician-patient relationship.
dying patient and, (6)95. See also Dying patient, gynecologist and
primary care and, (3)110
Gynecomastia, (5)30
in puberty, (5)9

 

Subject Index H

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Haemophilus ducreyi, (1)41
Haemophilus influenzae, in pediatric vulvovaginitis, (1)19
Hair
axillary, in puberty, (5)9
premature, isolated, (5)16
changes, in pregnancy, (2)32
hirsutism. See Hirsutism.
lanugo, (2)97
loss of
androgen excess and, (5)28
in pregnancy, (2)32
physiology, (5)28
pubic
development
in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
premature, isolated, (5)16
in puberty, (5)9
in male, (5)9
removal, mechanical means, (5)28
HAIRAN syndrome, (5)28
Halban cul-de-sac closure, (1)84, 6
Halban’ syndrome, (5)14
Haloperidol (Haldol)
for postpartum psychosis, (6)84
in pregnancy, (6)79
Hamartoma, hypothalamic, in precocious puberty, (5)16
in male, (5)16
management of, (5)16
Hamet syndrome, (5)83
Hamster oocytes, in sperm penetration assay, (5)63
Hand-foot-genital syndrome, (1)70; (5)90
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, (5)74
Harmonic Scalpel, (1)119–11
laparoscopic myomectomy using, (1)119
total laparoscopic hysterectomy using, (1)119
Harris-Benedict equation, (4)63
Hashimoto’ thyroiditis, (5)35
Hatching, assisted, in in vitro fertilization, (5)102
HBsAg, (3)29
HCG. See Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
HDL. See High-density lipoproteins (HDL).
Head
circumference
fetal
and gestational age, (3)73
microcephaly and, (3)72
in newborn, (2)97
control, in newborn, (2)97
examination, in newborn, (2)97
size, radiation exposure in utero and, (2)101
Headache
migraine, contraception in, (6)14
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
compliance with use, (6)10
and pituitary tumors, (5)25
in pregnancy, (3)19
spinal anesthesia and, (3)90
Health-care workers
attitudes of, toward lesbians, (6)103
response to incontinent patients, (6)93
Heart. See also Cardiac.
anatomic position, during pregnancy, (2)13
anomalies
in multiple malformation syndromes, with genital anomalies, (5)83
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
ultrasound detection, (3)72
catheterization, in pregnancy, (3)11
disease. See Heart disease
embryonic development, (2)12
examination, in newborn, (2)97
in labor, (3)8
myocardial infarction in, oral contraceptives and, (6)23
in smokers, (6)23
in pregnancy
exercise response in, (3)8
output of, (3)8
rate of, (3)8
stroke volume of, (3)8
ventricular function in, (3)8
surgery
in pregnancy, (3)54
transplantation of, pregnancy after, (3)11
anesthesia and, (3)91
Heart block
complete, fetal, (3)65
congenital, neonatal lupus erythematosus and, (3)20
Heartburn, in pregnancy, (2)7; (3)30
Heart disease
congenital
etiology, (3)72
in pregnancy, (3)11
in pregnancy, anesthetic considerations, (3)90
prenatal risk factors, (3)72
prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
coronary artery
obesity and, (6)111
in pregnancy, (3)10
risk factors, perimenopause and, (1)109
screening for, in aging woman, (1)108
cyanotic, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
in newborn, lithium and, (6)79
in pregnancy, (3)10,11. See also specific disease.
arrhythmias, (3)10
cardiomyopathy, (3)10
congenital, (3)11
coronary artery disease, (3)10
evaluation
angiographic, (3)11
echocardiographic, (3)11
electrocardiographic, (3)11
hemodynamic, (3)11
magnetic resonance imaging, (3)11
hypertension and, (3)10
ischemic, (3)11
anesthesia and, (3)91
myocardial disease, (3)10
pericardial disease, (3)10
tocolytics and, (3)10
valvular, (3)11
anesthesia and, (3)91
valvular, contraception in, (6)14
Heart rate
and cardiac output, (3)79
fetal, (3)58. See also Fetus, heart rate.
monitoring, (3)6778
baseline value, (3)67
comparison of techniques, (3)78
contraction stress test, (3)78. See also Contraction stress test.
nonstress test, (3)78–19. See also Nonstress test.
physiological basis, (3)78
in pregnancy, (1)54; (2)13; (3)8
Heart valves
disease of, in pregnancy, (3)11
anesthesia and, (3)91
prosthetic, in pregnancy, (3)11
anesthesia and, (3)91
Heat loss, in newborn, (3)68
HELLP syndrome, (3)7
and acute renal failure, in pregnancy, (3)6
criteria, (3)7
management, (3)7
Hemangioblasts, (2)12
Hemangioma
in newborn, (2)97
in pregnancy, (2)32
vulvar, (1)9
Hemangiopericytoma
vaginal, (4)44
vulvar, (4)40
Hematocolpos
transverse vaginal septum and, (1)70
ultrasonography, (1)101
vulvovaginal, after female circumcision, (1)96
Hematocrit
changes in, delivery and, (3)8
fetal
ultrasound prediction, (3)81
volume for intrauterine transfusion and, (3)81
in pregnancy, (3)54
Hematologic system
in preeclampsia, (3)7
in pregnancy, (3)54
Hematoma
after vasectomy, (6)47
child sexual abuse and, (1)21
in newborn, (2)97
pelvic, infected, after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
spinal, anesthesia and, (3)90
subcapsular, in newborn, (2)97
subdural, in newborn, (2)97
umbilical cord, (2)107
vulvar, (1)11
Hematometra, postabortion, (6)125
Hematometrocolpos, (1)4
Hemocytoblasts, (2)12
Hemodialysis, in pregnancy, (3)6
Hemodynamic changes, in pregnancy, (3)11
Hemodynamic monitoring
cardiovascular profile in, (3)79
complications of, (3)79
in critically ill patient, (3)79
invasive, (3)79–9
noninvasive, (3)79
data collection in, (3)79
data interpretation in, (3)79
in obstetric patients, invasive
contraindications to, (3)79
indications for, (3)79
parameters for, (3)79
normal, in pregnancy, (3)79
pulmonary profile in, (3)79
Hemodynamics, maternal, factors affecting, (3)60
Hemoglobin
embryonic, (2)12
nomenclature, (3)16
in pregnancy, (3)54
diabetes mellitus and, (3)14
preoperative considerations, (1)52
synthesis and structure, (3)16
erythrocyte composition, (3)16
genetics, (3)16
globin chain synthesis, (3)16
heme synthesis, (3)16
structure, (3)16
Hemoglobinopathies
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
prenatal diagnosis, (3)115
sickle, (3)16
classification, (3)16
clinical presentation, (3)16
genetic counseling and patient education, (3)16
hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin, (3)16
laboratory assessment, (3)16
pathophysiology, (3)16
sickle cell disease, (3)16
contraception in, (3)16; (6)14
fetal effects, (3)16
incidence, (3)16
management, (3)16
maternal effects, (3)16
sickle cell trait (HbA-S), (3)16
Hemoglobin oxygen saturation, mixed venous blood, (3)79
Hemoglobinuria, paroxysmal nocturnal, (3)16
Hemolysis, in HELLP syndrome, (3)7. See HELLP syndrome.
Hemolytic anemia, (3)16
extrinsic, (3)16
intrinsic, (3)16
enzyme abnormalities, (3)16
hemoglobinopathies, (3)16
hereditary spherocytosis, (3)16
microangiopathic, (3)16
vitamin E-deficient, (2)93
Hemolytic disease of newborn. See Erythroblastosis fetalis.
β-Hemolytic streptococcus
in pregnancy, (2)41
in vulvovaginitis, in pediatric patient, (1)19
Hemoperitoneum, cul-de-sac, (1)101
Hemophilus. See Haemophilus.
Hemopoiesis, embryonic and fetal development, (2)12
Hemorrhage. See also Bleeding.
abdominal, in newborns, (2)97
accidental. See Abruptio placentae.
after female circumcision, (1)96
central nervous system, neonatal, (3)63
in corpus luteum, in early luteal phase, (5)14
extracranial, neonatal, (3)63
fetomaternal
after intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
Rh isoimmunization and, (3)66
gastrointestinal, in pregnancy, (3)30
intracerebral, in hypertensive encephalopathy, treating, (3)5
intracranial
fetal, episiotomy and, (2)70
neonatal, (3)63
higher-order multiple gestations and, (2)83
vitamin K and, (3)59
in pregnancy, (3)54
intraoperative, in radical hysterectomy, (4)9
intraventricular, neonatal, (3)63
intravillous, (2)108
from laparoscopy, (1)119
maternal
anesthesia and, postpartum hemorrhage, (3)90
female circumcision and, (1)96
fluid management in, (3)55
myomectomy and, (1)58
obstetric, blood replacement. See Transfusion.
ovarian, spontaneous bilateral, and premature ovarian failure, (5)88
pelvic. See Pelvis, hemorrhage.
with placenta accreta, (2)49
in placental abruption, (3)90
in placenta previa, (3)90
postoperative, vaginal hysterectomy and, (1)59
postpartum, (2)80
anesthesia and, (3)90
arterial embolization for, (2)80
causes, (2)80
coagulation studies in, (2)80
coagulopathy and, (2)80
definition of, (2)80
hemodynamic monitoring during, (3)79
higher-order multiple gestations and, (2)83
hypogastric artery artery ligation for, (2)80
hysterectomy for, (2)80
lacerations and, (2)80
late, (2)80
management, (2)80
fluid management, (3)55
MAST suit for, (2)80
oxytocics for, (2)80
placenta accreta and, (2)80
placental delivery for, (2)73
prevention of, (2)80
prostaglandins for, (2)80
retained placenta and, (2)80
shock and, prevention and treatment of, (2)80
surgical management of, (2)80
uterine artery ligation for, (2)80
uterine atony and, (2)80
uterine compression for, (2)80
uterine exploration in, (2)80
uterine inversion and, (2)80
management, (2)80
uterine lavage in, (2)80
uterine packing for, (2)80
uterine rupture and, (2)80
uterotonic agents for, (2)80
response of placental and uterine vasculature to, (3)62
scalp, in newborn, (2)97
in stroke, oral contraceptives and, (6)23
subarachnoid
neonatal, (3)63
in pregnancy, (3)19
subconjunctival, in newborn, (2)97
subdural, neonatal, (3)63
transplacental, massive, Rh prophylaxis after, (3)66
Hemorrhagic endovasculitis, (2)107
Hemorrhagic shock
in placental abruption, (2)50
postpartum, prevention and treatment of, (2)80
Hemorrhoidectomy, (1)97
Crohn’ disease and, (1)97
in HIV-infected (AIDS) patients, (1)97
in pregnancy, (1)97
ulcerative colitis and, (1)97
Hemorrhoids, (1)97
anal dilation and sphincterotomy for, (1)97
bleeding with, (1)97
electrocoagulation for, (1)97
epidemiology of, (1)97
external, (1)97
internal, (1)97
laser treatment of, (1)97
photocoagulation for, (1)97
in pregnancy, (2)32
rubber band ligation for, (1)97
sclerotherapy for, (1)97
stool bulking for, (1)97
surgical removal, (1)97
thrombosed, pain in, (1)97
treatment, (1)97
Hemosiderin, (3)16
Hemostasis
in pregnancy, regulation of, (3)17
during tubal sterilization reversal, (6)46
Heparin(s), (2)31. See also Anticoagulants.
for deep venous thrombosis, postoperative, (1)95
low-dose, (2)31
prophylactic, postoperative, (1)95
low-molecular-weight, (2)31; (3)60
postoperative, (1)95
prophylactic, (1)95
teratogenicity of, (2)6
therapy with, in pregnancy, (5)49
in nutritional prescription, (4)63
prophylactic, (2)31
perioperative, (1)53
for thromboembolic disease, postoperative, (1)95
combined with mechanical therapy, (1)95
in pulmonary embolism, (1)95
safety, in pregnancy, (3)60
in septic pelvic thrombophlebitis, (2)31; (3)37
teratogenicity of, (2)6
for thromboembolic disease, (2)31
postoperative, (1)53
unfractionated
adverse maternal effects of, (3)60
in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, (5)49
for venous thromboembolism, in pregnancy, (3)17
Hepatitis, chronic, and pregnancy, (3)29
Hepatitis A
in newborn, (3)29
in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)29
vaccination against
in aging woman, (1)108
in pregnancy, (3)52
Hepatitis B virus, (1)41
breast feeding and, (2)93
clinical features, (1)41
diagnosis, (1)41
in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)29
risk to newborn, (3)29
prophylaxis, (1)41
treatment, (1)41
vaccination against
in aging woman, (1)108
in pregnancy, (3)52, 7
virology, (1)41
in women with disabilities, (1)102
Hepatitis B virus infections
biology, (3)44
clinical features, (3)44
epidemiology, (3)44
global distribution, (3)44
in HIV-infected woman, (1)46
in pregnancy, (3)44, 44
screening for, (3)44
transmission, perinatal, (3)44
prevention, (3)44
serology, (3)44
transmission, (3)44
vaccination against, perinatal programs for, (3)44
Hepatitis C virus, (3)29
in lesbians, (6)103
in pregnancy, (3)29
risk to newborn, (3)29
Hepatitis C virus infections
clinical issues, (3)44
diagnosis, (3)44
epidemiology, (3)44
pathogenesis, (3)44
in pregnancy, (3)44
effects on fetus and neonate, (3)44
risk factors, (3)44
Hepatitis E, in pregnancy, (3)29
risk to newborn, (3)29
Herbal remedies. See also specific herb.
in menopause, (1)114
for obesity, (6)111
in pregnancy, (2)7; (3)60
Herbal remedies, for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
Hereditary anemias. See Anemia.
Hereditary disorders. See also specific disorder.
renal, in pregnancy, (3)6
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), and endometrial cancer, (4)19
Heredity. See Genetics.
Heritability (h2), (5)75
Hermaphroditism, (1)4, 19
true, (5)84
45, X/46, XY, (5)84
46, XX, (5)84–8
46, XX/46, XY, (5)84
46, XX/47, XXY, (5)84
46, XY, (5)84
conclusions, (5)84
historical background and definitions, (5)84
other forms of mosaicism and chimerism, (5)84
types, (5)84
HERMES Control Center, in laparoscopy, (1)119
Hernia
after laparoscopic sterilization, (6)43
diaphragmatic
neonatal resuscitation in, (3)68
prenatal diagnosis, ultrasound in, (3)72
incisional, in laparoscopy, (1)119
inguinal, (2)97
umbilical, (2)12
wound, (1)56
Hernia uteri inguinale, (5)90
Heroin
addiction, in pregnancy. See also Pregnancy, in drug addict.
in pregnancy, (2)33
Herpes genitalis, (2)41. See also Herpesvirus hominis.
in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
Herpes gestationis, (2)32
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
preterm premature rupture of membranes and, (2)47
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, (2)42; (3)46
breast feeding and, (2)93
clinical manifestations, (2)42; (3)46
diagnosis, (2)42; (3)46
genital, (1)45; (3)46
cervical carcinogenesis and, (4)1
diagnosis, (3)46
epidemiology, (3)46
in lesbians, (6)103
management, (3)46
in pregnancy
primary infection, (3)46
recurrent outbreaks, (3)46
nonprimary first-episode, (3)46
obstetric anesthesia and, (3)90
in pediatric patient, (1)19
in pregnancy, (2)32; (3)46
antiviral drugs for, (3)35
management
primary infection, (3)46
recurrent outbreaks, (3)46
prevention, (3)46
primary, (3)46
management, in pregnancy, (3)46
recurrent, (3)46
management, in pregnancy, (3)46
HPV infection and, (4)2
neonatal. See also Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, genital.
morbidity and mortality, (3)46
spontaneous abortion and, (5)49
in women with disabilities, (1)102
Herpesvirus hominis
genital, (2)41
in newborn, (2)42
in pregnancy, (2)41
treatment, (2)42
Herpesvirus infection
genital, (3)46
in pediatric vulvovaginitis, (1)19
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
Herpes zoster, (3)46. See also Varicella.
Heterotopic pregnancy, higher-order multiple gestations and, (2)83
Heubner’ artery, (2)12
HGH. See Growth hormone.
Hidradenitis suppurativa, (1)11
perianal, (1)97
Hidradenocarcinoma, vulvar, (4)40
Hidradenoma, vulvar, (1)9; (4)40
High-density lipoproteins (HDL), oral contraceptives and, (6)24
cardiovascular effects, (6)24
Higher-order gestations, (2)83. See also Multiple gestation, higher-order.
Hip
exercises, during pregnancy, (2)8
fracture, in postmenopausal female, (1)111. See also Osteoporosis, postmenopausal.
Hirschsprung’ disease, recurrence risk, by severity of defect, (5)75
Hirsutism, (5)28
acne and, (5)28
in acromegaly, (5)28
in adrenal hyperplasia, nonclassic, (5)28
androgenic tumors and, (5)28
androgens and, (5)28
surgical treatment, (5)28
androgens in, (5)2
antiandrogens in, (5)28
causes
androgenic, (5)28
nonandrogenic, (5)28
in Cushing’ disease, (5)28
defined, (5)28
differential diagnosis, (5)28
estrogens in, (5)28
evaluation, (5)28
evaluation of patient with, (5)68
GnRH agonists for, long-acting, (5)28
in HAIRAN syndrome, (5)28
history taking, (5)28
hormonal treatment, (5)28
in hyperthecosis, (5)28
idiopathic, (5)28
ketoconazole for, (5)28
laboratory assessment, (5)28
mechanical hair removal, (5)28
oligomenorrhea with, hormonal cytology in, (1)29
oral contraceptives and, (5)28; (6)24
ovulation and, (5)28
physical examination, (5)28
in polycystic ovarian disease, (1)28; (5)27
treatment of, (5)27
progestins in, (5)28
in pseudohermaphroditism, male, (5)28
treatment, (5)28
surgical, (5)28
virilization and, (5)28
Histamine H2-receptor antagonists, for gastroesophageal reflux, (3)30
Histiocytes, in endometrial hyperplasia, (1)29
Histiocytoma, fibrous
benign, (4)40
malignant, of vulva, (4)40
Histocompatibility, parental, shared, and recurrent abortion, (3)69
Histocompatibility complex, major (MHC). See HLA antigens.
Historadioautography, of proliferative endometrium, (5)18
History, gynecologic, (1)6. See also Medical history.
Histrelin, for precocious puberty, (5)16
HIV. See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
HIVID. See Zalcitibine.
HLA antigens
in 21-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)79
and prenatal diagnosis, (5)79
in preimplantation diagnosis, (5)109
screening, parental, in pregnancy loss, (5)49
sharing
and pregnancy loss, (5)48, 49
testing for, (5)49
HMG. See Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG).
HMGA genes, in uterine leiomyomas, (5)96
Hodge pessary, (1)39
for incompetent cervix, (1)39
Hodgkin disease
chemotherapy for, ovarian effects of, (5)88
in pregnancy, (3)57
staging classification, (3)57
Hoffman’ exercises, (5)31
Holoprosencephaly
imaging, hydrocephaly vs., (3)72
preimplantation diagnosis, (5)109
Homosexuality. See also Lesbianism.
parenthood and, (2)19
Hookworm disease, (3)51
Hormonal cytology, (1)29
Hormonal etiology, of female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Hormonal therapy. See Hormone(s), therapy.
Hormone replacement therapy. See Hormone(s), therapy.
Hormone(s). See also Endocrine diseases; Endocrine system; specific hormone.
in androgen insensitivity syndrome, (5)80
in 5α-reductase deficiency, (5)80
binding, (5)5–16. See also Cell membrane hormone receptors.
cytologic evaluation, (1)29
effect on breast growth and development, (5)30
during pregnancy, (5)31
in fetal circulation regulation, (3)58
in genital differentiation, (5)80
in hirsutism treatment, (5)28
HPV infection and, (4)2
in 21-hydroxylase deficiency diagnosis, (5)37
in menstrual cycle. See Menstrual cycle.
neurohypophysial, (5)10
action and metabolism of, (5)7
drugs affecting release of, (5)7
in peripheral tissues, (5)7
peptide. See Peptides.
personal monitoring system for, in fertility regulation, (6)16
pituitary, (5)25
placental, (2)11
activin, (5)39
chorionic proopiomelanocortin peptides, (5)39
CRH, (5)39
estrogens, (2)11
follistatin, (5)39
gene expression, (5)39
hCG, (2)11; (5)39
hCS, (5)39
hGH-V, (5)39–17
hPL, (2)11
inhibin, (5)39
leptin, (5)39
neuropeptide Y, (5)39
progesterone, (2)11
protein, (2)11; (5)39
secretion, placental circulations and, (5)39
steroid, (2)11
urocortin, (5)39
postpartum changes in, (2)90
in pregnancy
anesthetic implications, (3)90
psychologic considerations, (6)82
protein, placental, (2)11; (5)39
receptors, (5)5. See also Cell membrane hormone receptors; specific receptor.
reproductive, immunomodulatory effects
in pregnancy, (5)49
therapauetic applications, (5)49
steroid. See Steroid hormone(s).
therapy. See also Estrogen(s), in therapy; Menopause, estrogen replacement therapy in.
in adolescent uterine bleeding abnormalities, (1)22
for breast cancer, (1)26
in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
and endometrial carcinoma, (1)20
for fallopian tube carcinoma, (4)46
for female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
in osteoporosis, (1)111
during perimenopause, (1)109
in polycystic ovary syndrome, (5)29
for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
transition from oral contraceptives to, (1)109
in Turner’ syndrome, (5)85
and uterine bleeding, (5)23
for uterine fibroids, (1)103
Hospice care, (6)95
Hospitalization
admission to labor and delivery, (2)68
for placenta previa, (2)49
Hossenian plug, in hysteroscopic sterilization, (6)40
Host resistance
in AIDS, to listeriosis, (3)40
in neonate, to listeriosis, (3)40
in pregnancy, to listeriosis, (3)40
Hot flushes (flashes), (1)106, 109
treatment, (1)109
HPL. See Human placental lactogen (hPL).
HPV. See Human papillomavirus (HPV).
HRT (hormone replacement therapy). See Hormone(s), therapy.
3β-HSD. See 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.
HS6ST gene, in ovarian dysgenesis, (5)85
HSV. See Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection.
HTLV-III (human T-cell lymphotropic virus-III). See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Huanglian, (3)60
Huffman speculum, in examination of adolescent, (1)22
Hulka clip, in laparoscopic sterilization, (6)41, 12
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), (5)39
actions
on extraembryonic tissue, (5)39
on fetal tissue, (5)39
and ovarian maintenace of corpus luteum, (5)39
administration of, in fertility control, (6)12
assays
in early pregnancy monitoring, (5)39
in pregnancy, for prenatal genetic screening, (5)39
as pregnancy tests, (5)39
in prenatal genetic screening, (5)39
specificity, (5)39
standardization, (5)39
of blastocyst/embryo, and implantation, (5)38
β-subunit, antibodies against, in fertility regulation, (6)12
clearance, (5)39
and clomiphene, in ovulation induction, (5)68
in corpus luteum formation, (5)14
in corpus luteum regulation, in pregnancy, (5)14
in ectopic pregnancy, (1)68
in embryo, before implantation, (5)47
fetoplacental steroidogenesis and, (5)38
function, carbohydrates and, (5)39
in gestational trophoblastic disease, (4)48, 25; (5)39
recurrent, (4)48
immunoassays, (5)39
for luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
with implantation failure, (5)47
in male infertility, (5)65
metabolism, (5)39
in nontrophoblastic tumors, (5)39
in normal nonpregnant women, (5)39
in ovarian cancer, in children, (4)34
in ovarian stimulation, for in vitro fertilization, (5)97
in ovulation induction, (5)70–9
placental, (2)11
in precocious puberty, ectopic production of, (5)16
in pregnancy, (2)2; (5)39
in prenatal screening, for chromosomal abnormalities, (3)114
receptors, nongonadal distribution, (5)5
rescue of corpus luteum by, (5)38
secretion
factors controlling, integration of, (5)39
placental GnRH and, (5)39
in pregnancy, (5)39
serum levels, in pregnancy, (5)38
structure, (5)39
subunits
circulation in maternal blood, (5)39
clearance, (5)39
free, biologic role of, (5)39
genes for, (5)39
metabolism, (5)39
synthesis
in pregnancy, (5)39
regulation, (5)39
ultrasound findings and, (1)68
Human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS). See also Human placental lactogen (hPL).
in amniotic fluid, (5)39
biologic activities, (5)39
carbohydrate metabolism and, (5)39
in fetal blood, (5)39
as fetal growth hormone, (5)39
gene, (5)39
mutations, (5)39
regulation, (5)39
transcription factors, tissue specificity, (5)39
as indicator of fetal well-being, (5)39
lipid metabolism and, (5)39
mammary gland function and, (5)39
in maternal blood, (5)39
placental, (5)39
secretion
endocrine/autocrine/paracrine factors and, (5)39
GH-RH and, (5)39
lipoproteins and, (5)39
maternal metabolism and, (5)39
neurotransmitters and, (5)39
somatostatin and, (5)39
syncytiotrophoblast mass and, (5)39
synthesis, sites of, (5)39
Human growth hormone. See Growth hormone.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
in donor semen, (5)99
infection. See also Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
bacterial vaginosis and, (1)40
colposcopy and, (1)30
condyloma acuminatum with, cervical, (1)31
contraception in, (6)14
drugs for, transplacental transfer of, (3)34
infertility and, (5)57
in lesbians, (6)103
oral contraceptives and, (3)47
pelvic infection in, (1)44
placental pathology in, (2)108
in pregnancy, (3)47
antepartum management, (3)47
antiretroviral therapy and, (3)47
chlorhexidine and, (3)47
drug therapy in, (3)35
effect of pregnancy on disease and therapy, (3)47
evaluation of infant, (3)47
intrapartum management, (3)47
mode of delivery and, (3)47
obstetric anesthesia and, (3)90–21
postpartum management, (3)47
pregnancy outcome and, (2)108; (3)47
transmission, (3)47
vitamin A and, (3)47
prenatal testing for, (3)47
prevention
contraception and, (6)17
safe sex and, (6)17
syphilis and, (1)45
diagnosis, (1)45
treatment, (1)45
in vasectomized men, (6)49
vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia with, (4)42
in women with disabilities, (1)102
transmission
condoms and, (6)14
safe sex and, (6)17
vertical, (2)108; (3)47
antiretroviral therapy and, (3)47
chlorhexidine and, (3)47
mode of delivery and, (3)47
vitamin A and, (3)47
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), (1)46
assisted reproduction and, (1)46
contraception and, (1)46
gender differences in, (1)46
invasive cervical cancer and, (1)46
lower genital tract neoplasia and, (1)46
menstrual disorders and, (1)46
osteopenia and, (1)46
osteoporosis and, (1)46
pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)46
preconception counseling and, (1)46
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
sexually transmitted infections and, (1)46
vaginitis and, (1)46
Human in vitro fertilization. See Fertilization, in vitro.
Human leukocyte antigens. See HLA antigens.
Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG)
in male infertility, (5)65
in ovulation induction, (5)70. See also Ovulation, induction.
with clomiphene citrate, (5)68
GnRH agonists plus, (5)70
recombinant FSH vs., (5)70
ovulation induction with, (5)69
pulsatile administration, (5)70
Human Milk Fortifier, (2)93
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
cervical carcinogenesis and, (4)5
cervical epithelial cells infected with, immune responses to, enhancement of, (4)60
classification of, (4)2
culture of, (4)2
detection of, (4)2
immunologic methods, (4)2
DNA, open reading frames in, (4)2
DNA typing, (4)2
genomic organization of, (4)2
identification of, (4)2
dot blot technique for, (4)2
filter hybridization for, (4)2
fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for, (4)2
hybridization techniques for, (4)2
polymerase chain reaction for, (4)2
in situ hybridization for, (4)2
solution hybridization for, (4)2
Southern blot hybridization for, (4)2
immortalization of infected cells, (4)2
inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, (4)2
infection. See Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
nonpapillomatous genital lesions associated with, discovery of, (4)2
structure of, (4)2
transformation of infected cells, (4)2
types
associated diseases, (4)2
clinical manifestations of infection with, (4)2
geographical distribution, (1)33
typing, clinical applications of, (4)2
vaginal cancer and, (4)44
vulvar vestibulitis syndrome and, (1)77
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, (4)2. See also Condyloma acuminatum.
cervical involvement in, (1)30; (4)2
classification of, (4)2
clinical manifestations of, (4)2
cofactors in, (4)2
correlation with genital lesions, (4)2
cytology
anal, (1)29
cervical epithelial, (1)29–18
diagnosis of, (4)2
epidemiology of, (4)2
extent of, assessment of, (4)2
genital tract cancer and, (4)2
cervical carcinoma, (4)1, 5
historical perspective on, (4)2
vulvar, (4)41
immune system in, (4)2
incubation of, (4)2
latent, (4)2
in lesbians, (6)103
local tissue factors in, (4)2
malignant potential of
anxiety about, alleviation of, (4)2
assessment of, (4)2
management, principles of, (4)2
natural history of, (1)33; (4)2
neoplasms associated with, (4)2
nonproductive, (4)2
oncogenesis in, (4)2
organ involvement in, (4)2
Pap smear in, (4)2
in pregnancy, (2)32
treatment of, (3)35
prepubertal, (1)19
prevalence of, (4)2
prevention of, (4)2
productive, (4)2
progression of, (4)2
screening for
in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31
in low-resource settings, (1)33
spontaneous regression of, (4)2
spread of, control of, (4)2
testing for, (1)29
tissue effects of, (4)2
transmission of, (4)2
treatment of, (4)2
to alleviate symptoms, (4)2
assessment for, (4)2
to control spread of disease, (4)2
indications for, (4)2
for partner, (4)2
to prevent neoplasia, (4)2
principles of, (4)2
selection of, (4)2
vaccine against, (4)2
vaginal involvement in, (4)2
vulvar involvement in, (1)9; (4)2, 4
and intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)42
in women with disabilities, (1)102
Human (pituitary) growth hormone. See Growth hormone.
Human placental lactogen (hPL), (2)11
effects on breast growth and development, (5)31
in high-risk pregnancy, (3)1
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-III (HTLV-III). See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Humerus, fracture, in newborn, (2)79
Humoral immunity, in endometriosis, (1)20
Huntington disease, (5)74
prenatal diagnosis, (3)115
Hutchinson’ teeth, (1)45
Hutchinson’ triad, (1)45
Hyaline membrane disease, prevention of, antepartum glucocorticoid administration and, (3)60
H-Y antigen, (5)84
Hybridization
in human papillomavirus testing, (1)29
oligonucleotide, allele-specific, in prenatal genetic disorder diagnosis, (3)115
Hycamtin (topotecan), for ovarian cancer, (4)36
Hydatidiform mole
chemotherapy, prophylactic, (4)48
choriocarcinoma and, (2)106
complete, (2)106; (4)48; (5)48
partial vs., (4)48
cytogenetics, (4)48
diagnosis, (4)48
ultrasonic, (1)101; (2)4
epidemiology, (4)48
evacuation, (4)48
surveillance after, (4)48
hyperthyroidism in, (5)35
incidence, (4)48
induced abortion and, (6)125
invasive, (4)48
management, (4)48
partial, (2)106; (4)48; (5)48
complete vs., (4)48
pathology, (2)106; (4)48
pregnancy after, (4)48
recurrence risks, (3)69
teratoma vs., (5)73
theca lutein cysts and, (1)17
triploidy and, (5)48
Hydatids (cysts) of Morgagni, (1)4, 17
Hydralazine
for hypertension, in pregnancy, (3)5
in pregnancy, (3)6
Hydramnios, (3)76. See also Oligohydramnios.
clinical presentation, (3)76
diabetes and, (3)13
diagnosis, (3)76
incidence and origin, (3)76
management, (3)76
perinatal complications, (3)76
risk factors, (3)76
Hydranencephaly, hydrocephaly vs., (3)72
Hydration, intravenous, in labor, (2)68
Hydrocele
complicating varicocelectomy, (5)66
scrotal, in newborn, (2)97
vulvar, (1)11
Hydrocephalus
abnormal labor and, (2)73
delivery route and, (3)72
differential diagnosis, (3)72
in fetus, ultrasound detection, (3)64
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
syndromes associated with, (3)72
ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Hydrochlorothiazide, for hypertension, in pregnancy, (3)5
Hydrocodone, in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Hydrocortisone
for congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)37
for lichen sclerosus, in pediatric patient, (1)19
for lichen simplex lichenification of vulva, in pediatric patient, (1)19
Hydrogen peroxide, for vaginitis, (6)17
Hydrometrocolpos, (1)4
Hydromorphone, in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Hydronephrosis, prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HPETEs), (5)41. See also Lipoxygenase compounds; Prostaglandins.
Hydropic abortus, (2)106
Hydrops fetalis, (2)107. See also Erythroblastosis fetalis.
Rh disease treatment and, (3)66
fetal transfusions, (3)66
intravascular, (3)66
with supraventricular tachycardia, amiodarone for, (3)65
ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
villous edema vs., (2)108
Hydrosalpinx, (1)101
sonographic characteristics of, (1)25
Hydrotherapy, for pain management in labor, (2)68
Hydroxychloroquine, in pregnancy, (3)20
Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), (5)41. See also Lipoxygenase compounds; Prostaglandins.
in labor, (5)43
11β-Hydroxylase
deficiency, (1)19; (5)37. See also Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital.
classic, (5)79
in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)37. See also Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital.
nonclassic, (5)28
molecular genetics of, (5)79
nonclassic, (5)79
prenatal diagnosis, (5)79
in steroidogenesis, (5)79
17α-Hydroxylase
deficiency, in primary amenorrhea, (5)21
in steroidogenesis, (5)79
17α-Hydroxylase/17,20-desmolase, deficiency
46, XX gonadal dysgenesis with, (5)86
46, XY gonadal dysgenesis with, (5)87
11-Hydroxylase deficiency, and precocious puberty, in male, (5)16
21-Hydroxylase deficiency, (5)79. See also Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital.
classic, (5)79
in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)37,79
nonclassic, (5)28
genotype-phenotype correlation in, (5)79
HLA and, (5)79
and prenatal diagnosis, (5)79
molecular genetics of, (5)79
nonclassic, (5)79
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
and precocious puberty, in male, (5)16
prenatal diagnosis, (5)79
prevalence of, (5)79
treatment, (5)79
17-α-Hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, deficiency, (5)82
46, XX gonadal dysgenesis with, (5)86
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
serum levels, in 21-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)79
synthesis of, (5)79
17-Hydroxyprogesterone
prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
in puberty, (5)16
secretion of, by corpus luteum, in early pregnancy, (5)14
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
deficiency, (5)79, 82
in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)37
nonclassic, (5)28
molecular genetics of, (5)79
nonclassic, (5)78
in steroidogenesis, (5)38
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, deficiency, (5)82
in steroidogenesis, (5)38
Δ5-3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase, in steroidogenesis, (5)38
Hydroxyurea
for cervical carcinoma, with radiation therapy, (4)11
for human immunodeficiency virus infection, contraindication to, in pregnancy, (3)35
in pregnancy, (3)47
Hygiene, penile, circumcision and, (2)95
Hygroma, cystic
amniotic fluid AFP and, (3)116
fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Hymen
annular, (1)19
child sexual abuse and, (1)21
circumferential, (1)19
crescentic, (1)19
examination, in pediatric patient, (1)19
fimbriated, (1)19
imperforate, (1)4, 11; (5)90
in pediatric patient, (1)19
microperforate, in pediatric patient, (1)19
persistent, transverse vaginal septum and, (1)70
posterior rim, (1)19
surgery, (1)11, 12
Hymenal tag, (2)97
Hymenectomy, (1)11
Hymenolepis nana, (3)51, 25
Hyperalimentation. See Nutrition therapy.
Hyperandrogenism, (5)2. See also Androgen(s), excess.
Hyperbilirubinemia
breast-feeding and, (5)31
malaria prevention in pregnancy and, (3)51
Hypercalcemia, differential diagnosis, (3)23
Hypercarotenemia, anorexia nervosa and, (5)26
Hypercoagulability
contraception in, (6)14
postpartum, (6)15
in pregnancy, (2)108
Hypercoagulable states, in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
Hypercortisolism, (5)37. See also Cushing’ syndrome.
Hyperemesis gravidarum, (2)79
behavioral aspects of, (2)9
biochemical abnormalities, (2)9
causes, (2)9
clinical course, (2)9
dehydration in, management of, (2)9
diagnosis, (2)9
electrolyte disturbances in, management of, (2)9
gastrointestinal dysmotility and, (2)9
genetic factors, (2)9
hyperthyroxinemia in, (5)35
metabolic factors, (2)9
nutritional support in, (2)9
olfaction and, (2)9
pregnancy outcome, (2)9
primary stimulus, (2)9
taste and, (2)9
transient hyperthyroidism of, (3)23
treatment, (2)9
pharmacologic, (2)9
vestibular system and, (2)9
Hyperglycemia
diabetes in pregnancy and, (3)13
serum hGH response to, (5)25
Hyperhomocysteinemia
and placental abruption, (2)108
and placental pathology, (2)108
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Hyperhomocystinemia
placental abruption and, (2)50
Hyperinsulinemia
hyperandrogenism and, (5)29
ovulation induction in, (5)70
Hyperirritability, in newborn, (2)97
Hyperkalemia, postoperative, (1)53
Hyperkeratosis
cervical, (1)30, 9
cytology, (1)29
Hyperlipidemia, contraception in, (6)14
Hyperlipoproteinemia, type I
infant, breast feeding and, (2)93
maternal, breast feeding and, (2)93
Hypermenorrhea. See Menorrhagia.
Hypernatremia, postoperative, (1)53
Hyperparathyroidism
osteoporosis in, (1)111
in pregnancy, (3)23
Hyperphenylalaninemia, maternal, breast feeding and, (2)93
Hyperpigmentation, in pregnancy, (2)13
Hyperplasia
adrenal, congenital. See Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital.
defined, (2)14
endometrial. See Endometrium, hyperplasia.
mammary, (5)30
vulvar, (1)11
Hyperprolactinemia. See also Galactorrhea.
amenorrhea and
pituitary response to GnRH in, (5)8
treatment of, (5)21
causes, (5)32
long-term follow-up, (5)32
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
and menstrual cycle abnormalities, (5)6
menstrual dysfunction and, (5)32
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
pituitary tumors and, (5)25
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
screening for, before clomiphene citrate treatment, (5)68
treatment, (5)32
vs. polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
Hyperreactio luteinalis, (1)17
Hypersplenism, anemia in, (3)16
Hypertension
in 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-desmolase deficiency, with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, (5)87
contraception in, (6)14
endometrial carcinoma and, (4)13
essential, in pregnant patient, (3)1
gestational, (3)7
maternal, placental abruption and, (2)50
obesity and, (6)111
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
and placental drug transfer, (3)60
polycystic ovary syndrome and, (5)29
portal, in pregnancy, (3)29
in preeclampsia, severe, control of, (3)7
in pregnancy. See also Hypertension, pregnancy-induced; Preeclampsia-eclampsia.
cardiovascular effects, (3)10
chronic, (3)5
abruptio placentae and, (3)5
classification, (3)5
definition, (3)7
diagnosis, (3)5
etiology, (3)5
high-risk
criteria, (3)5
management, (3)5
outcome, (3)5
low-risk
management, (3)5
outcome, (3)5
management, (3)5
postpartum, (3)5
preconceptional evaluation, (3)5
prenatal visits, (3)5
management of, pharmacologic, (3)5
outcome, (3)5
risks, (3)5
diabetes mellitus and, (3)13
encephalopathy in, eclamptic, (3)19
hypertensive emergencies, (3)5
pharmacologic implications, (3)60
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
preeclampsia. See Preeclampsia-eclampsia.
pregnancy-induced. See also Hypertension, in pregnancy; Preeclampsia-eclampsia.
fluid management, (3)55
preoperative considerations, (1)52
pulmonary. See Pulmonary hypertension.
response of placental and uterine vasculature to, (3)62
screening for, in aging woman, (1)108
severe, in preeclampsia, control, (3)7
treatment of
fetal effects of, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
in Turner’ syndrome, (5)85
Hypertensive emergencies, in pregnancy, (3)5
Hyperthecosis
hirsutism in, (5)28
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
Hyperthermia
fetal, acetaminophen for, (3)35
fetal growth and, (2)14
malignant
obstetric anesthesia and, (3)90
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
pyelonephritis and, in pregnancy, (3)35
ultrasound bioeffects related to, (3)71
Hyperthyroidism, (5)35
amiodarone and, (3)65
anovulation in, (5)22
choriocarcinoma and, (5)35
etiology, (5)35
fetal, (3)23
Graves’ disease, (5)35
autoimmune diseases associated with, (5)35
treatment, (5)35
propranolol, (5)35
radioactive iodine, (5)35
surgery, (5)35
thionamides, (5)35
in hydatidiform mole, (5)35
iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis and, (5)35
masked, (5)35
molar pregnancy and, (5)35
neonatal, (3)23
osteoporosis in, (1)111
polycystic ovarian disease vs., (5)27
postpartum, (5)35
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
in pregnancy, (3)123; (5)35
anesthesia and, (3)91
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
struma ovarii and, (5)35
subacute and silent thyroiditis and, (5)35
thyroid carcinoma and, (5)35
thyroid storm and, (5)35
thyrotoxicosis factitia and, (5)35
toxic adenoma and, (5)35
toxic multinodular goiter and, (5)35
transient, of hyperemesis gravidarum, (3)23
TSH-dependent, (5)35
Hyperthyroxinemia
euthyroid, (5)34
in hyperemesis gravidarum, (5)35
Hypertonic saline, in labor induction abortion, (6)127, 4
Hypertrophy, defined, (2)14
Hyperventilation
for intracranial hemorrhage, in pregnancy, (3)54
in labor, regional analgesia and, (3)90
postoperative, (1)53
Hypervolemia, in pregnancy, (3)54
Hyphae, vaginitis and, (1)40
Hypnotics, in pregnancy, (2)33
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, (6)105
Hypoalbuminemia, dilutional, in pregnancy, (3)60
Hypocarbia, in labor, regional analgesia and, (3)90
Hypochondriasis, (6)70
Hypofibrinogenemia, congenital, placental abruption and, (2)50
Hypogastric artery
anatomy, (1)73; (2)5
aneurysms, (1)73
arteriovenous fistula, (1)73
catheterization, (1)73
distal, failure to atrophy, (1)73
embolization, in hemorrhage management, (1)73
ligation, for postpartum hemorrhage, (1)73–17; (2)80
Hypoglycemia
hyperalimentation and, (4)63
in infant of diabetic mother, (3)13
insulin-induced, adrenal cortical function and, (5)36
in pregnant diabetic, (3)13
Hypogonadism
familial, anovulation in, (5)22
hypergonadotropic
cerebellar ataxia with, (5)86
male infertility and, (5)65
and pituitary response to GnRH, (5)8
hypogonadotropic, (5)21
anovulation in, (5)22
genetic defects in, (5)22
male infertility and, (5)65
ovulation induction in, (5)71
in vitro fertilization in, (5)97
osteoporosis and, (1)111
Hypokalemia, postoperative, (1)53
Hypoleptinemia, anorexia nervosa and, (5)26
Hyponatremia, postoperative, (1)53
Hypoparathyroidism, in pregnancy, (3)23
Hypophysis. See Pituitary gland.
Hypospadias, (5)79
after intrauterine exposure to progestins, (6)37
pseudovaginal perineoscrotal, (1)19
Hypotension
in delivery, (3)8
intraoperative, intracranial hemorrhage and, in pregnancy, (3)54
maternal, local anesthetics and, fetal effects, (3)90
postoperative, (1)53
postural, in pregnancy, (3)8
supine, during pregnancy, (3)54
Hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis
anovulation and, (5)22
in menstrual cycle, (5)6
abnormalities of, (5)6
in puberty, (5)9
at onset, (5)9
Hypothalamic oversuppression syndrome, (5)21
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
function, laboratory evaluation, (5)36
mimicry of, paracrine interactions between villous trophoblast cells and, (5)39
Hypothalamic-pituitary axis
age-related changes, (5)72
contraception and, (6)12
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
in primary amenorrhea, (5)21
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, in male infertility, hormonal assessment of, (5)63
Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. See Hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, (5)34
evaluation of, (5)34
serum TSH concentration, (5)34
Hypothalamic-releasing factors, (5)10. See also specific factor.
angiotensin II, (5)10
corticotropin-releasing hormone, (5)10
gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (5)10
growth hormone-releasing hormone, (5)10
neuropeptide Y, (5)10
somatostatin, (5)10
substance P, (5)10
thyrotropin-releasing hormone, (5)10
Hypothalamus
in amenorrhea. See Amenorrhea, hypothalamic.
hormonal cytology, (1)29
in anovulation, (5)22
in corpus luteum regulation, in mid luteal phase, (5)14
feedback to, from ovaries, (5)6
abnormalities of, (5)6
hamartoma of, in precocious puberty, (5)16
in male, (5)16
management of, (5)16
inflammation, anovulation with, (5)22
in menstrual cycle
abnormalities of, (5)6
gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator in, (5)6
in ovarian steroidogenesis, (5)13
in puberty, gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in, (5)9
sex hormone effects, (6)20
tumors, anovulation with, (5)22
Hypothyroidism, (5)35
amiodarone and, (3)65
and 5α-reductase deficiency, (5)81
classification, (5)35
clinical manifestations, (5)35
etiology, (5)35
Klinefelter syndrome and, (5)92
laboratory diagnosis, (5)35
long-term thyroid therapy and, (5)35
myxedema coma, (5)35
neonatal, (3)60
pituitary, (5)25
polycystic ovarian disease vs., (5)27
precocious puberty and, (5)16
in male, (5)16
treatment of, (5)16
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
in pregnancy, (3)1
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
primary, (5)35
in puerperium, and depression, (6)84
screening, (5)35
secondary, (5)35
subclinical, (5)35
transient, (5)35
treatment, (5)35
uterine bleeding and, (5)23
Hypothyroidism, in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
Hypotonia, in newborn, (2)97
myasthenia gravis and, (3)63
Hypovolemia, management of, in neonatal resuscitation, (3)68
Hypoxemia, in pregnancy, (3)90
Hypoxia
fetal responses, (3)58
gradual, biophysical profile and, (3)77
intrauterine growth retardation and, (2)97
mechanisms of responses, (3)58
metabolic effects, (3)58
Hyskon, for uterine distention, in hysteroscopy, (1)117
Hysterectomy
abdominal
and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, (1)57
bladder flap in, (1)57
broad ligament in, (1)57
cardinal ligaments in, (1)57
cervix removal and cuff closure in, (1)57
cul-de-sac assessment in, (1)57
difficult, (1)57
fallopian tube in, (1)57
incision and dissection route, (1)1
ovary in, (1)57
preoperative evaluation, (1)57
round ligament in, (1)57
surgical field preparation, (1)57
technique, (1)57
total, (1)57
uterine vessels in, (1)57
for cancer, sexual dysfunction after, (4)68
in cervical carcinoma, (4)5
after radiation therapy, (4)11
radiation therapy after, (4)11
in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)3
cesarean, (2)75
complications
intraoperative, (2)75
postoperative, (2)75
indications, (2)75
for sterilization, (2)75
surgical pitfalls, (2)75
technique, (2)75
depression in, (6)89
difficult, (1)57
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
elective, ruling out carcinoma prior to, (1)54
endofascial, (1)1
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)19
enterocele after, preventing, (1)84, 6
fallopian tube prolapse after, (1)10
in gestational trophoblastic tumor
metastatic
high-risk/poor-prognosis, (4)48
low-risk/good-prognosis, (4)48
nonmetastatic, (4)48
in hydatidiform mole evacuation, (4)48
in leiomyoma, (1)14
for pain relief, (1)76
placenta accreta and, (2)49
placenta previa and, (2)49; (3)90
for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80; (3)90
preoperative considerations, (1)57
uterine sarcoma and, (4)23
preventing vaginal prolapse at time of, (1)84
progestins after, (1)110
psychologic aspects, (3)90
radical, for cervical carcinoma
complications of, (4)9
historical aspects of, (4)9
laparoscopic technique, (4)55
outcomes of, (4)9
patient selection for, (4)9
in pregnancy, (3)57
types of, (4)9
and reduced risk of ovarian cancer, (4)27
sexual activity after, (6)99
sterilization and, (6)45
subtotal
class intrafascial technique, (1)61
laparoscopic, (1)61
clinical experience, (1)61
historical aspects, (1)61
indications, (1)61
preparation, (1)61
technique, (1)61
total, complications of, (1)61
for uterine bleeding, (5)23
for uterine sarcoma, (4)23
vaginal, (1)59
adjunct vaginal cuff support, (1)84
antibiotic prophylaxis, (1)59
complications, (1)59
incision and dissection route, (1)1
indications, (1)59
laparoscopic-assisted, (1)5760, 119
in pelvic relaxation, (1)80
postoperative care, (1)59
preoperative considerations, (1)59
preoperative preparation of vagina, (1)59
technique, (1)59
vaginal prolapse and, (1)84
Hysteroflator, (1)118
Hysterography
and hysteroscopy, comparison of, (1)118
sonohysterography, (1)124
Hysterosalpingography (HSG), (1)67
advantages, (1)121
in Asherman’ syndrome, (1)118
diagnostic, (5)24
complications, (5)52
contraindications, (5)52
correlation with hysteroscopy and ultrasound, (1)121
in fallopian tube patency evaluation, (5)52
hysteroscopy compared with, (5)52
laparoscopy compared with, (5)52
postoperative, (1)67
proximal obstruction, (1)67
ultrasonography compared with, (5)52
findings, (5)52
and hysteroscopy
comparison of, (1)121
complementary roles of, (1)121
in infertility, (1)63; (5)50
of intrauterine adhesions, (1)121
before ovulation induction, (5)68
technique, (5)52
in urinary incontinence, (1)79
in uterine bleeding, (5)23
Hysteroscopes, (1)117
contact, (1)118
continuous flow, (1)38
diagnostic, (1)121
electrodes for, (1)117–10
energy sources for, (1)117
microhysteroscopes, (1)118
operative, (1)118–5
product information, (1)117
Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis, for Asherman’ syndrome, (5)24
Hysteroscopy, (1)54117,118. See also Endoscopy.
advantages of, (1)118
anesthesia for, (1)118
in Asherman’ syndrome, (1)118
diagnostic, (5)24
and assisted reproductive technologies, (1)121
biopsy using, (1)117
charting for, (1)118
cinematography in, (1)118
complications, (1)117
contact, (1)118
advantages and disadvantages, (1)118
applications, (1)118
instrumentation, (1)118
technique, (1)118
contraindications, (1)118
correlation with hysterosalpingography and ultrasound, (1)121
development of, (1)118
diagnostic, (1)118
applications of, (1)118
dilatation and curettage compared with, (1)11811
distending media for, (1)117, 121
in ectopic pregnancy, (1)121
electrosurgical, (1)117
in endometrial ablation, (1)38. See also Endometrium, ablation.
in endometrial biopsy, (1)117
of endometrial carcinoma, (4)12
in fallopian tube patency evaluation, (1)118–27; (5)52
hysterosalpingography compared with, (5)52
forceps for, (1)117
in foreign body removal, (1)117
historical perspective on, (1)118
and hysterography, comparison of, (1)118
and hysterosalpingography
comparison of, (1)121
complementary roles of, (1)121
indications, (1)118
in infertility, (5)50
advantages of, (1)121
diagnostic, (1)121
findings in, (1)121
indications for, (1)121
therapeutic, (1)121
instrumentation, (1)117,118, 14, 121
ancillary, (1)117, 118
product information, (1)117
for intrauterine adhesions, (1)117; (5)24
of intrauterine foreign bodies, (1)117
and laparoscopy, concomitant use of, (1)121
laser, (1)34
complications, (1)34
excisional, (1)34
of leiomyomas, (1)14–14
light sources for, (1)117
methods, (1)121
in metroplasty, (1)117
microhysteroscopy, (1)118
in myomectomy, (1)14–14
office, (1)118
operative, (1)117,118, 121
in office setting, (1)118
photography in, (1)118
of polyps, (1)117
scissors for, (1)117, 118
sterilization methods using, (6)40. See also Sterilization, hysteroscopic
surgical applications, (1)117
technique, (1)117
therapeutic, (1)117, 121
in infertility, (1)121
timing of, (1)121
in tubal cannulation, (1)117, 118
in tubal cornual occlusion, (1)121, 15
in tubal sterilization, (1)118
ultrasonography and, (1)124
in uterine bleeding, (5)23
in uterine bleeding abnormalities, (1)117; (5)23
uterine distention for, (1)117, 23, 121
complications of, (1)121
fluids for
high-viscosity, (1)117
low-viscosity, (1)117
for uterine septa, (1)117
video system for, (1)117, 121
Hysterotomy
previous, and placenta previa, (2)49
shoulder dystocia and, (2)79

 

Subject Index I

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Ibandronate, (1)111
Ibuprofen
before dilatation and curettage, (1)54
in dysmenorrhea, (1)18
for menorrhagia, (5)23
response to, gender differences in, (3)60
IFN. See Interferons (IFN).
Ifosfamide
for endometrial cancer, (4)21
for ovarian cancer, (4)36
IgA nephropathy, in pregnancy, (3)6
IGF-I. See Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I).
IgM-IFA test, in congenital toxoplasmosis, (3)50
IL. See Interleukin.
Ileitis, regional. See Crohn’ disease.
Ileus, paralytic, after gynecologic surgery, (1)74
Iliac artery. See Hypogastric artery.
Illness, severe, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Imaging. See specific disorder;specific technique.
Imidazoles, in pregnancy, (2)6
Imipenem
for pelvic infections, (1)48
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Imipenem/cilastatin, for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
Imipramine (Tofranil)
teratogenicity of, (2)6
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85
Imiquimod
for condyloma acuminatum, (4)2
for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)40
Imitrex (sumatriptan), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Immune cells
antigenic education, (5)49
decidual, immunoreactivity, control of, (5)49
evaluation of, (5)49
in female reproductive tract, (5)49
homing to female reproductive tract, (5)49
in immune tolerance, (5)49
maturation, (5)49
Immune complexes, circulating, in vasectomized men, (6)49
Immune globulins. See also Immunization.
intravenous, in Rh alloimmunization suppression, (3)66
Immune mediators. See also specific immune mediator.
in antitumor responses, (4)60
Immune response
acquired, (5)49
altered
in endometriosis, (1)20
in endometriosis and infertility, (5)59
antitumor, (4)60
cell-mediated, in reproduction, (5)58
cellular, (5)49
to human papillomavirus-infected cervical epithelial cells, enhancement of, (4)60
humoral, (5)49
and pregnancy loss, (5)49
innate, (5)49
at maternal-fetal interface, (5)49
in reproductive epithelium, (6)12
Rh, (3)66
in vasectomized men, (6)49
Immune system, (3)33
cellular immunity, (3)33; (5)49
components of, in antitumor responses, (4)60
in female genital tract, (3)35
in fertility control, (6)12
in HPV infection, (4)2
humoral immunity, (3)33
antibody, (3)33
antisperm antibodies, (5)58
complement, (3)33
mucosal, (5)49
peripheral, (5)49
in pregnancy, pharmacologic implications, (3)60
Immune tolerance, (5)49
Immunity, innate, (3)33
Immunization
administration of, (3)52
for aging woman, (1)108
cytomegalovirus, (1)41; (3)45
for fertility control, (6)12
in pregnancy, (3)52
agents available for, (3)52
BCG vaccine, (3)49
contraindications to, (3)52
indications for, (3)52
risk assessment before, (3)52
Rh. See Rh isoimmunization.
rubella, (3)46, 19
sperm, (6)13
varicella-zoster virus, (3)46, 8
Immunoassay
hCG, (5)39
of steroid hormones, (5)1
Immunodeficiency diseases. See Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV).
Immunoglobulin(s)
in antimicrobial immunity, (3)33
in human milk, (5)31
IgE reactivity, in breast-feeding mother, (2)93
IgG, anti-D, (3)66
reactions to, (3)66
IgM, anti-D, (3)66
intravenous
for recurrent pregnancy loss, (5)49
in treatment of septic abortion, (6)118
in pregnancy, (3)52
specific. See also Immunization.
Immunologic testing, in pregnancy loss, (5)49
Immunology
cancer, (4)60
antitumor responses, immune system components in, (4)60
immunotherapy, (4)60
of early pregnancy, studies of, (5)49
endometriosis, (1)20
immune response. See Immune response.
infertility, (5)58. See also Infertility, immune aspects.
reproductive, studies of, (5)49
Immunomodulation, therapeutic, in pregnancy loss, (5)48
Immunopotentiation, in gene therapy, (4)64
Immunostimulating therapy, for recurrent pregnancy loss, (5)49
Immunosuppressant agents
in pregnancy, (3)20, 60
in pregnancy loss, (5)49
Immunosuppression
candidiasis and, (1)37
colposcopy and, (1)30
Immunotherapy
adoptive, (4)60
biologic response modifiers in, (4)60
in gynecologic cancer, (4)60
monoclonal antibodies and, (4)60
in ovarian cancer, (4)36
Impedance plethysmography, in deep vein thrombosis, (2)31
diagnosis, (3)17
postoperative, (1)95
Impetigo herpetiformis, in pregnancy, (2)32
Implanon contraceptive system, (6)38. See also Contraception, implantable.
Implantable contraception, (3)38. See also Contraception, implantable; Norplant contraceptive system.
Implantation, (2)2; (5)47
abnormalities, endometriosis and, (5)59
animal models of, (5)47
apposition in, (5)47
blastocyst, prostaglandins and, (5)42
endometrial-embryonic dialogues in, (5)47
endometrial preparation for, in luteal phase, (5)56
epithelial penetration in, (5)47
events before, in embryo, (5)47
failure of, luteal phase deficiency and, (5)47
preparation of uterus for, (5)38
steroid endocrinology of, (5)38
uterine receptivity to, regulation of, (5)47
Imprinting, genomic, (5)74
Imuran. See Azathioprine.
Inappropriate ADH syndrome, vasopressin levels in patients with, (5)7
Inapsine. See Droperidol.
Inborn errors of metabolism. See also specific disorder.
breast feeding and, (2)93
Incarcerated uterus, pessary in, (1)39
Incest, (6)96
Incidentalomas, thyroid, (5)34
Incision(s)
cesarean delivery
skin, (2)74
uterine, (2)74, 11
J-shaped, (4)7
sunrise, (4)7, 13
vasovasostomy, (5)66
Incisional hernia, in laparoscopy, (1)119
Inclusion cysts
female circumcision and, (1)96
vaginal, (1)10
Incompetent cervix, (3)53. See also Cervix uteri, incompetent
Incompetent patient, informed consent not required from, (1)99
Incontinence. See Anal incontinence; Urinary incontinence; Urinary stress incontinence.
Inderal. See Propranolol.
Indinavir, in pregnancy, (3)47
Indomethacin
in dysmenorrhea, (1)18
fetal effects, (3)87
in labor inhibition, (3)87
in male infertility, (5)65
in pregnancy, (3)20
as tocolytic, (3)60
Induction, labor. See Labor, induction of.
Infant(s). See also Newborn.
beriberi in, (2)93
breast-fed. See Breast feeding; Lactation.
inborn errors of metabolism in, breast feeding and, (2)93
nutritional deficiencies, clinical signs, (2)93
premature. See also Labor, premature (preterm).
breast feeding in, (2)93
enteral feeding in, (2)12
maternal infections and, (3)33
mortality rates, (3)1
psychologic impact, (3)3
Infant formula
nutrient content, (2)93
phenylalanine in, (2)93
Infantile polycystic kidney disease, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Infantilism, pituitary, hormonal cytology in, (1)29
Infarction
maternal floor, (2)108
myocardial. See Myocardial infarction.
Infections. See also specific infection.
actinomycosis, (1)41
after female circumcision, (1)96
bacterial. See specific infection.
catheterization and, (4)63
cytomegalovirus, (1)41
Entamoeba histolytica, (1)41
enteritides, (1)41
fetal, (2)108
cordocentesis in detection, (3)80
maternal surgery and, (3)54
of genital tract. See Genital tract infections.
group B β-hemolytic streptococcus, (1)41
gynecologic. See also Genital tract infections; Infections, pelvic.
gynecologic history, (1)6
hepatitis B, (1)41
infertility and, (5)57
intra-amniotic, (2)107108; (3)37
diagnosis, (3)37
fetal response to, (2)108
microbiology, (3)37
outcome, (3)37–9
maternal, (3)37
neonatal, (3)37–8
pathogenesis, (3)37
prevalence of, (3)37
prevention, (3)37
risk factors for, (3)37
treatment, (1)37
intrauterine, (2)108
intrauterine device and, (6)29
in maternal-fetal medicine, preconception counseling and, (3)33. See also specific infection.
control, (3)33
disease entities in obstetrics, (3)33, 16–17
areas of physician concern, (3)33
diagnosis, (3)33
magnitude of the problem, (3)33
spectrum of disease-causing agents, 3, (3)33
host factors and the disease process, (3)33
fetal defenses, (3)33
immune system, (3)33
cellular immunity, (3)33
humoral immunity, (3)33
innate immunity, (3)33
maternal defenses, (3)33
neonatal defenses, (3)33
organismic factors of disease processes, (3)33
basic steps in pathogenesis, (3)33
effects on fetus, (3)33
abortion and stillbirth, (3)33
congenital disease, (3)33
developmental anomalies, (3)33
low birth weight, (3)33
persistent postnatal infection, (3)33
prematurity, (3)33
principles of infection and immunity, (3)33
risks associated with infections during pregnancy, (2)14; (3)33
neonatal, after fetal intrauterine transfusion, (3)81–12
obstetric
antibiotics for, (3)35
adverse effects of, (3)35
in asymptomatic bacteriuria, (3)35
in breast-feeding mother, (3)35
cost of, (3)35
fetal effects of, (3)35
with intra-amniotic disease, (3)35
in mastitis, (3)35
pharmacology of, (3)35
in postpartum endometritis, (3)35
in prevention
of bacterial endocarditis, (3)35
of neonatal sepsis, (3)35
of postcesarean endometritis, (3)35
of preterm birth, (3)35
in sexually transmitted disease, (3)35
in vaginitis, (3)35
incidence of, (3)35
microbes in, (3)35
pathophysiology of, (3)35
opportunistic, in AIDS, pregnancy and, (3)47
parasitic, in pregnancy, (3)51
pelvic, (1)41, 48. See also specific infection.
after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
female circumcision and, (1)96
pelvic inflammatory disease. See Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
perinatal, (2)41. See also specific infection.
postoperative, (1)47
after laparoscopic sterilization, (6)43
after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
after vasectomy, (6)47
diagnosis of, (1)47
epidemiology of, (1)47
management of, (1)47
microbiology of, (1)47
at operative site, (1)47
pelvic abscess as, (1)47
prevention of, (1)47
septic pelvic vein thrombophlebitis as, (1)47
surgical wound, (1)47
postpartum, (3)37, 39
abdominal wound, (3)39
abscesses
disturbed, (3)39
formation, (3)39
after preterm premature rupture of membranes, (3)37
anesthesia and, (3)37
breast, (3)37
complications, (3)39
early, (3)39
endometritis, 3-4, (3)39–9
episiotomy, (3)39
evaluation, (3)39
genital tract, (3)37, 39–12. See also Genital tract infections, puerperal.
intravenous, (3)39
late, (3)39
necrotizing fasciitis, (3)39
episiotomy, (3)39
nerve block, (3)39
pathophysiology, (3)39
pseudomembranous colitis, (3)39
soft tissue, (3)39–9
toxic shock syndrome, (3)39
urinary tract, (3)37
uterine, late, (3)39
in pregnancy
burns and, (3)54
sexual activity and, (2)20
skin, (2)32
teratogenic effects, (2)14
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
pregnancy loss and, (3)69; (5)48, 25, 49
overlap of, (5)48
premature rupture of membranes and, (2)41
puerperal, (3)37,39. See also specific infection.
group B streptococcal, (1)41
and placenta previa, (2)49
surgical therapy for, (3)37
rectovaginal fistula and, (1)91
semen analysis for, in infertility, (5)63
septic abortion. See Abortion, septic.
skin, in pregnancy, (2)32
systemic mycoses, (1)41
urinary tract. See Urinary tract infections.
vaginal, (1)37,40
viral. See specific infection.
vulvar, (1)11
wound. See Wound infection.
Inferior vena cava filters, for venous thromboembolism, in pregnancy, (3)17
Inferior vena cava interruption, (1)95
Infertility. See also Anovulation.
after abortion, (6)80
after appendectomy, (5)61
after cesarean delivery, (5)61
after intrauterine device use, (6)29
age and, (1)72; (5)50
adrenal function, (5)72
environmental exposures, (5)72
fallopian tube function, (5)72
genetics, (5)72
hypothalamic-pituitary function, (5)72
ovarian function, (5)72
pathologic conditions, (5)72
uterine function, (5)72
amenorrhea-associated, management, (5)21
artificial insemination in. See Therapeutic (artificial) insemination.
in Asherman’ syndrome, surgical treatment, (5)61
assisted reproductive technologies and, (6)74
causes of, (5)50
clinical services for, (5)50
definition of, (5)50
electrosurgery for, (1)32
endometriosis and. See also Endometriosis, and infertility.
etiology of, immune-mediated, (5)58
evaluation of, (5)50
couple as unit in, (5)50
psychologic considerations in, (3)74
hysterosalpingography in, (5)50
hysteroscopy in, (1)121
initial consultation in, (5)50
laboratory tests in, (5)50
laparoscopy in, (5)50
ovulation documentation in, (5)5054. See also Ovulation, documentation of.
physical examination in, (5)50
postcoital testing in, (5)5051, 53. See also Postcoital test.
psychological, (5)50
timing of tests in, (5)50
financial considerations, (6)74
gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) in. See Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT).
genetic disorders and, preimplantation diagnosis, (5)107
genital mycoplasmas and, (5)57
genital tuberculosis and, (1)49
management of, (1)49
gynecologic history, (1)6
in HIV-infected woman, management of, (1)46
HIV infection and, (5)57
iatrogenic, (3)54
immune aspects of, (5)58
antisperm antibodies
detection, (1)58
effects on gametes, (5)58
humoral, (5)58
antizona antibodies, (5)58
autoimmunity to sperm
clinical assessment of effects, (5)58
vasectomy and, (5)58
cell-mediated, (5)58
etiology, (5)58
female immunity to sperm, (5)58
male immunity to sperm, (5)58
evaluation of, (5)50
immunity to sperm
diagnosis, (1)58
treatment, (5)58
preimplantation embryo reactions to sperm, (5)58
treatment, (5)58
infections and, (5)57
lower genital tract, (5)57
cervicitis, (5)57
endogenous genital tract flora, (5)57
therapeutic considerations, (5)57
vulvovaginitis, (5)57
upper genital tract, (5)57
endometritis, (5)57
pelvic inflammatory disease, (5)57
chlamydial, (5)57
gonococcal, (5)57
nongonococcal-nonchlamydial, (5)57
pathogenesis, (5)57
predisposing factors, (5)57
therapeutic considerations, (5)57
in vitro fertilization in. See Fertilization, in vitro.
lactation and, (5)31; (6)36
laparoscopy in, (1)62
equipment for, (5)62
indications, (5)62
as life crisis, (6)74
male
artificial insemination for. See Therapeutic (artificial) insemination.
asthenospermia, (5)65
conditions associated with, (5)65
etiology of, (5)50, 63
eugonadotropic oligospermia, (5)65
evaluation of, (5)63
diagnostic, (5)65
genetic analysis in, (5)63
history in, (5)63
hormone assessment in, (5)63
laboratory tests in, (5)65
physical examination in, (5)50
semen analysis in, (5)50
sperm function analysis in, (5)63
ultrasonography in, (5)63
urinalysis in, postejaculatory, (5)63
hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, (5)65
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, (5)65
immune aspects. See Infertility, immune aspects of.
infections and, (5)57
medical treatment, (5)65
artificial insemination, (5)65. See also Therapeutic (artificial) insemination.
in asthenospermia, (5)65
clomiphene citrate, (5)65
gonadotropins, (5)65
indomethacin, (5)65
in obstruction, (5)65
in retrograde ejaculation, (5)65
tamoxifen, (5)65
testolactone, (5)65
reproductive physiology and, (5)65
semen analysis in, (5)50. See also Semen, analysis of.
surgical treatment, (5)66
on ejaculatory ducts, (5)66
electroejaculation, (5)66
of epididymis, (5)66
orchiopexy, (5)66
sperm retrieval techniques, (5)66
varicocelectomy, (5)66
vasovasostomy for, (5)66
in vitro fertilization in, (5)65. See also Fertilization, in vitro.
myomas and, (1)58
myomectomy causing, (1)58
myomectomy in, (1)58
oocyte donation in, (5)100. See also Oocyte(s), donation.
ovarian cancer and, (4)27
ovulation induction. See Ovulation, induction of.
ovulatory dysfunction in, management of, (5)50
pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)44; (5)57
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
treatment of, (5)27
prevention, by early diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, (5)57
psychological issues, (6)74
anger, (6)74
background information, (6)74
depression, (6)74
emotional impact, (6)74
gamete donation and, (6)74
guilt, (6)74
losses related to, (6)74
marital relationship, (6)74
self-esteem, (6)74
sexuality, (6)74
surprise, (6)74
psychological stress and, (6)74
psychologic issues, (3)74
surgical treatment, (1)20; (5)5761
alternatives to, (5)61
cervical procedures, (5)61
electrosurgery in, (1)32
laparoscopic, (5)62
lasers in, (5)61
microsurgery, (5)61. See also Microsurgery.
operative endoscopy, (5)61
complications, (5)61
ovarian wedge resection, (5)61
pelviscopic, (5)61
transplantation, (5)61
tubal
for bipolar tubal disease, (5)106
proximal recannulation, (5)106
tubocornual anastomosis, (5)106
tubal ectopic pregnancy and, (5)61
tuboperitoneal disease and, (5)61
adhesiolysis, (5)61
distal tubal obstruction
complete, (5)61
incomplete, (5)61
endometriosis, (5)61
tubal obstruction, (5)61
uterine pathology and, (5)61
Asherman’ syndrome, (5)61
fibroids, (5)61
uterine septum, (5)61
vaginal procedures, (5)61
surgical treatment, tubal, (5)106
fimbriolysis and fimbrioplasty, (5)106
neosalpingostomy, (5)106
preoperative assessment, (5)106
reanastomosis, (5)106
third party reproduction and, (6)74
treatment of
association with higher-order gestations, (2)83
medical, and ovarian cancer, (4)27
surgical. See Infertility, surgical treatment.
in vitro fertilization in. See Fertilization, in vitro.
ultrasound in, (5)55
for assisted reproductive technologies, (5)55
corpus luteum function and regression and, (5)55
in ectopic pregnancy, (5)55
embryo transfer and, (5)55
invasive procedures guided by, (5)55
luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome and, (5)55
male infertility, (5)63
oocyte retrieval and, (5)55
for ovarian follicular development evaluation, (5)55–5
in ovarian follicular reserve evaluation, (5)55
oviduct imaging, (5)55
for ovulation induction monitoring, (5)55
polycystic ovarian syndrome and, (5)55
for uterine evaluation, (5)55
unexplained
diagnosis of, (5)53
management of, (5)53
ovulation induction in, (5)68
uterine factors in, (1)121
in women
with disabilities, (1)102
with endometriosis, fecundity and, (5)59
Infibulation, (1)96. See also Female circumcision.
Inflammation. See also specific inflammatory disorder.
cytologic changes, (1)29
placental, (2)108
Inflammation, breast, (1)27. See also Mastitis
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
in pregnancy, (3)30
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
and rectovaginal fistula, (1)91
Inflammatory response syndrome, fetal, intra-amniotic infection and, (3)37
Inflatoball pessary, (1)39
Influenza
in pregnancy, (2)41
vaccination against
in aging woman, (1)108
in pregnancy, (3)52
Informed consent, (1)99
for abortion, (6)122
application of, (1)99
competency of patient, (6)89
exceptions, (1)99
for gynecologic surgery, (6)89
historical background, (1)99
for ovulation induction, (5)69
reasonable doctor standard, (1)99
reasonable patient standard, (1)99
for vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, (1)99; (2)65
for vasectomy, (6)47
Ingram passive dilation technique, in vaginoplasty, in müllerian duct absence, (1)70
Inguinal hernia, (2)97
Inguinal nodes, vulvar carcinoma involving, (4)41
INH. See Isoniazid (INH).
Inhalation injury, in pregnancy, (3)54
Inheritance
Mendelian, (3)115; (5)74, 75
alleles, (5)74
mutations as source of, (5)74
autosomal dominant, (5)74
autosomal recessive, (5)74
exceptions, (5)74
linkage, (5)74
principles, (5)74
types, (5)74
X-linked, (5)74
Y-linked, (5)74
mitochondrial, (2)14; (5)74
molecular basis, (5)74
multifactorial, definition of, (5)75
polygenic, (5)75
and continuous genotypic variation, (5)75
definition of, (5)75
single-gene vs., (5)75
vs. multifactorial, (5)75
polygenic/multifactorial, (5)75
consanguineous unions and, (5)75
criteria for, (5)75
discontinuation in, (5)75
genetic determination and, (5)75
genetic liabilities and, (5)75
heritability and, (5)75
identification of genes responsible for, (5)75
incidence of, (5)75
pyloric stenosis, (5)75
quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and, (5)75
recurrence risk and
as function of prior offspring, (5)75
as function of relatedness, (5)75
by severity of defect, (5)75
by sex, (5)75
threshold model, (5)75
vs. polygenic, (5)75
single-gene vs. polygenic, (5)75
vs. shared environmental exposures, (5)75
Inhibin A, dimeric, in screening for chromosomal abnormalities, (3)114
Inhibins
activin and, (5)39
intraovarian system of, (5)11
FSH secretion and, (5)8
in menstrual cycle, (5)54
in ovarian follicle development, (5)6
in ovarian-hypothalamic-pituitary feedback, (5)6
and pituitary response to GnRH, (5)8
placental, (5)39
secretion of, by corpus luteum
in early luteal phase, (5)14
in late luteal phase, (5)14
in mid luteal phase, (5)14
in pregnancy, (5)14
Injectable contraceptives. See also Medroxyprogesterone.
Insemination, (5)45
artificial. See Therapeutic (artificial) insemination.
intrauterine, and clomiphene-induced ovulation, (5)68
in in vitro fertilization, (5)97
Insomnia, psychopharmacologic treatment, (6)73
Insular carcinoid, ovarian, (4)31
Insulin
effect on breast growth and development during pregnancy, (5)31
hypoglycemia induced by, adrenal cortical function and, (5)36
in patients on hyperalimentation, (4)63–22
in pregnancy, (3)14
in pubertal growth, (5)9
resistance to, (5)29
clinical assessment, (5)29
extreme, vs. polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
hyperandrogenism and, (5)29
in polycystic ovarian disease, (1)29; (5)27–7
significance, (5)29
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. See Diabetes mellitus.
Insulin-induced hypoglycemia test, (5)36
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGF-BP1), and implantation/placentation, (5)38
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)
growth hormone and, perimenopausal levels of, (1)109
and ovarian function, (5)11
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
in puberty, (5)9, 16
as target for fertility regulation, (6)12
in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Insulin resistance syndrome, (5)29
Insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans syndrome, hyperandrogenic, (5)28
Insulin-sensitizing agents, in polycystic ovary syndrome, (5)28
Insurance, computerization, (1)100
Intal (cromolyn sodium), in pregnancy, (2)6
Integrins, (2)14
of blastocyst/embryo, and implantation, (5)38
endometrial, in implantation, (5)38
Intelligence scores. See also Mental retardation.
radiation exposure in utero and, (2)101
in Turner’ syndrome, (5)85
Intensive care nursery, staff psychological considerations in, (3)3
Intercostal muscles, (3)26
Intercourse. See Coitus.
Interferon-α, in intraperitoneal immunotherapy, (4)60
Interferon-γ, in intraperitoneal immunotherapy, (4)60
Interferons (IFN)
gamma, for Chagas’ disease, (3)51
for HPV infection, (4)2
Interleukin-2, in intraperitoneal immunotherapyI, (4)60
Interleukin-6, in ovarian cancer pathogenesis, (4)60
Interleukin-10, in ovarian cancer pathogenesis, (4)60
Interleukin-1α (IL-1α), in luteinizing hormone inhibition, (5)6
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)
ovarian, (5)11
in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Intermittent pneumatic compression, postoperative, in deep venous thrombosis prevention, (1)95
Internal pudendal artery, (1)1
International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system. See FIGO staging.
Internet, perinatal databases on, (3)2
Interpersonal relations, and postpartum depression, (6)84
InterStim therapy, for female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Interstitial nephritis, in pregnancy, (3)6
Interventricular septum, congenital defects, ultrasound detection, (3)72
Intervertebral disk, herniated, (3)19
Interview
marital counseling, (6)98
physician-patient relationship in, (6)72
establishment of, (6)72
techniques, (6)70
Intervillositis, chronic, (2)108
Intestinal mucinous tumors, ovarian, of low malignant potential, (4)29
Intestines. See Bowel; Colon.
Intimate partner violence (IPV), (6)107
asking about, (6)107
clues, (6)107
community response, (6)107
confronting issue, (6)107
medicolegal considerations, (6)107
in pregnancy, (6)107
safety plan in, developing, (6)107
Intracerebral hemorrhage, in hypertensive encephalopathy, treating, (3)5
Intracranial pressure, in hypertensive encephalopathy, lowering, (3)5
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, (5)45
vasectomy reversal vs., (6)48
in in vitro fertilization, (5)97
preimplantation aneuploidy diagnosis after, (5)108
sperm viability in, (5)63
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro fertilization with, (5)66
Intraplacental pressures, in fetal blood volume control, (3)58
Intrauterine devices (IUDs), (6)1229
actinomycosis and, (1)29
adolescent use, (1)22; (6)9
in cardiovascular disease, (6)14
compliance, (6)10
continuation rates with, (6)29
copper T 380A, (6)29
in diabetes mellitus, (6)14
ectopic pregnancy and, (1)69
efficacy of, (6)3
in epilepsy, (6)14
expulsion of, (6)29
hormonal side effects of, (6)29
in human immunodeficiency virus infection, (6)14
in hypercoagulability, (6)14
infection and, (6)29
insertion of, (6)29
complications of, (6)29
postabortion, (6)122
levonorgestrel-releasing, (6)29
mechanisms of action of, (6)29
menstrual changes and, (6)29
in migraine headache, (6)14
misplaced (forgotten), hysteroscopy for, (1)117
noncontraceptive benefits of, (6)29
pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)44; (5)57
in postcoital birth control, (6)29
postcoital use, (6)26
as postpartum contraceptive, (6)15
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
pregnancy with, (6)29
progestin-bearing
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
postmenopausal use, (1)110
recurrent abortion and, (3)69
removal of, (6)29
fertility after, (6)29
hysteroscopic, (1)117
safety of, (6)29
salpingitis and, (1)44
in sickle cell disease, (6)14
in systemic lupus erythematosus, (6)14
teratogenicity potential, (1)37
types of, (6)29
ultrasonic localization, (1)101
utilization of, (6)29
candidate selection for, (6)29
in valvular heart disease, (6)14
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), (3)1,74
amniotic fluid volume and, (3)77
antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
antenatal management, (3)74
asymmetric, (2)97
biophysical profile, (3)74
confined placental mosaicism and, (5)48
contraction stress test, (3)74
cytogenetic analysis, (5)73
definitions, (2)14; (3)74
diagnosis, (3)74
adjunctive tests, (3)74
cordocentesis, (3)80
drug-related, (3)6
extrinsic, (3)1
fetoplacental perfusion abnormalities and, (2)108
head circumference/abdominal circumference ratio and, (3)74
higher-order multiple gestations and, (2)83
incidence, (3)1
intrinsic, (3)1
management protocols, (3)74
maternal malnutrition and, (3)54
nonstress test, (3)74
oligohydramnios and, (3)74
physical findings in neonate, (2)97
placental dysmorphogenesis and, (2)106
placental grade and, (3)74
placental vascular lesions and, (2)108
ponderal index and, (3)74
prenatal diagnosis, (3)1
risk factors, (2)14; (3)1
severe early-onset restriction, cordocentesis in evaluation, (3)80
symmetric, (2)97
total intrauterine volume and, (3)1
Intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC), (3)67
Intrauterine transfusion. See Transfusion, intrauterine.
Intravenous drug abuse. See also Substance abuse.
Intravenous hydration, in labor, (2)68
Intravenous infection, postpartum, (3)39
Intravenous pyelography, in cervical cancer staging, (4)7
Intraventricular hemorrhage
after preterm premature rupture of membranes, (3)37
intra-amniotic infection and, (3)37
Intrinsic (urethral) sphincter deficiency (ISD). See also Urinary stress incontinence.
definition of, (1)94
diagnosis, (1)94
Introital stenosis, reconstructive surgery in, (1)11; (4)53
Introitus
female circumcision and, (1)96. See also Female circumcision.
obstruction, (1)11
Inversions, parental, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
Inversion technique, for rectovaginal fistula, (1)91
In vitro fertilization. See Fertilization, in vitro.
Iodide, in pregnancy, (2)6
Iodination, tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin, (5)34
Iodine
active transport in thyroid, (5)34
in cervical cancer screening, visual, (1)33
deficiency, (2)93
radioactive
in Graves’ disease, (5)35
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Iodoquinol, in Entamoeba histolytica infection, (3)51
Iodothyronine deiodinases, (5)34
Ipriflavone, in postmenopausal osteoporosis, (1)111
Iridium, in radiation therapy, for cervical carcinoma, (4)11
Iris coloboma, in newborn, (2)97
Iron
deficiency
in aging woman, (1)108
in infant, (2)93
in infant formula, (2)93
intake, in pregnancy, (2)7
in milk, (2)93
placental transfer, (3)59
requirements, (2)93
in lactation, (2)93
in pregnancy, (2)13
saturation, in pregnancy, (3)54
supplementation
in lactation, vegetarian diet and, (2)93
in pregnancy, (2)7
Iron deficiency anemia, (3)16
differential diagnosis, (3)16
iron absorption, (3)16
conditions affecting, (3)16
iron compartments, (3)16
enzymatic iron, (3)16
hemoglobin iron, (3)16
labile iron pool, (3)16
myoglobin iron, (3)16
storage iron, (3)16
transport iron, (3)16
iron homeostasis, (3)16
iron therapy, (3)16
laboratory assessment, (3)16
pica and, (3)16
Irradiation, in pregnancy. See Radiation exposure; Radiation therapy.
Irrigation, during tubal sterilization reversal, (6)46
Irritable bowel syndrome, in pregnancy, (3)30
Irving sterilization procedure, (2)92; (6)39
Ischemia
pituitary, anovulation with, (5)22
and stroke, oral contraceptives and, (6)23
tight sutures and, in abdominal wall surgery, (1)56
Ischemic heart disease, in pregnancy, (3)11
Ischemic necrosis, of distant organs in placental abruption, (2)50
Ischiorectal fossa, (2)5
ISD. See Intrinsic (urethral) sphincter deficiency (ISD).
Islets of Langerhans, development, (2)12
Isochromosome, (5)73
Isoflavones, in menopause, (1)110
Isoimmune hemolytic disease. See Rh isoimmunization.
Isoimmunization, Rh. See Rh isoimmunization.
Isoniazid (INH)
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)49
safety of, (3)60
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
in tuberculosis, genital, (1)49
Isoprostanes, (5)42
Isoproterenol (Isuprel), in pregnancy, (2)6
Isotopes. See Radioisotopes.
Isotretinoin (Accutane)
patients using, contraceptive efficacy among, (6)3
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Isoxsuprine
effects on placental blood flow, (3)62
for inhibition of preterm labor, (3)60
Isthmic-ampullary reanastomosis, in tubal sterilization reversal, (6)46
Isthmic-isthmic reanastomosis, in tubal sterilization reversal, (6)46
Isuprel (isoproterenol), in pregnancy, (2)6
Itraconazole, transplacental transfer of, (3)34
IUDs. See Intrauterine devices (IUDs).
IUGR. See Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).
IUPC (intrauterine pressure catheter), (3)67
Ivermectin
for onchocerciasis, (3)51
for strongyloidiasis, (3)51
IVF. See Fertilization, in vitro.

 

Subject Index J

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Jadelle contraceptive system, (6)38. See also Contraception, implantable.
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, (1)45; (3)42
Jaundice
in newborn, (2)97
in pregnancy, (2)32; (3)29
Jejunal feeding, (4)63
Jellies, spermicidal. See Spermicides.
Jirasek’ stages of human prenatal development, (2)14
Jodbasedow, (5)35
Joel-Cohen incision, (2)74
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome, (5)90
Jones metroplasty, (1)70

 

Subject Index K

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Kala-azar, (3)51
Kallman syndrome, (5)22
Kanamycin
in chancroid, (1)41
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Kaposi’ sarcoma, vulvar, (1)9; (4)40
Karyotype. See also Cytogenetics.
fetal, (5)73
cordocentesis and, (3)80
of 47,XXX female, (5)89
of 47,XXY male with Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
of 47,XYY male, (5)89
Kegel exercises
for overactive bladder, (1)88
for pelvic relaxation, (1)80
postpartum, and sexual function, (6)99
during pregnancy, (2)8
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85(1)87
Kennedy syndrome, (5)73
Keratan sulfate, endometrial, in luteal phase, (5)38
Keratinous cysts, aspiration cytology, (4)52
Keratohyaline granules, squamous epithelial, (1)29
Ketamine, in pain management, in gynecologic cancer, (4)58
Ketanserine, for preeclampsia, (3)60
Ketoacidosis, diabetic, during pregnancy, (3)13
Ketoconazole
for candidiasis, (1)37
chronic, (1)40
for Cushing’ syndrome, (5)37
for hirsutism, (5)28
for precocious puberty, male familial, (5)16
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
3-Ketodesogestrel, in Implanon contraceptive system, (6)38. See also Contraception, implantable.
Ketoprofen, in dysmenorrhea, (1)18
17-Ketosteroid reductase deficiency, (5)82
Kidney(s). See also Renal.
agenesis
with double uterus and obstructed hemivagina, (1)70
prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
anatomic and physiologic changes, during pregnancy, (2)13
biopsy
in acute cortical necrosis, (3)6
postpartum, (3)6
in pregnancy, (3)6
blood flow in, in pregnancy, pharmacokinetic effect of, (3)35
congenital anomalies
müllerian aplasia and, (5)90
ultrasound diagnosis, (3)64, 72
infantile polycystic kidney disease, (3)72
multicystic-dysplastic kidney disease, (3)72
developmental defects, and pregnancy, (3)6
disease. See also Kidneys; specific disease.
multicystic-dysplastic, (3)72
polycystic, infantile, (3)72
in pregnancy, (3)6. See also Pregnancy, kidney disease in.
in drug elimination, in aging woman, (1)108
embryonic and fetal development, (2)12
failure
postpartum, (2)90
in pregnancy
acute, (3)6
HELLP syndrome and, (3)6
preeclampsia and, (3)6
chronic, (3)6
end-stage, (3)6
failure of
in hypertensive encephalopathy, treating, (3)5
fetal, ultrasound evaluation, (3)72
function
in pregnancy, (3)6
studies, in pregnancy, (3)6
ischemic damage to, in placental abruption, (2)50
lithiasis of, and bacteriuria, in pregnancy, (3)35
nephrotic syndrome, (4)63
percutaneous nephrostomy, (4)54
postpartum changes in, (2)90
in preeclampsia, (3)6
in pregnancy, (3)54
pyelonephritis in
after pelvic exenteration, (4)10
postpartum, (3)37
solitary pelvic, (1)4
transplantation
infants born to mothers with, (3)60
pregnancy after, (3)6
anesthesia and, (3)91
Wilms’ tumor of. See Wilms’ tumor.
Kilocalories. See Calories.
Kinesiological electromyography, in pelvic floor disorders, (1)81
Klebsiella
in obstetric infection, antibiotic susceptibility of, (3)35
in postpartum urinary tract infection, (3)37
Klebsiella species, urinary tract infections and, (2)43
Kleppinger’ envelope sign, (6)42
Klinefelter syndrome, (1)4; (5)7392
46, XY/47,XXY, (5)92, 9
47, XXY, (5)92
48, XXXY, (5)92, 9
48, XXYY, (5)92, 9
49, XXXXY, (5)92–9
49, XXXYY, (5)92
cellular origin, (5)92
clinical manifestations, (5)92
epidemiology, (5)92
genetic counseling, (5)92
infertility in, (5)63
pathology, (5)92
Klippel-Feil syndrome, (1)4; (5)90
vaginal absence with, (1)70
Klumpke’ palsy, (2)79; (3)63
Knee, exercises, during pregnancy, (2)8
Knee jerk, in newborn, (2)97
Knowlton, Charles, (6)8
Kobberling-Dunnigan syndrome, (5)29
Koebner’ phenomenon, (1)19
Koilocytes, in papillomavirus infection, (1)29–27
Koromex Inserts, (6)17
Kroener fimbriectomy, (6)39
KTP (potassium-titanyl-phosphate) laser, (1)34, 5. See also Lasers; Laser therapy.
Kwashiorkor, (4)63
Kwell (lindane), in pregnancy, (2)6
Kyphoscoliosis, in pregnancy, (3)27
Kyphosis, pelvic abnormalities with, and abnormal labor, (2)73

 

Subject Index L

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Labetalol
for hypertension, in pregnancy, (3)5
in pregnancy, (3)60
Labial agglutination
in pediatric patients, (1)19
in prepubertal patients, (1)11
Labial pedicle flap, (4)53
Labia majora, anatomy, (2)5
Labia minora
anatomy, (2)5
excision. See Female circumcision.
in vulvar reconstruction, (4)53
Labor. See also Childbirth; Delivery.
abnormal, (2)73
arrest of descent, (2)73
fetal anomalies and, (2)73
fetal descent and, (2)68
fetal size and, (2)73
first stage, (2)73
graphing of, (2)73
maternal diabetes and, (3)13
pelvic anatomy in, (2)73
prolonged deceleration phase, (2)73
prolonged latent phase, (2)73
protracted active phase dilation, (2)73
protracted descent, (2)73
secondary arrest of dilation, (2)73
second stage, (2)73
shoulder dystocia, (2)79
third stage, (2)73
uterine contractility in, (2)73
acceleration phase, (2)68
active management of (AMOL), (2)68
active phase, (2)68
airway management, (3)26
ambulation during, (2)68
analgesics, (2)68; (3)90. See also specific agent.
alternatives in midwifery management, (2)68
childbirth education and, (2)18
inhalation agents, (3)90
narcotics, (3)90
anesthesia, (2)68; (3)90. See also Anesthesia.
airway management, (3)26
alternatives in midwifery management, (2)68
breech presentation and, (3)90
caudal, (3)90
combined spinal-epidural, (3)90
complications, (3)90
eclampsia and, (3)90
epidural, (3)90–15
external cephalic version and, (3)90
fetal effects, (3)60
inhalational, for analgesia, (3)90
local anesthetics. See also Anesthetics, local, in obstetrics.
inadvertent intravascular injection, (3)90
lumbar sympathetic block, (3)90
maternal fever and, (3)90
maternal physiologic changes and, (3)90
multiple gestation and, (2)82; (3)90
paracervical block, (3)90
perineal infiltration, (3)90
placenta and, (3)90
preeclampsia and, (3)90
pudendal block, (3)90
regional, (3)90
complications, (3)90
and uteroplacental blood flow, (3)90
spinal, (3)90
in cesarean delivery, (3)90
for vaginal trial after cesarean delivery, (3)90
asphyxia during, (3)63
asthma management in, (3)27
biophysical profile in, (3)77
bladder and urethra during, (2)5
in breech presentation, anesthesia, (3)90
cardinal movements of, (2)67
cardiovascular system in, (3)8
changes in, (3)11
care during, (2)68
cervical changes, (2)68
changes preceding, (2)68
bloody show, (2)68
Braxton Hicks contractions, (2)68
cervical changes, (2)68
lightening, (2)68
controversies, (2)68
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in, (5)39
deceleration phase, (2)68
defined, (2)68
in diabetics, metabolic management, (3)13
diagnosis of, in woman with disabilities, (1)102
drugs given in, (3)60
duration of
before cesarean delivery, and postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
childbirth education and, (2)18
and puerperal infection, (3)37
dysfunctional, with intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
emotional support during, (6)77
examination, initial, (2)68
false, (2)68
fetal attitude, (2)67
fetal monitoring during, (2)68; (3)67. See also Fetal monitoring.
fetal presentation, lie, and position, (2)67. See also Labor presentation
fetal station, (2)67
first stage, (2)68
fluids in, (2)68
Friedman labor graph, (2)68
hemodynamic changes during, (1)11
in high-risk patient, (3)1
in HIV-infected mother, (3)47
HIV testing, for women without prenatal care, (3)47
hospitalization procedures, (2)68
induction of, (2)71
as abortion technique. See also Abortion, labor-induction.
after previous cesarean delivery, (2)71
prostaglandins in, (2)65B
amniotomy, (2)71
cervical ripening and, (2)71
contraindications, (2)71
cytokines in, (2)71
drugs for, (3)60
historical perspective, (2)71
indications, (2)71
mechanical, (2)71
medical, (2)71
methods, (2)71
mifepristone in, (2)71
nitric oxide in, (2)71
oxytocin in, (2)71
in postterm gestation, (2)54
prostaglandins in, (1)71
relaxin in, (2)71
surgical, (2)71
in term premature rupture of membranes, (2)46
inhibition of, (3)87. See also Labor, premature (preterm), management.
contraindications, (3)87
drugs in, (2)73
in multiple gestation, (2)81
response of placental and uterine vasculature, (3)62
latent phase, (2)68
management, (2)68
active, (2)68
admission to labor and delivery, (2)68
midwifery, (2)68
stages of labor and, (2)68
maternal position during, (2)68
maximum slope phase, (2)68
mechanisms, (2)67
in breech presentation, (2)67
in brow presentation, (2)67
descent, (2)67
engagement, (2)67
expulsion, (2)67
extension, (2)67
external rotation, (2)67
in face presentation, (2)67
flexion, (2)67
internal rotation, (2)67
labor presentation and, (2)67
pelvic type and, (2)67
in transverse lie, (2)67
multiple gestation and, (2)82
normal, (2)68
oral intake during, (2)68
oxytocin levels during, (5)7
physiology, (2)68
placental blood flow and, (3)62
position during, (2)68
premature (preterm). See also Premature rupture of membranes (PROM); Prematurity.
abnormal fetal lie and, (2)76
antibiotic prophylaxis in, (3)35
biophysical profile, (3)77
diagnosis, (3)54
drug treatment of, (3)60
fetal effects, (3)60
factors associated with, (3)87
incompetent cervix and, (3)53
incompetent cervix with, pessary in, (1)39
infection and, (2)41
management, (3)5487
general, (3)87
initial clinical assessment, (3)87
pharmacologic interventions, (3)87
β-sympathomimetic drugs, (3)87
calcium-channel blockers, (3)87
magnesium sulfate, (3)87
oxytocin receptor antagonists, (3)87
prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, (3)87
maternal surgery and, (3)54
oxytocin levels during, (5)7
placental histopathology and, (2)108
placental histopathology in, (2)108
premature rupture of membranes and. See Premature rupture of membranes (PROM).
prevention, in multiple gestation, (2)81
higher-order, (2)83
pyelonephritis and, (3)35
risk assessment, ultrasound, (3)64
risk scoring, (3)1
sexual activity during late pregnancy and, (2)20
progression
evaluation, (2)68
regional analgesia and, (3)90
prostaglandins in, (5)42
second stage, (2)68
shortening, episiotomy and, (2)70
steroid endocrinology of, (5)38
third stage, (2)68
oxytocin administration, (2)68
in twin gestation, (2)82
uterine blood flow, (3)62
uterine contractions in, monitoring, (3)67
Labor induction abortion, (6)127. See also Abortion, labor induction
Labor presentation, (2)67
abnormal fetal lie and, (2)76
definitions, (2)76
etiology, (2)76
incidence, (2)76
breech, (2)6776
antepartum management, (2)76
complete, (2)67
complications, counseling and, (2)76
diagnosis, (2)67
etiology, (2)76
external version for, (2)76
footling, (2)67
frank, (2)67
incidence, (2)76
incomplete, (2)67
labor and delivery. See also Delivery, breech.
perinatal morbidity and mortality, (2)76
variations, (2)76
brow, (2)67
mechanisms of labor in, (2)67
cephalic. See Labor presentation, breech.
compound, (2)67
definitions, (2)76
determination of, (2)68
Leopold’ maneuvers in, (2)67
face, (2)67
mechanisms of labor in, (2)67
fetal descent and, arrested, (2)68
floating station, (2)67
longitudinal lie, (2)67
malpresentation, (2)73
in higher-order multiple gestations, (2)83
with placenta previa, (2)49
mechanisms of labor and, (2)67
mentum anterior, (2)67
mentum posterior, (2)67
mentum transverse, (2)67
multiple gestation and, route of delivery, (2)82
occiput anterior, (2)67
occiput posterior, (2)67
forceps delivery, (2)72
occiput transverse, (2)67
sinciput, (2)67
transverse lie, (2)67
external cephalic version for, (2)67
incidence, (2)76
intrapartum complications and counseling, (2)76
umbilical cord prolapse and, (2)76
variable lie, (2)67
vertex, (2)67
cardinal movements of labor in, (2)67
Lacerations
cervical, during dilatation and curettage, (1)54–6
genital tract, during childbirth, (2)69. See also Delivery, lacerations during.
postpartum hemorrhage with, (2)80
repair, (2)80
vagina, (2)5
vulvar, (1)11
during delivery, (2)69
β-Lactamases
inhibitors of, for pelvic infections, (1)48
in obstetric infection, (3)35
in choice of antibiotics, (3)35
Lactate, arterial, assessment, in critically ill patient, (3)79
Lactating adenoma, (1)27
Lactation. See also Breast feeding.
amenorrhea and, (5)31; (6)36
contraception during, (3)16
breast care in, (2)90
cancer complicating. See also specific cancer.
contraception during, (6)15
depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use and, (6)28
dyspareunia during, (2)20
infertility and, (5)31; (6)36
inhibition of, (5)31
intrauterine device insertion during, (6)29
iron loss in, (3)16
mastitis during, (5)31
nutrition and, (2)93; (5)31
breast-feeding contraindications, (2)93
breast milk adequacy assessment, (2)93
carbohydrates, (2)93
drugs and chemicals affecting, (2)93
energy requirements, (2)93
multiple births and, (2)93
fat, (2)93
fluid requirements, (2)93
infant considerations, (2)93
maternal considerations, (2)93
minerals, (2)93–5
supplementation, (2)93
protein, (2)93
vegetarian diet and, (2)93–7
vitamins, (2)93
supplementation, (2)93
oxytocin levels during, (5)7
physiology of, (6)15
family planning based on, (6)36
postpartum changes and, (2)90
psychotropic drugs in. See Psychotropic drugs.
surrogate, (5)31
Lactational amenorrhea method, of fertility regulation, (6)16
Lactational amenorrhea method of fertility regulation, (6)36
Lactobacillus
in female genital tract immune system, (3)35
vaginitis and, (1)40. See also Bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerella vaginalis vaginitis).
Lactobacillus bifidus, (5)31
Lactogen, human placental. See Human placental lactogen (hPL).
Lactogenesis, (5)31
oxytocin in, (5)31
Lactose, (5)31
in diet, and ovarian cancer, (4)2
intolerance, in breast-feeding mother, (2)93
Lactotrophs, pituitary, estrogen and, (6)24
Lactotropic cells, (5)25
Lamaze method, (6)77
Lamb syndrome, (1)9
Lamicel, (1)54
Lamictal (lamotrigine)
in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Laminaria tents, (1)54
for cervical dilation
in first trimester abortion, (6)123
in second trimester abortion, (6)125, 5
in postdatism, (2)54
Lamivudine (3TC), in pregnancy, (3)47–7
for reduction of vertical transmission, (3)47
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Langer-Giedion syndrome, (5)73
Lanoxin. See Digoxin.
Laparoscopically assisted hysterectomy, (1)5760
economic aspects, (1)60
future directions, (1)60
innovations, (1)60
operative technique, (1)60
origin, (1)60
outcomes, (1)60
safety, (1)60
subtotal, (1)61
clinical experience, (1)61
historical aspects, (1)61
indications, (1)61
preparation, (1)61
technique, (1)61
Laparoscopic bipolar coagulation, of uterine vessels, for uterine fibroids, (1)103
Laparoscopic sterilization, (6)42. See also Laparoscopy.
anesthesia for, (6)42
clinical aspects, (3)43
complications
late, (6)43
during procedure, (6)43
dysfunctional uterine bleeding after, (6)43
endocoagulation in, (6)42
equipment, (6)41
general considerations, (6)4
Silastic ring applicator, failure, (6)41
failure, (6)43
management, (6)41
prevention, (6)41
hernia after, (6)43
historical perspective on, (6)42
Kleppinger’ envelope sign in, (6)42
pain after, (6)43
patient selection, (6)43
peritoneal infection after, (6)43
Pomeroy procedure, (6)42
ruling out pregnancy prior to, (1)54
techniques, (3)43
electrocautery, (6)41, 12
electrocoagulation, (6)41
bipolar, (6)41
problems, (6)43
unipolar, (6)41–12
indications, (6)43
mechanical, (6)41
problems, (6)43
Silastic band, (6)42
spring clip, (6)42, 12
and risk of failure, (6)41
thermocoagulation, (6)43
timing, (6)43
tubal anesthesia for, (6)42
wound infection, (6)43
Yoon three grasp technique in, (6)42
Laparoscopy, (1)119. See also Endoscopy.
in adhesiolysis, (5)62
adnexal masses and, (4)55
advantages and disadvantages of, (1)123
anesthesia, (1)119
antibiotic prophylaxis, (1)119
in cervical carcinoma, (4)55
advanced, (4)55
staging, (4)7
complications, in gynecologic cancer, (4)55
credentialing in, (1)119
for cryomyolysis, (1)119
in culposuspension, (1)119
in distal tubal disease, (5)62
for distal tubal occlusion, (1)119
in ectopic pregnancy, (1)69; (3)54; (5)62
laparotomy vs., (1)68–11
lasers in, (1)34
in endometrial cancer, (4)55
complications, (4)55
in endometriosis, (1)20–17; (5)62
in fallopian tube patency evaluation, (1)67; (5)52
hysterosalpingography compared with, (5)52
in gynecologic oncology, (1)119; (4)55
complications, (4)55
in infertility, (1)62; (5)50
instrumentation, (1)119
lasers in, (1)34
microlaparoscopy, (1)119
for myomectomy, (1)119; (5)62
office-based, (5)62
open, (1)122
advantages over closed laparoscopy, (1)122
anatomical considerations, (1)122
instruments, (1)122
misconceptions, (1)122
technical considerations, (1)122
technique, (1)122
in ovarian cancer, (4)55
paravaginal repair, in pelvic organ prolapse, (1)123
for pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)119
in pregnancy, (1)119; (3)54
anesthesia for, (3)91
in reconstructive pelvic surgery, (1)123
retropubic urethropexy, procedure for, (1)123
in sacral colpopexy, (1)119
for salpingitis, (1)44
second-look, (4)39. See also Ovaries, cancer of, reoperations for.
pelvic adhesions in, (5)61
surgical. See also Surgery, endoscopic.
advantages and disadvantages of, (1)123
complications, (1)119
indications for, (1)119
for infertility, (5)62
for pelvic organ prolapse, (1)123
robotic, (1)119–13
sutures in, (1)119, 10
technique, (1)119
technique of, (1)119
for tubal reanastomosis, (1)119
ultrasonic energy in, (1)119
for urinary incontinence, (1)123
venous thromboembolism prevention in, (1)119
for vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
technique, operative, for radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy, (4)55
training in, (1)119
in tubal pregnancy, (1)69
in tubal reanastomosis, (6)46
tubal sterilization. See Laparoscopic sterilization.
in urogynecology, (1)123
uterosacral ligament suspension, (1)123
in vaginal hysterectomy, (1)60, 119
for varicocelectomy, (5)66
Laparotomy
after septic abortion, (6)118
in fallopian tube patency evaluation, (5)52
in postpartum hemorrhage management, (2)80
in postpartum sepsis, (3)39
in replacement of inverted uterus, (2)80
second-look, (4)36. See also Ovaries, cancer of, reoperations for.
in tubal pregnancy, laparoscopy vs., (1)68–11
LaPlace equation, (2)12
Large granular lymphocytes, in female reproductive tract, (5)49
Large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ), for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31; (4)4
L-Arginine, for female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Laryngoscope, fiberoptic, (3)26
Lasers
argon, (1)34, 5
CO2, (1)34–5
in endometriosis, (5)61
in gynecology, (1)34. See also Laser therapy.
history, (1)34
in infertility treatment, (5)61
KTP, (1)34, 5
in myomectomy, (1)58; (5)61
NDYAG, (1)34
for uterine fibroids, (1)103
physics, (1)34
properties of, (5)61
safety, (1)34
in tubal anastomosis, (5)61
types, (1)34
Laser therapy
cervical, cytologic changes with, (1)29
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31; (4)4
anesthesia, (1)34
combined excisional and vaporization conization, (1)34
complications, (1)34
excisional conization, (1)34
results, (1)34
vaporization, (1)34
CO2 laser, (1)34
for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)34
advantages, (1)34
for vulvar carcinoma, (1)11
for ectopic pregnancy, (1)34
endometrial ablation, (1)38
for endometriosis, (1)20
extraperitoneal, (1)34
for HPV infection, (1)34; (4)2
hysteroscopy, (1)34
complications, (1)34
excisional, (1)34
intra-abdominal, (1)34
laparoscopy instrumentation and, (1)34
laser-tissue interaction, (1)34
myomectomy, (1)14
power density of laser beam, (1)34
safety, (1)34
salpingostomy, (1)34
for septate uterus, (1)34
tubal and adhesiolysis surgery, (1)34
for uterine bleeding, (5)23
for uterine fibroids, (1)34
vagina, (1)34
vulva, (1)34
for carcinoma, (1)11
for condyloma acuminatum, (1)34; (4)2
for intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)42
Latex allergy, condoms and, (6)17
LATS (long-acting thyroid stimulator), (5)35
Latzko partial colpocleisis, for vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome, (5)22
LAVH. See Laparoscopically assisted hysterectomy.
LAV (lymphadenopathy associated virus). See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Laws, on workplace health and safety in pregnancy, (2)10
LDL. See Low-density lipoproteins (LDL).
Lead
ovarian effects of, (5)88
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
prenatal exposure to, (2)10
Leak point pressure, (1)79
Learned intermediary doctrine, (3)60
Lea’ shield, (6)17
Lecithin-sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio, fetal lung maturation and, (3)1
LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure)
for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31
for cervical lesions
benign, (1)31
premalignant, (1)31
in pregnancy, (3)54
LeFort operation, for pelvic relaxation, (1)80
Left atrial pressure, (3)79
Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, in pregnancy, (3)11
Left ventricular stroke work index, (3)79
in pregnancy, (3)54
Left ventricular systolic dysfunction, in pregnancy, (3)11
Legal issues. See Medicolegal considerations.
Leigh syndrome, (5)74
Leiomyoma(s). See also Fibroids; Myoma(s).
abnormal labor and, (2)73
cervical, (1)31
postmenopausal hormone therapy and, (1)110
spontaneous abortion and, (5)48
submucous
hysteroscopy of, (1)121–14
and spontaneous abortion, (5)48
uterine, (1)14
bleeding and, (5)23
endoscopic surgery for, (5)23
clonality studies, (5)96
complications, (1)14
defined, (1)14
description, (1)14
detection, (1)54
differential diagnosis, (1)14
etiology, (1)14
genetics, (5)96
HMGA genes, (5)96
nonrandom cytogenetic changes, (5)96
genetic susceptibility, (5)96
hysteroscopy in, (1)14–14
laser therapy, (1)34
in pregnancy, (3)54
risk factors, (1)14
sarcomatous degeneration, (1)14
signs and symptoms, (1)14
and spontaneous abortion, (1)14; (3)69
submucous, hysteroscopic removal, (1)14–14
treatment, (1)14
medical, (1)14
pregnancy outcome after, (5)61
surgical, (1)14
ultrasonic scan, (1)101
vaginal, (1)10
vulvar, (1)9; (4)40
Leiomyosarcoma
uterine, (4)22
clinical findings, (4)22
occurrence, (4)22
pathology, (4)22
gross, (4)22
microscopic, (4)22
prognosis, (4)22
ultrasonography, (1)101
vulvar, (4)40
Leishmania, (3)51
Leishmaniasis, (3)51
Lemon sign, (3)72, 116
Lentigines, vulvar, (1)9
Lentiviruses, in gene therapy, (4)64
Leopard syndrome, (1)9
Leopold’ maneuvers, (2)67
Leprechaunism, (5)29
Leptin, (6)111
anorexia nervosa and, (5)26
deficiency of, in luteinizing hormone inhibition, (5)6
in luteal phase deficiency, exercise-induced, (5)56
in onset of puberty, (5)16
placental, (5)39
Leptotrichia buccalis, in cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
Lesbians, (6)103
alcohol abuse in, (6)103
chronic disease risk in, (6)103
depression in, (6)103
health care providers for
access to, (6)103
attitudes of, (6)103
recommendations to, (6)103
intimate partner violence between, (6)103
origin of orientation of, (6)103
parenting issues for, (6)103
as proportion of population, (6)103
research on, methodology of, (6)103
sexually transmitted diseases in, (6)103
sexual practices of, (6)103
Lethal acrodysgenital dysplasia, (5)83
Leucovorin, in toxoplasmosis treatment, (3)50
Leukemia
in obstetric patient, management of, (3)57
pregnancy complicated by, (3)60
Leukemia-inhibiting factor, (5)38
in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Leukocyte(s)
alkaline phosphatase in, in documentation of ovulation, (5)54
immunization with, for recurrent pregnancy loss, (5)49
in pregnancy, (2)13; (3)54
in vaginitis, (1)40
Leukocyte antigens, human. See HLA antigens.
Leukocytosis, postpartum, (2)90
Leukocytospermia, and infertility, (5)63
Leukoplakia, cervical, (1)30
Leukopoiesis, embryonic development, (2)12
Leukotrienes. See also Lipoxygenase compounds; Prostaglandins.
in labor, (5)43
in pregnancy
and fetal circulation, (5)43
and maternal cardiovascular system, (5)43
Leuprolide
before endometrial ablation, (1)117
for endometrial hyperplasia, (4)12
for endometriosis, (5)59
in ovarian stimulation, for in vitro fertilization, (5)97
for precocious puberty, (5)16
Levator ani muscle
anatomy, (1)1
arcus tendineus of, (1)1
assessment, (1)81
atrophy, (1)80
concentric needle electromyography, (1)81
physiology, (1)1
Levator ani nerve, pelvic floor and, (1)81 4–5
Levator plate, (1)1
Lever pessary, (1)39
Levobupivacaine, in labor, (3)90
Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol), in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Levonorgestrel. See also Norplant contraceptive system.
in intrauterine devices, (6)29. See also Intrauterine devices (IUDs).
mechanism of action of, (6)29
Mirena, for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)23
side effects of, (6)29
in male contraception, (6)13
Levorphanol, in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Levothyroxine. See also Thyroxine.
in hypothyroidism, (5)35
Leydig cells, (5)78
agenesis of, in 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, (5)87
in androgen synthesis, (5)82
hypoplasia of, (5)82
in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
in sexual differentiation, (5)87
LH. See Luteinizing hormone (LH).
LHR gene, in Leydig cell agenesis, with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, (5)87
LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone), in anorexia nervosa, (5)26
Liability. See Medicolegal considerations.
Librium (chlordiazepoxide)
neonatal withdrawal with, (3)60
in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Lichen planus, vulvar, (1)11
in pediatric patient, (1)19
Lichen sclerosus, vulvar, (1)11
in pediatric patient, (1)19
Lichen simplex, lichenification, vulvar, in pediatric patient, (1)19
Licorice, in menopause, (1)114
Liddle test. See Dexamethasone suppression tests.
Lidocaine
in cancer pain management, (4)58
in cesarean delivery, (3)90
in dilatation and curettage, (1)54
in labor, (3)90
external cephalic version and, (3)90
obstetric pharmacology of, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
Lifestyle alterations
for gastroesophageal reflux, (3)30
for peptic ulcer disease, (3)30
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85
Ligaments. See also Adnexa uteri.
broad. See Adnexa uteri, broad ligament.
cardinal, (1)1
genital tract, (2)5
ovarian
anatomy, (1)2
in hysterectomy, laparoscopic subtotal, (1)61
pubourethral, (1)1
round. See Adnexa uteri, round ligament.
uterine, ultrasonic scan, (1)101
uterosacral
anatomy, (1)1
in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
LigaSure cutting forcep, (1)119
Light
amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. See Lasers; Laser therapy.
bright, for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
physics, (1)34
Lignans, (1)114
Lignocaine, obstetric pharmacology of, (3)60
Limb body wall complex, (2)107
Limb reduction deformities
chorionic villus sampling causing, (3)112
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
Lindane (Kwell), in pregnancy, (2)6
Linea alba, in pregnancy, (2)32
Linea nigra, in pregnancy, (2)32
Linkage. See Molecular genetics.
Lip, cleft. See Cleft lip/cleft palate.
Lipid cell tumors, ovarian, (1)17; (4)31
Lipid-hilar cell tumors, ovarian, (4)31
Lipids
in aging woman, (1)106
in human milk, (5)31
metabolism
hCS and, (5)39
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
placental transfer, (3)59
in pregnancy, (3)54
requirements, (4)63
in nutritional prescription, (4)63
Lipoatrophy, (5)29
Lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, (5)37
Lipoid cell tumors. See Lipid cell tumors.
Lipoma
breast, (1)26
vulvar, (1)9
Lipoproteins. See also Hyperlipoproteinemia.
blood level of, with implantable contraceptives, (6)38
hCS secretion and, (5)39
low-density, in progesterone secretion, (5)56
metabolism, oral contraceptives and, (6)24
cardiovascular effects of, (6)24
placental pathology and, (2)108
Liposarcoma, vulvar, (4)40
β-Lipotropin, placental, (5)39
Lipoxins, and cardiovascular system, (5)43
Lipoxygenase compounds. See also Prostaglandins.
in labor, (5)43
in pregnancy, and maternal cardiovascular system, (5)43
Lipoxygenase pathway, (5)41
Listeria, (3)40. See also Listeriosis.
Listeria monocytogenes, (1)41; (3)40
infections, (2)41. See also Listeriosis.
intra-amniotic, (3)37
placental involvement in, (2)108
Listeriosis, (1)41; (3)40
clinical manifestations
in neonate, (3)40
in pregnancy, (3)40
diagnosis, (3)40
epidemiology, (3)40
foodborne, prevention, (3)40
host resistance
in AIDS, (3)40
in neonate, (3)40
in pregnancy, (3)40
incidence, (3)40
neonatal, (1)41
organism causing, (3)40. See also Listeria monocytogenes.
outbreak management, (3)40
pathogenesis, (3)40
in pregnancy, (1)41; (2)7
clinical manifestations, (3)40
therapy, (3)40
Lithiasis, of urinary tract, and bacteriuria, in pregnancy, (3)35
Lithium, (3)60
for postpartum psychosis, (6)84
in pregnancy and lactation, (3)3; (6)79
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Lithobid (lithium), teratogenicity of, (2)6
Liver
abscess, amebic, (3)51
diagnosis, (3)51
androgen metabolism in, (5)2
disease
postmenopausal hormone therapy in, (1)110
in pregnancy, (3)29
acute fatty liver, (3)29
cholestasis, (3)29–6
cirrhosis, (3)29
hepatitis, (3)29–10
portal hypertension, (3)29
problem-oriented approach, (3)29
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
in drug metabolism
in aging woman, (1)108
in pregnancy, (3)35
drug toxicity to, in tuberculosis treatment, (1)49
embryonic development, (2)12
enzymes, in HELLP syndrome. See HELLP syndrome.
function
ketoconazole and, (5)37
in pregnancy, (3)29
hyperalimentation complications involving, (4)63
injuries at birth, (2)97
metastasis
from cervical cancer, (4)7, 31
from gestational trophoblastic tumor, (4)48
in preeclampsia, (3)7
transplantation, in pregnancy, (3)29
tumors, oral contraceptives and, (6)25
LLETZ (large loop excision of transformation zone), for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31
Loa loa, (3)51
Lobular carcinoma in situ, (1)26
Lobular hyperplasia, breast, (1)27
Lochia, (3)89
Lofenalac, (2)93
Logan v. Greenwich Hospital Association, (1)99
Long-acting thyroid stimulator (LATS), (5)35
Long QT syndrome, fetal, (3)65
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)
for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31; (4)4
for cervical lesions
benign, (1)31
premalignant, (1)31
in pregnancy, (3)54
Lortab, in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Lotrimin (clotrimazole), in pregnancy, (2)6
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
in fetoplacental steroidogenesis, (5)38
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
Loyalty conflicts, marital, (6)98
L/S (lecithin-sphingomyelin) ratio, fetal lung maturation and, (3)1
Lubs syndrome, (5)80
Lumbar epidural analgesia. See Epidural block.
Lumbar muscles, pelvic pain related to, (6)87
Lumbar plexus, (2)5
Lumbar puncture, in syphilis, (1)45
Lumbar sympathetic block, in labor, (3)90
Lumbosacral plexopathy, intrapartum, (3)19
Lumbosacral plexus lesions, neurophysiologic testing, (1)81
Lunelle
efficacy of, (6)3
postabortion use of, (6)122
Lung(s). See also Pulmonary.
agenesis, (2)12
cancer, (6)110
cervical cancer metastasizing to, (4)7
chemotherapy effects on, (4)54
congenital malformations, (2)12
cysts, congenital, (2)12
edema of, in hypertensive encephalopathy, treating, (3)5
examination, in newborn, (2)97
expiratory reserve volume (ERV), 2, (3)26
fetal
development, (2)12
fluid in, (2)12; (3)68
maturation. See Fetus, lung maturation.
prolonged oligohydramnios and, (2)47
structural anomalies, ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
fluid in, in neonate, (2)12; (3)68
functional residual capacity (FRC), (3)26
establishment of, in neonates, (2)12
in pregnancy, anesthetic implications, (3)90
gas exchange, (3)26
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), (3)26
maturation. See Fetus, lung maturation.
minute volume, in pregnancy, (3)26
physiology, (3)26
pulmonary function, (3)26
pulmonary mechanics, (3)26
respiratory gas exchange, (3)26
work of breathing, (3)26
radionuclide scans, (2)31
residual volume (RV), (3)26
surface tension and surfactant, (2)12
surfactant, (2)12; (3)1
composition and physiology, (2)12
in high-risk pregnancy, (3)1
thorax and, (3)26
tidal volume (VT), (3)26
total capacity (TLC), (3)26
vital capacity (VC), (3)26
Lung profile, (3)1
Lupron. See Leuprolide.
Lupus anticoagulant, (2)108
ischemic stroke in pregnancy and, (3)19
and pregnancy outcome, (5)49
testing for, (5)49
Lupus erythematosus
neonatal, (3)20
systemic. See Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Luteal phase, (5)6. See also Corpus luteum.
after in vitro fertilization, management of, (5)97
deficiency in, (5)56
and abortion, recurrent, (3)69; (5)56
clomiphene citrate and, (5)56
definition of, (5)56
diagnosis of, (5)48, 56
endometrial biopsy in, (5)56
progesterone assay in, (5)56
ultrasonography in, (5)56
diet and, (5)56
exercise and, (5)56
folliculogenesis in, (5)56
and implantation failure, (5)47
incidence of, (5)56
and infertility, (5)53
pathogenesis of, (5)48
pathophysiology of, (5)56
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
progesterone in, (5)56
endometrial effects of, (5)56
treatment of, (5)48
bromocriptine in, (5)56
duration of, (5)56
gonadotropin-releasing hormone in, (5)56
human chorionic gonadotropin in, (5)56
modality selection of, (5)56
monitoring in, (5)56
ovulation induction in, (5)56
patient selection for, (5)56
progesterone supplementation in, (5)56
results of, (5)56
selection of, (5)56
validation of, (5)48
uterine receptivity to implantation in, (5)38
Luteinization, (1)17
inhibitors, (6)12
stimulators, (6)12
Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome, (5)55
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
anorexia nervosa and, 5, (5)26
assay of
in infertility, male, (5)63
in ovulation documentation, (5)54
biologically active, reduced, and male infertility, (5)65
in corpus luteum formation, (5)14
in corpus luteum function, (5)56
in pregnancy, (5)14
in progesterone secretion
in early luteal phase, (5)14
in mid luteal phase, (5)14
effects of GnRH administration on. See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary response to.
in folliculogenesis, (5)12–11
in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
levels during menopause, (1)109
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
in menstrual cycle, (5)6
in dominant follicle growth, (5)6
in late follicular phase, (5)6
in luteal phase, (5)6
ovarian effects of, (5)6
in ovarian-hypothalamic feedback abnormalities, (5)6
in ovulatory period, (5)6
secretion of, (5)6
ovulation and, (5)51
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
in puberty, (5)9
at onset, (5)9
precocious, (5)16
with hypothyroidism, (5)16
receptor gene for, in Leydig cell agenesis, with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, (5)87
receptor of, mutation of, in 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86
receptors, nongonadal distribution, (5)5
secretion of, with implantable contraceptives, (6)38
surge, as target for fertility regulation, (6)12
thecogenesis control by, (5)12
vasectomy and, (6)49
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), in anorexia nervosa, (5)26
Luteinizing hormone sticks, in fertility regulation, (6)16
Luteolysis
oxygen radicals and, (5)41
prostaglandins and, (5)41
Luteoma, (5)2
and precocious puberty, (5)16
of pregnancy, (1)17
stromal, (4)31
Luvox (fluvoxamine), in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Lymphadenectomy
with hysterectomy, for cervical carcinoma, (4)9
laparoscopic
aortic, radical hysterectomy and, (4)55
in cervical cancer, (4)55
pelvic, radical hysterectomy and, (4)55
para-aortic, in endometrial carcinoma, (4)19
pelvic
in endometrial carcinoma, (4)19
in vulvar carcinoma, (4)41
Lymphadenopathy
aspiration cytology, (4)52
inguinal, aspiration cytology, (4)52
supraclavicular, aspiration cytology, (4)52
Lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV). See Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV).
Lymphangiogram, in cervical carcinoma, staging, (4)7
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, in pregnancy, (3)27
Lymphangioma, vulvar, (1)9
Lymphangiosarcoma, (4)40
vulvar, (4)40
Lymphatic system, tuberculosis spread through, (1)49
Lymph nodes
assessment of, magnetic resonance imaging in, (1)93
evaluation of, in cervical cancer, (4)11
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
metastases to
aspiration cytology, (4)52–10
from cervical carcinoma, prognosis and, (4)6
from endometrial carcinoma, (4)19
from female genital cancer, (4)54
from uterine sarcoma, (4)22
and vulvar carcinoma, (4)41
from vulvar carcinoma, (4)43
metastasis to
from cervical carcinoma, in evaluation for pelvic exenteration, (4)10
para-aortic, cervical cancer metastases to, (4)7
reactive conditions in, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
scalene, sampling, in cervical cancer staging, (4)7
Lymphocele, after cancer treatment, (4)54
Lymphocyte(s)
B. See B lymphocytes (B cells).
decidual granular, in female reproductive tract, (5)49
fetal
in chromosome analysis. See also Cytogenetics.
in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis, (3)113
large granular, in female reproductive tract, (5)49
in pregnancy, (3)54
T. See T lymphocytes (T cells).
Lymphoepithelial carcinoma, vulvar, (4)40
Lymphoepithelioma, cervical, (4)6
Lymphogranuloma venereum, (1)41
treatment, (1)41
Lymphokines. See also specific lymphokine.
in antitumor responses, (4)60
Lymphoma(s)
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
in obstetric patient, management of, (3)57
vulvar, primary, (4)40
Lymphopoiesis, fetal, (2)12
Lynestrenol, in replacement therapy, in menopause, (6)86
Lyon hypothesis, (5)73
Lysine vasopressin, (5)7
Lysosomes, (5)18

 

Subject Index M

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Machado-Joseph disease, (5)74
Macroadenoma, pituitary, (5)25, 32, 9
in pregnancy, (3)19; (5)25
Macrobiotic diet, lactation and, (2)93
Macrodantin. See Nitrofurantoin.
Macrolides, in pregnancy, (2)6
Macrophages
in antitumor responses, (4)60
in endometriosis, (1)20
suppressor
in female reproductive tract, (5)49
in pregnancy maintenance, (5)49
Macrosomia, (3)74
antenatal prediction, (3)74
defined, (3)74
fetal, and abnormal labor, (2)73
maternal diabetes and, (3)13
postterm gestation and, (2)54
Macrostomia, with eyelid absence, and genital ambiguity, (5)83
Madlener sterilization technique, (2)92; (6)39
Magnesium
placental transfer, (3)59
requirements, (2)93
supplemental, in preeclampsia-eclampsia prevention, (3)7
Magnesium sulfate
for eclampsia, (3)7
pharmacology, (3)60, 87
in preterm labor, (3)54
biophysical profile, (3)77
clinical efficacy, (3)87
fetal effects, (3)87
maternal effects, (3)87
neonatal effects, (3)60, 87
pharmacology, (3)60, 87
usage guidelines, (3)87
as tocolytic, (3)54
in pyelonephritis, (3)35
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (1)93
biologic effects, (2)103
of cardiovascular system, in pregnancy, (3)11
cervical, (1)93
in cervical carcinoma, (1)93; (4)7
clinical guidelines, (2)103
in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis, (3)17
endometrial, (1)93
in carcinoma, (1)54, 16; (4)12
staging, (4)54
in endometriosis, (1)20
gynecologic, (1)93
future, (1)93
instrumentation, (1)93
of müllerian anomalies, (1)93
in nodal assessment, (1)93
of normal pelvic anatomy, (1)93
nuclear spin, (1)93
ovarian, (1)93
cancer, (4)54–22
staging, (4)54
of pelvic abscess, (1)48
pelvic floor, (1)93
of pelvic thrombosis, (1)93
pelvimetry, (2)67
for placental localization, (2)49
in pregnancy, (2)103
principles, (1)93; (2)103
pulse sequences, (1)93
radiofrequency fields and, (2)103
renal, in pregnancy, (3)6
risk to conceptus, (2)103
safety, (1)93
spatial localization, (1)93
spin-echo, (1)93
static magnetic fields and, (2)103
time-varying magnetic fields and, (2)103
tissue contrast, (1)93
T1 relaxation, (1)93
T2 relaxation, (1)93
in urethral sphincter incontinence, intrinsic, (1)92
uterine, (1)93
vaginal, (1)93
Magnetic resonance venography (MRV), in deep venous thrombosis, postoperative, (1)95
Magnetocardiography, of fetal heart, (3)65
Magnetophosphenes, (2)103
Majewski type short-rib polydactyly, (5)83
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
class I molecules
antigen presentation by, (5)49
placental, (5)49
class II molecules, antigen presentation by, (5)49
Malabsorption
giardiasis and, (3)51
in lactating mothers, (2)93
osteoporosis associated with, (1)111
Malaise, genital tuberculosis and, (1)49
Malaria, (3)51
diagnosis, (3)51
epidemiology, (3)51
organism and its transmission, (3)51
placental pathology with, (2)108
in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)51
congenital infection, (3)51
treatment, (3)51
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
prevention, (3)51
treatment, (3)51
Male infertility. See Infertility, male.
Male pseudohermaphroditism. See Pseudohermaphroditism, male.
Male pubertal development, (5)9
Male reproductive system, age-related changes, (5)72
Malignancy. See Carcinoma; Gynecologic cancer; Tumor(s); specific malignancy.
Malignant hyperthermia
obstetric anesthesia and, (3)90
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
Mallory-Weiss syndrome, (3)30
Malnutrition
chemotherapy-induced, (4)63B. See also Nutrition therapy, in gynecologic malignancy.
objective measures, (4)63
osteoporosis associated with, (1)111
in pregnancy, (3)54
syndromes, (4)63
Malpractice. See Medicolegal considerations.
Malthus, Thomas, (6)8
Malthusian League, (6)8
Mammary buds, (5)30
Mammary glands. See also Breast.
function, hCS and, (5)39
Mammogenesis, (5)31
anatomic changes, (5)31
hormonal effects, (5)31
Mammography, (1)26; (5)30
in pregnancy, (3)57
screening, (1)27 6–7
screening, in aging woman, (1)108
in woman with disabilities, (1)102
Manchester-Fothergill operation, for pelvic relaxation, (1)80
Manganese, ovarian effects of, (5)88
Manometry, anal, in rectocele, (1)83
Mantoux test, (1)49; (3)49
Marasmus, (4)63
Marfan syndrome, (5)74
in pregnancy, (3)11
Marijuana
fetal effects of, (3)60
in pregnancy, (2)6
Marital counseling, (6)98
in anxiety and depressive disorders, (6)73
approach to patient, (6)98
biopsychosocial model in, (6)98
cognitive domain and, (6)98
conduct of session, (6)98
countertransference and, (6)98
divorce and, (6)98
domestic violence and, (6)98
ethical concerns, (6)98
expectations and, (6)98
interviewing in, (6)98
listening techniques, (6)98
marital conflict and
effects on children, (6)98
issues causing, (6)98
marital history and, (6)98
multiple roles of women and, (6)98
nature of marriage and, (6)98
possible problems, (6)98
remarriage and, (6)98
sexual counseling session, (6)98
sexual history and, (6)98
sexuality in, (6)98
spirituality and, (6)98
transference and, (6)98
verbal skills in, (6)98
Marlex, in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz (MMK) operation
cul-de-sac in, (1)57
for intrinsic urethral sphincter deficiency, (1)92
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)86
Marsupialization, for Bartholin’ duct cyst, (1)11
Martius graft, (4)53
modified, for rectovaginal fistula, (1)91
for vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
Masculinization. See Virilization.
Mastalgia, (1)27. See Breast, tenderness.
Mastectomy
sexual activity after, (6)99
Mastectomy modified radical, (1)26
Mastitis, (1)26; (5)31
antibiotics for, (3)35
postpartum, (2)90; (3)37
puerperal, (2)89
recurrent, (2)89
Mastodynia, bromocriptine in, (5)30
MAST suit, for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
Masturbation, directed, in orgasmic dysfunction treatment, (6)104
Maternal floor infarction, (2)108
Maternal medicine, infections, (3)33. See also specific infections.
defenses against, (3)33
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP). See AFP (α-fetoprotein), maternal serum levels.
Matrix, extracellular, of endometrium, before implantation, (5)47
Maturation index, in hormonal evaluation, (1)29
Mauriceau-Smellie-Viet maneuver, (2)76
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. See Rokitansky’ syndrome.
Maylard incision, (1)56; (2)74
McCune-Albright syndrome, precocious puberty in, (1)19; (5)9, 15
in male, (5)16
treatment of, (5)16
McDonald cerclage, for incompetent cervix, (3)53
McIndoe split-thickness graft, in vaginoplasty, in müllerian duct absence, (1)70
McKusick-Kaufman syndrome, (5)90
McRoberts maneuver, (1)79
Mean arterial pressure
measurement, in critically ill patient, (3)79
in pregnancy, (3)79
Measles
childhood, and premature ovarian failure, (5)88
German. See Rubella.
vaccination against, in pregnancy, (3)52
in HIV-infected woman, (1)46
Mebendazole
in ascariasis, (3)51
in hookworm disease, (3)51
for pinworm infection, (1)19; (3)51
for tapeworm disease, (3)51
in trichinosis, (3)51
in trichuriasis, (3)51
Meckel’ diverticulum, (1)4; (2)12
Meckel’ syndrome, (5)90
Meclizine (Bonine), in pregnancy, (2)6
Meconium, (2)107
aspiration of
in newborn, treatment of, (3)68
in postterm gestation, (2)54
within bowel, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
composition, (2)12
passage, inflammation and, (2)108
Meconium peritonitis, hyperechogenic bowel vs., (3)72
Medical education, computers in, (1)100
Medical history
in breast disease, (1)26
in chronic pelvic pain, (6)87
genetic, (3)110
gynecologic, (1)6
in hirsutism, (5)28
in infertility, male, (1)65
interview in, (6)72
as basis for therapy, (6)72
diagnosis in, (6)72
physician/patient relationship in, (6)72
establishment of, (6)72
in prenatal care, first visit, (2)1
psychosomatic medicine and, (6)70
in urinary incontinence, (1)79
Medical records, computerized, (1)100
perinatal databases in, (3)2
Medicolegal considerations
abortion, (6)122
children’ rights, (6)82
female circumcision, (1)96
informed consent, (1)99. See also Informed consent.
on intimate partner violence, (6)107
prescribing for minors, (1)22
vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, (2)65
on workplace health and safety in pregnancy, (2)10
Medroxyprogesterone
in Asherman’ syndrome, (5)21
benefits, (6)1
and cancer risk, (6)25, 4
in contraception. See also Medroxyprogesterone, as long-acting injectable contraceptive.
male, (6)13
depot
efficacy of, (6)3
postabortion use of, (6)122
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
for endometrial hyperplasia, (4)12
in hormone replacement therapy, (1)110
osteoporosis and, (1)111
for hot flashes (flushes), (1)110
in human immunodeficiency virus infection, (6)14
in hypoestrogenic amenorrhea, (5)21
and increased breast milk production, (2)90
as long-acting injectable contraceptive, (6)28
adolescent use, (6)28
with anticonvulsant drug use, (6)28
bone mineral density and, (6)28
combined with estradiol cypionate, (6)28
compliance, (6)10
concomitant medications, (6)28
cost issues, (6)28
in diabetes mellitus, (6)14
efficacy, (6)17
in epilepsy, (6)14
fertility after discontinuation, (6)28
history, (6)28
metabolic effects of, (6)14
noncontraceptive benefits, (6)28
in perimenopausal cigarette smoker, (6)28
for perimenopausal symptoms and birth control, (6)28
pharmacology, (6)28
postabortion use, (6)28
in postpartum lactating mother, (6)28
postpartum use, (2)90; (6)15
privacy issues, (6)28
reproductive tract cancer risk and, (6)28
in sickle cell disease, (6)14
side effects, (6)28
therapeutic uses, (6)28
timing of injections, (6)28
when estrogen is contraindicated, (6)28
for menorrhagia, (5)23
for precocious puberty, (5)16
prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
in progesterone withdrawal test, (5)21
Mefenamic acid
in dysmenorrhea, (1)18
for menorrhagia, (5)23
Mefloquine, for malaria, (3)51
Megace. See Megestrol acetate.
Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis (MMIH) syndrome, (3)72
Megaloblastic anemia, (3)16
in breast-fed infant of vegetarian mother, (2)93
diagnosis, (3)16
etiology, (3)16
folic acid deficiency, (3)16-25. See also Folic acid, deficiency.
vitamin B12 deficiency, (3)16
Megestrol acetate
for endometrial hyperplasia, (4)12
for hot flashes (flushes), (1)110
Meglumine, for leishmaniasis, (3)51
Meigs’ syndrome, (1)17; (4)31
Meiosis, (5)13, 78, 92
maternal, and autosomal trisomies, (5)48
paternal, errors in, (5)48
Melanoma
malignant
acral lentiginous, (4)40
nodular, (4)40
superficial spreading, (4)40
vulvar, (1)11; (4)40, 41
differential diagnosis of, (4)40
immunohistochemistry of, (4)40
prognosis for, (4)40
staging, (4)40
treatment of, (4)40
in obstetric patient, management of, (3)57
Melanosis, vulvar, (1)9
Melarsoprol, for trypanosomiasis, (3)51
Melasma, in pregnancy, (2)13
Melatonin, in onset of puberty, (5)9
Melphalan, in combination chemotherapy, for endometrial cancer, (4)21
Membrane receptors. See Cell membrane hormone receptors.
Membranes
insertion, circumvallate, (2)107
rupture
duration of
and genital tract infection, (3)37
and postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
and intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
premature. See Premature rupture of membranes (PROM).
Menarche, (1)19
age at, (5)9
obesity and, (6)111
Mendelian disorders, (3)115. See also Genetic disorders, mendelian.
chromosome breakage, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
and recurrent abortion, (5)48
Mendelian inheritance, (3)115; (5)74. See also Inheritance, mendelian.
exceptions, (5)74
Mendel’ laws, (5)74
Menfegol, (6)17
Meningiomas, in pregnancy, (3)57
Meningitis
anesthesia-related, (3)90
syphilitic, (1)45
Meningocele, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Menometrorrhagia
definition of, (5)20
management, (1)54
Menopause, (1)106. See also Aging woman.
age at, (1)109
and endometrial cancer, (4)19
smoking and, (5)88
alternative treatment for, (1)114
botanical medicine, (1)114
angelica, (1)114
black cohosh, (1)114
chasteberry, (1)114
dong quai, (1)114
evening primrose, (1)114
ginseng, (1)114
licorice, (1)114
phytoestrogens, (1)114
red clover, (1)114
saw palmetto, (1)114
St. John’ wort, (1)114
uva ursi, (1)114
valerian root, (1)114
wild yam cream, (1)114
rationale for, (1)114
anatomic changes, (1)106
androgens in, (1)109
bleeding after, (1)54
bone changes, (1)106, 109. See also Osteoporosis, postmenopausal.
breast cancer risk after, estrogen replacement therapy and, (1)26
cardiovascular changes, (1)106
clinical features, (1)106
colposcopy in, (1)30
cytology in, (1)30
defined, (1)109; (6)86
early, X short arm deletions and, (5)85
endocrinologic changes, (1)106109
endometrial thickness measurement, (1)110
estrogen kinetics after, (5)3
estrogen levels after, (4)14
estrogen replacement therapy in, (1)106,110
administration, (1)110
after breast cancer, (1)110
alternatives to, (1)106114
androgens and, (1)110
bleeding management during, (1)110
breast cancer risk and, (1)26
in cardiovascular disease, (1)110
colorectal cancer and, (1)110
commencing during perimenopause, (1)109
commencing in elderly, (1)110
complications, (1)106
continuous combination program, (1)110
contraindications, (1)106
metabolic, (1)110
crisis of confidence in, (1)114
in diabetic, (1)110
disease prevention and, (1)107
duration of therapy, (1)110
and endometrial carcinoma risk, (4)12
in endometrial disease, (1)110
endometrial neoplasia risk and, (1)106
endometrial thickness and, (1)110
fibroid tumors and, (1)110
gallbladder disease and, (1)106
in liver disease, (1)110
monitoring dosage with estradiol blood levels, (1)110
oral complaints, (1)110
osteoarthritis and, (1)110
osteoporosis and, (1)111
and ovarian cancer, (1)110; (4)27
patient evaluation, (1)106
progestin challenge test and, (1)110
progestins plus, (1)106
metabolic effects, (1)110
side effects, (1)110
psychological effects of, (6)86
rheumatic diseases and, (1)110
selective estrogen agonists-antagonists, (1)110
sequential program, (1)110
sexual function and, (6)99
treatment regimens, (1)106
types of preparations, (1)106
venous thrombosis and, (1)110
visual effects, (1)110
women with disabilities, (1)102
history, (1)6
hormonal cytology, (1)29
hot flushes (flashes) in, (1)106, 109
treatment, (1)109
lipid levels in, (1)106
natural, (1)109
premature. See Ovaries, failure of, premature (premature menopause).
primary care and, (6)110
psychological aspects of, (1)106; (6)86
hormone therapy in, (6)86
management of, (6)86
mood in, (6)86
sexual function in, (6)86
sexual activity after, (1)108; (6)99
time of, endometrial carcinoma and, (4)13
urogenital changes, (1)106
uterine bleeding in, (5)23
vulvovaginitis after, (1)107
weight gain with, (1)110
in women with disabilities, (1)102
Menorrhagia
causes of, (5)23
definition of, (5)20
in hypothyroidism, (5)35
medical management of, (5)23
myomas and, (1)58
treatment of, intrauterine device in, (6)29
Menotropins, in ovulation induction, and multifetal pregnancy, (3)83
Menstrual blood, analysis, in tuberculosis, (1)49
Menstrual cycle, (5)6, (5)18, 20
abnormalities of
corpus luteum in, (5)6
galactorrhea and, (5)32
hormonal feedback loops in, (5)6
hypothalamic-pituitary unit in, (5)6
pituitary in, (5)6
in adolescent, (1)22
corpus luteum in, (5)14. See also Corpus luteum.
estrogen concentrations during, (4)14
follicular phase of, (1)54; (5)6. See also Follicle, ovarian.
aging effects on length of, (1)109
dominant follicle growth in, (5)6
follicle cohort recruitment in, (5)6
late, (5)6
ovulatory period in, (5)6
history, prenatal record, (2)1
hormonal markers of, (5)6
hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis in, (5)6. See also Hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis.
luteal phase of. See Luteal phase.
normal, (5)20
perimenopausal variability, (1)109
pituitary response to GnRH and, (5)8
in polycystic ovary syndrome, (5)29
premenstrual syndromes and. See Premenstrual syndrome(s) (PMS).
prostaglandins in, (5)42
in woman with disabilities, (1)102
Menstrual cycle sterilization and, (6)45
Menstruation
absence of. See Amenorrhea.
basal body temperature and, (1)96
cessation. See Menopause.
cycle. See Menstrual cycle.
diminished
definition of, (5)20
hormonal cytology in, (1)29
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
treatment of, (5)27
disorders. See also specific disorder.
genital tuberculosis and, (1)49
in HIV-infected woman, (1)46
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
dysfunctional uterine bleeding. See Bleeding, uterine, dysfunctional.
dysmenorrhea. See Dysmenorrhea.
excessive bleeding in, (5)23
flow obstruction in
with double uterus and obstructed hemivagina, (1)70
transverse vaginal septum and, (1)70
galactorrhea and, (5)32–4
history, (1)6
hyperprolactinemia and, (5)32
in hyperthyroidism, (5)35
in hypothyroidism, (5)35
implantable contraceptives and, (6)38
increased bleeding in, intrauterine device and, (6)29
onset of (menarche), age at, (5)9
pelvic inflammatory disease during, (1)44
premature, isolated, (5)16
prostaglandins and, (5)41
resumption of, postpartum, (2)90
retrograde, endometriosis and, (1)20
serum levels of pituitary luteinizing hormone during, (1)96
toxic shock syndrome during. See Toxic shock syndrome (TSS).
Mental disorders. See Psychiatric disorders.
Mental health
postpartum. See Psychoses, postpartum.
referral, in anxiety and depressive disorders, (6)73
Mental retardation
in 47, XXX females, (5)89
in 49, XXXXX females, (5)89
genetic counseling for parents of child with, (3)111
in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)92
maternal hyperphenylalaninemia and, (2)93
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
radiation exposure in utero and, (2)101
Meperidine
after cesarean delivery, (3)90
in labor, (3)60
metabolism, in labor, (3)60
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
for pediatric gynecologic examination, (1)19
Mephobarbital, coagulopathy with, (3)60
Mepivacaine, obstetric pharmacology of, (3)60
Meprobamate, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Meralgia paresthetica, in pregnancy, (3)19
Mercury
intake, from fish, in pregnancy, (2)7
ovarian effects of, (5)88
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Mering procedure, (1)11
Merkel cell tumor, vulvar, (4)40
Meropenem, for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
Mersilene, in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
Mesangial IgA nephropathy, in pregnancy, (3)6
Mesenchymal cells, (5)77
Meshes, in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
Mesoblastic cells, (5)77
Mesoblastoma, extraembryonic. See Yolk sac tumor.
Mesoderm, development of, (2)12
Mesonephric duct system
development, (5)77
abnormalities, (1)4
vestiges, (1)4
Mesonephros, (2)12; (5)77
Mesothelium, cytology, peritoneal washing, (1)29
Mestranol, (5)3
Metabolic acidemia, fetal or neonatal, (3)67
Metabolic acidosis
in newborn, management of, (3)68
postoperative, (1)53
Metabolic alkalosis, postoperative, (1)53
Metabolic clearance rate, for steroid hormones, (5)1
Metabolic derangement, parental, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
Metabolic factors, in hyperemesis gravidarum, (2)9
Metabolism
carbohydrate. See Carbohydrate(s), metabolism of.
complications of intravenous nutritional supplementation, (4)63
implantable contraceptive effects on, (6)38
inborn errors. See also specific disorder.
breast feeding and, (2)93
lipid
hCS and, (5)39
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
lipoprotein, oral contraceptives and, (6)24
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
postpartum changes in, (2)90
in pregnancy, (2)13
anesthetic implications, (3)90
and hCS secretion, (5)39
Metalloproteinases, matrix, endometrial, before implantation, (5)47
Metals
in devices for gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
heavy
ovarian effects of, (5)88
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
Metanephros, (2)12
Metaproterenol (Alupent), in pregnancy, (2)6
Metastatic disease. See also Lymph nodes, metastases to; specific disease.
aspiration cytology, (4)52–10
cervical, (4)6
gestational trophoblastic tumors and, (4)48
vulvar, (4)40
Metformin, in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)28
for hirsutism, (5)27
Methadone
for heroin addiction, in newborn, (2)33
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy, (2)33
in pregnant heroin addict, (2)34
Methamphetamine, fetal effects of, (3)60
Methandriol, prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
Methemoglobinemia, congenital, (3)16
Methimazole (Tapazole)
in Graves’ disease, (5)35
in pregnancy, (3)1, 60
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Methotrexate
in abortion induction
contraindications to, (6)126
historical aspects of, (6)126
method of action of, (6)126
pharmacokinetics of, (6)126
regimens for, (6)126
vs. mifepristone, (6)126
in ectopic pregnancy, (1)68
eligibility, (1)68
laparoscopic surgery vs., (1)68
persistent, (1)68
for gestational trophoblastic tumors, (4)48
local administration of, in ectopic pregnancy, (1)121
ovarian effects of, (5)88
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Methoxyflurane, (3)60
α-Methyldopa
for hot flashes (flushes), (1)110
in pregnancy, (3)6
Methyldopa, for hypertension, in pregnancy, (3)5
Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, gene, C677T mutation, (2)108
Methylergonovine maleate
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
response of placental vasculature to, (3)62
Methylmercury, prenatal exposure to, (2)10
Methylprednisolone, teratogenicity of, (2)6
Methyltestosterone
in male infertility, (5)65
prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
Metoclopramide (Reglan)
breast milk production and, (2)93
in pregnancy, (2)6
Metoprolol, in pregnancy, (3)60
Metreurynter, in uterine emptying, after septic abortion, (6)118
Metrodin, in ovulation induction, and multifetal pregnancy, (3)83
Metronidazole (Flagyl)
in amebiasis, (3)51
for bacterial vaginosis, in pregnancy, (3)35
in bacterial vaginosis, (1)37
in Entamoeba histolytica infection, (3)51
for giardiasis, (3)51
for obstetric infection, microbial susceptibility to, (3)35
with oocyte retrieval, for in vitro fertilization, (5)97
for pelvic infections, (1)44; (5)57
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)51, 12
for trichomoniasis, (1)37
in pediatric patient, (1)19
in pregnancy, (1)40; (2)41; (3)35, 51
Metroplasty
hysteroscopic, (1)117
pregnancy outcome after, (5)61
for uterine anomalies, (1)70
Metrorrhagia, definition of, (5)20
Metyrapone, for Cushing’ syndrome, (5)37
Metyrapone test, (5)36
M33 gene, (5)78
Miacalcin. See Calcitonin.
Miami pouch, for urinary diversion, with pelvic exenteration, (4)10
Miconazole (Monistat)
in candidiasis, (1)37, 40
in pregnancy, (2)6
Microadenoma, pituitary, (5)25–9
in pregnancy, (5)25
Microbiology. See also specific microorganism.
necrotizing fasciitis, (1)48
pelvic abscess, (1)48
Microcephaly, fetal ultrasonic detection, (3)72
Microcolpohysteroscopy, (1)118
Microglandular hyperplasia, cytology of, (1)29
Microhysteroscopes, (1)118
optical properties, (1)118
Microhysteroscopy, (1)118
advantages, (1)118
applications, (1)118
instrumentation, (1)118
technique, (1)118
Microlaparoscopy, (1)10. See also Laparoscopy.
Micromanipulation, in in vitro fertilization. See also Fertilization, in vitro, micromanipulation.
Micronor. See Norethindrone.
Micropapillomatosis vestibularis (labialis), (4)2
Micropenis, (5)92
Microscope, in tubal sterilization reversal, (6)46
Microscopy, electron. See Electron microscopy.
Microsurgery
for infertility, (5)61
instruments, for tubal sterilization reversal, (6)46
tubal reconstruction, (1)67. See also Tubal sterilization, reversal.
adjunctive therapy, (1)67
classification of procedures, (1)67
complications, (1)67
in distal obstruction, (1)67
patient selection, (1)67
postoperative adhesion prevention, (1)67
in proximal obstruction, (1)67
repeat, pregnancy outcome after, (5)61
results, (1)67
techniques, (1)67
tubo-uterine implantation, (1)67
Microwaves
in endometrial ablation, (1)38
lack of fetal or gonadal effects, (5)88
Midline vertical incision, (2)74
Midwifery, (2)68
model of care, (2)68
pain management alternatives, (2)68
Mifepristone (RU486), (6)12
in abortion induction, (1)123
contraindications to, (6)126
historical aspects of, (6)126
method of action of, (6)126
methotrexate vs., (6)126
pharmacokinetics of, (6)126
regimens for
alternative, (6)126
clinical use of, (6)126
comparative trials of, (6)126–13
standard, (6)126
single-agent misoprostol vs., (6)126
in labor induction, (2)71
in labor induction abortion, (6)127
for menorrhagia, (5)23
for postcoital contraception, 6, (6)26
Migraine
contraception in, (6)14
in pregnancy, (3)19
Mikati syndrome, (5)83
Milia, in newborn, (2)97
Military antishock trousers (MAST) suit, for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
Milk
breast. See Milk, human (breast).
cow’
allergy to, (2)93
in diet, and ovarian cancer, (4)27
nutrient content, (2)93
phenylalanine in, (2)93
human (breast), (5)31
adequacy assessment, (2)93
antimicrobial constituents, (5)31
carbohydrate content, (5)31
casein content, (5)31
chemicals in, (2)93
colostrum, (5)31
cow’ milk vs., (5)31
drugs and, (2)93; (5)31
antidepressants, (3)3
chemotherapeutic agents, (2)93
lithium, (3)3
oral contraceptives, (2)93
radioisotopes, (2)93
fat in, (2)93
fortifiers, premature infant and, (2)93
HIV transmission by, (5)31
lipids in, (5)31
mature, (5)31
nutrient content, (2)93
nutritional adequacy, (2)93
phenylalanine in, (2)93
potential hazards of, (5)31
premature infant and, (2)93
pumping, (2)93
taurine in, (5)31
transitional, (5)31
vitamins in, (5)31
Mill, John Stuart, (6)8
Miller-Dieker syndrome, (5)73
Miltown, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Mineralocorticoids
actions, (5)36
in congenital adrenal hyperplasia treatment, (5)37
secretion, adrenal, (5)79
Minerals. See also specific mineral.
in infant formula, (2)93
intake, in pregnancy, (2)7
in milk, (2)93
placental transfer, (3)59
requirements, (2)93; (4)63
in lactation, (2)93–5
in nutritional prescription, (4)63
supplementation, in lactation, (2)93
Minilaparotomy, in sterilization, incision, (6)39
Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, (4)6
Mirena intrauterine device, for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)23
Mirtazapine, in pregnancy, (6)79
MIS genes, (5)78
Misoprostol
in abortion induction, (6)123
contraindications to, (6)126
historical aspects of, (6)126
with mifepristone
home administration of, (6)126
methotrexate vs., (6)126
regimens for
alternative, (6)126
clinical use of, (6)126
comparative trials of, (6)126
standard, (6)126
timing of, (6)126
vaginal administration of, (6)126
pharmacokinetics of, (6)126
second trimester, (1)125
as single agent, (6)126
before intrauterine device insertion, (6)29
in labor induction, after premature membrane rupture, (2)46
in labor induction abortion, (6)127
for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
teratogenicity of, (6)126
in uterine emptying, after septic abortion, (6)118
Mitchell v. Robinson, (1)99
Mitochondrial inheritance, (2)14; (3)111; (5)74
Mitomycin C, in vulvar carcinoma, (4)43
Mitotane, for Cushing’ syndrome, (5)37
Mitral valve
prolapse of
asymptomatic, contraception in, (6)14
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
regurgitation, in pregnancy, (3)11
anesthesia and, (3)91
stenosis of, in pregnancy, (3)11
anesthesia and, (3)91
Mittelschmerz, (6)87
Mixed acidemia, fetal or neonatal, (3)67
Mixed connective tissue disease, in pregnancy, (3)20
Mixed epithelial tumors, ovarian, of low malignant potential, (4)29
Mixed germ cell tumors
malignant, (4)31
ovarian, in children, (4)34
MMIH (megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis) syndrome, (3)72
MMK operation. See Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz (MMK) operation.
Möbius sequence, of limb deformity, misoprostol and, (6)126
Mohr v. Williams, (1)99
Molecular chemotherapy, (4)64
Molecular genetics, (5)76. See also Cytogenetics.
advantages, (5)76
of azoospermia, (5)91
basic techniques, (5)76
of gynecologic cancer, (4)65, 66
endometrial, (4)15
of ovarian cancer, (4)66
of polycystic ovary disease, (5)94
prenatal diagnosis
congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)76
cystic fibrosis, (5)76
direct method, (5)76
indirect method, (5)76
sickle cell anemia, (5)76
steroid hormone receptors, (5)4
Molluscum contagiosum
prepubertal, (1)19
vulvar, (1)11
Molluscum fibrosum gravidarum, (2)32
Mondor’ disease, (1)27
Money, as source of marital conflict, (6)98
Mongolian spots, in newborn, (2)97
Mongolism. See Down syndrome.
Monistat (miconazole)
in candidiasis, (1)37, 40
in pregnancy, (2)6
Monitoring, fetal. See Fetal monitoring; specific method.
Monoamine oxidase, and postpartum blues, (6)84
Monoclonal antibodies
anti-CA-125, (4)60
immunotherapy and, (4)60
to sperm, (5)58
Monocytes, in antitumor responses, (4)60
Monosodium fluorophosphate, (1)111
Monosomy X. See Turner syndrome (monosomy X).
Mons pubis, changes in, in puberty, (5)9
Mons veneris, (2)5
Montevideo unit, in uterine contractility assessment, (2)73
Mood. See also Depression; Psychological considerations.
stabilizers of, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79. See also Psychotropic drugs, in pregnancy and lactation.
Moore vs. UCLA, (1)99
Moro reflex, in newborn, (2)97
Morphine
fetal effects, (3)60
intraspinal. See also Spinal anesthesia.
after cesarean delivery, (3)90
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Mortality
maternal
cesarean delivery and, (2)74
cesarean hysterectomy and, (2)75
perinatal, placental abruption and, (2)50
Morula, (2)12; (5)38
Mosaicism
45, X/46, XX, ovarian dysgenesis in, (5)85
45, X/46, XY, (5)22
vs. 46, XY gender reversal, (5)87
45, X/47, XXX, ovarian dysgenesis in, (5)85
45, X/47, XYY, (5)89
46, XX/46, XY, (5)84
46, XX/47, XXY, (5)84
46, XY/47, XXY, (5)92, 9
in Klinefelter syndrome, in infertility, (5)63
chaotic, (5)48
confined placental, (5)48
IUGR and, (2)106; (5)48
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
gonadal, cryptic parental, (5)48
as indication for preimplantation aneuploidy diagnosis, (5)108
placental, (5)48
in preimplantation embryos, (5)48
significance of, (5)48
Moschcowitz cul-de-sac closure, (1)84
Moschcowitz procedure, (1)57
Mother, death of
after cesarean delivery, (2)74
cesarean delivery after, (2)74
cesarean hysterectomy and, (2)75
Motherhood. See Parenthood.
Mourning, perinatal loss and, (6)81. See also Perinatal loss, psychologic considerations in.
Mouth
examination, in newborn, (2)97
fusion defects of, with eyelid absence, and genital ambiguity, (5)83
MRI. See Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
MRV (magnetic resonance venography), in deep venous thrombosis, postoperative, (1)95
MSAFP. See AFP (α-fetoprotein), maternal serum levels.
MS Contin. See Morphine.
MtDNA (mitochondrial DNA), (5)74
Mucin, endometrial
before implantation, (5)47
in luteal phase, (5)38
Mucinous carcinoid, ovarian, (4)31
Mucinous carcinoma, endometrial, (4)15
Mucinous tumors. See also specific tumor.
ovarian
aspiration cytology, (4)52
of low malignant potential
cystadenoma, (4)29
müllerian or endocervical type, (4)29
Mucus, cervical. See Cervical mucus.
Müllerian ducts
abnormalities, (5)90. See also specific abnormality.
cervical absence or atresia, (5)90
imperforate hymen, (5)90
adenosarcoma, (4)22
aplasia, (5)90
congenital absence, (1)70
diagnosis, (1)70
psychological counseling, (1)70
vaginoplasty, (1)70
cyst, (1)10
derivatives, persistence of, in males, (5)90
development, (5)77
embryologic, (1)2
female transformation, (5)77
male regression, (5)77
duplication, (5)90
incomplete fusion, (5)90
and recurrent abortion, (3)69; (5)48
isolated absence of fallopian tubes, (5)90
magnetic resonance imaging of, (1)93
müllerian aplasia, (5)80
ultrasonic scan, (1)101
Müllerian inclusions, cytology, peritoneal washing, (1)29
Müllerian-inhibiting hormone, (5)38
Müllerian type mucinous tumors, of low malignant potential, (4)29
Multicystic-dysplastic kidney disease, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Multidisplinary Dysmorphology Database, (3)2
Multifactorial inheritance, (5)75. See also Inheritance, polygenic/multifactorial.
Multiload Mark-II IUD, (6)66
Multiple gestation. See also Twin gestation.
abnormal fetal lie and, (2)76
activity modification in, (2)81
age assessment, (3)73
amniocentesis, (2)81; (3)112
assisted reproductive technologies and, (3)83
baseline cervical evaluation in, (2)81
bed rest in, (2)81; (3)1
breast feeding and, (2)93
chorionic villus sampling, (3)112
clinical challenges, (2)81
corticosteroid administration in, (2)81
delivery, (2)82
anesthesia, (2)82; (3)90
cesarean, (2)82
delayed, (2)81
immediate neonatal care after, (2)82
intertwin interval, (2)82
prerequisites, (2)82
rational protocol, (2)82
route, (2)82
vaginal, after cesarean delivery, (2)82
demographics, (2)81
detection, (2)4–9; (3)73
higher-order, (2)83
antenatal care, (2)83
assessment of fetal well-being, (2)83
delivery, (2)83
diagnosis, (2)83
etiology, (2)83
fetal demise in, (2)83
fetofetal transfusion in, (2)83
heterotopic pregnancy with, (2)83
incidence of, (2)107
infertility treatment associated with, (2)83
IUGR in, (2)83
malpresentation in, (2)83
management, (2)83
maternal anemia in, (2)83
neonatal morbidity associated with, (2)83
placenta in, (2)107
postpartum hemorrhage associated with, (2)83
pre-eclampsia in, (2)83
premature rupture of membranes in, (2)83
prevention of premature labor, (2)83
risks, (2)83
selective reduction, (2)83
labor, (2)82
delay, (2)81
fetal imaging, (2)82
fetal monitoring, (2)82
nutritional considerations, (2)7
ovulation induction and, (5)68
patient education during, (2)81
placenta in, (2)107
placenta previa and, (2)49
premature rupture of membranes in, (2)83
prenatal care, (2)81
after 32 weeks, (2)81
schedule of visits, (2)81
before 20 weeks, (2)81–14
between weeks 20 and 26, (2)81
between weeks 26 and 32, (2)81
preterm premature rupture of membranes and, (2)47
reduction in number of fetuses, (2)8183; (3)83
background, (2)83
demographics in, (3)83
outcome of, (3)83
procedures for, (3)83
psychologic considerations, (6)80
societal issues in, (3)83
technical aspects, (2)83
resource guide, (2)81
surveillance for preterm labor, (2)81
ultrasound, (2)4
fetal growth assessment after 32 weeks, (2)81
in labor and delivery, (2)82
serial examinations, (2)81
ultrasound evaluation, (3)64
weight gain with, (2)81
Multiple malformation syndromes
with gender reversal, in 46,XY females, (5)87
incomplete müllerian fusion in, (5)90
with pseudohermaphroditism, male, (5)83–6
vaginal atresia in, (5)90
with 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, (5)86
Multiple sclerosis
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
in pregnancy, (1)102; (3)19
labor diagnosis, (1)102
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
Multiple system atrophy, neurophysiologic testing, (1)81
Mumps
in pregnancy, (2)41
premature ovarian failure and, (5)88
vaccination against, in pregnancy, (3)52
vaccination against, in pregnancy, in HIV-infected woman, (1)46
Mural nodules, ovarian mucinous tumors with, (4)29
MURCS association, (5)90
Muscle(s)
of anterior abdominal wall, (1)56
bulbocavernosus, (1)1; (2)5
detrusor. See Detrusor muscle.
fetal, biopsy, (3)112
ischiocavernosus, (2)5
levator ani
anatomy, (1)1
arcus tendineus of, (1)1
assessment, (1)81
physiology, (1)1
of pelvic diaphragm, (2)5
of pelvic wall, (2)5
pubococcygeal, (1)1
influence on voiding mechanism, (1)1
puborectalis, (1)1
tone, in newborn, (2)97
transposition, for anal incontinence, (1)98
of ventilation, (3)26
Muscle relaxants, obstetric pharmacology of, (3)60
Muscular dystrophy
Becker, prenatal diagnosis, (3)112
deletion mapping, (5)73
Duchenne’, prenatal diagnosis, (3)112
premature ovarian failure in, with expansion of triplet nucleotide repeats, (5)86
Musculogenic etiology, of female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Musculoskeletal system, disorders, in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
Mutagenesis
insertional, (4)65
oral contraceptives and, (6)37
vaginal spermicides and, (6)17
Mutation(s)
dynamic, (5)74
in hCS/hGH-variant gene cluster, (5)39
loss-of-function, (5)74
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
point, and gynecologic cancer, (4)65
endometrial adenocarcinoma, (4)65
epithelial ovarian, (4)65
somatic, (5)74
teratogens and. See Teratogenicity.
Mutation compensation, (4)64
Myalgia, pelvic floor tension, (6)87
Myambutol (ethambutol), in pregnancy, (2)6
Myasthenia gravis
neonatal, (3)63
in pregnancy, (3)19
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
Mycobacterium infection, and tuberculosis, (1)49. See also Tuberculosis.
Mycoplasma, placental infection, (2)108
Mycoplasma hominis, (1)41; (3)48
and intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
and pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
and puerperal infections, (3)37–5
Mycoplasmas, genital, (1)41; (3)48
bacteriology, (1)41
clinical features, (1)41
diagnosis, (1)41; (3)48
epidemiology, (3)48
and infertility, (5)57
neonatal infection, (3)48
organism, (3)48
and pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
and postpartum fever, (3)48
in pregnancy, (2)41
and prematurity, (3)48
spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, (3)48
treatment, (1)41; (3)48
Mycoses, systemic, (1)41
Mycostatin (nystatin), in pregnancy, (2)6
Myoblastoma, granular cell, vulvar, (1)9
Myocardial infarction
oral contraceptives and, (6)23
in smokers, (6)23
in pregnancy, (3)11
Myocardium, disease of, in pregnancy, (3)11
Myochrysine (gold sodium thiomalate), in pregnancy, (3)20
Myoclonus, opioids and, in cancer pain management, (4)58
Myocutaneous flap, in vaginal reconstruction, (4)53
Myolysis, (1)14
for uterine fibroids, (1)103
Myoma(s)
degeneration of, (1)58
fetal wastage and, (1)58
infertility and, (1)58
management, (1)58
medical, (1)58
surgical. See Myomectomy.
menorrhagia and, (1)58
ovarian, (1)17
pelvic pressure/pain and, (1)58
recurrence rate, (1)58
signs, (1)58
symptoms, (1)58
uterine. See Fibroids; Leiomyoma.
Myomectomy, (1)58
abdominal, (1)58
adhesion prevention, (1)58
blood loss, minimization of, (1)58
complications, (1)58
hysterectomy vs., (1)58
hysteroscopic, (1)14–14
indications, (1)58
in infertility surgery, (1)58
laparoscopic, 1)119; (5)62
laser, (1)14
for leiomyoma, (1)14
pelviscopic, (1)58
pregnancy outcome after, (1)58; (5)61
techniques, (1)58
tourniquet use during, (1)58
vaginal, (1)58
Myometrium
abnormalities, ultrasonography, (1)101
activation (phase 1), steroid endocrinology of, (5)38
contractility, preterm labor and, (3)87
dilatation and curettage technique and, (1)54
endometrial carcinoma invading, (4)15
depth of, prognostic significance of, (4)19
phase 2, steroid endocrinology of, (5)38
quiescence, steroid endocrinology of, (5)38
Myotome, (2)12
Myotonic diagnosis, prenatal diagnosis, (3)115
Myotonic dystrophy, (5)73
and placenta previa, (2)49
Myxedema, pretibial, in Graves’ disease, (5)35
Myxedema coma, (5)35

 

Subject Index N

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Nabothian cysts, 1(31)
cervical, (1)31
N-Acetyltransferase activity, in pregnancy, (3)60
Nadolol, in Graves’ disease, (5)35
Nafarelin
for endometriosis, (5)59
for precocious puberty, (5)16
Nails, in pregnancy, (2)32
Naloxone
contraindications to, (3)60
in endogenous opiate inhibition, in menstrual cycle, (5)6
in neonatal resuscitation, (3)68
for respiratory depression, with opioid use, in cancer pain management, (4)58
Naproxen
in dysmenorrhea, (1)18
for menorrhagia, (5)23
Narcotics. See also Analgesics.
abuse, anesthesia for delivery and, (3)90
intraspinal, in cesarean delivery, (3)90
in labor, (3)90
and neonatal respiratory depression, (3)68
prolonged, (2)73
for pain relief, after cesarean delivery, (3)90
in pregnancy, (1)34; (2)33. See also Pregnancy, in drug addict; Substance abuse, in pregnancy.
fetal effects, (2)33
side effects, (3)90
Narcotics teratogenicity of, (2)6
Nasogastric feeding, (4)63
Nasogastric suction, after surgery, for gynecologic cancer, (4)63B
Natanson v. Kline, (1)99
National Abortion Federation (NAF), (6)122
Natural Care breast milk fortifier, (2)93
Natural killer (NK) cells
antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and, (4)60
decidual, in female reproductive tract, (5)49
in endometriosis, (1)20
Naujok maneuver, (2)76
Nausea. See also Antiemetics.
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
compliance with use, (6)10
in pregnancy, (2)9; (3)30. See also Hyperemesis gravidarum.
nutritional management of, (2)7
NdYAG laser. See Neodymiumyttrium-aluminum-garnet (NdYAG) laser.
for uterine fibroids, (1)103
Necator americanus, (3)51
Neck
examination, in newborn, (2)97
exercises, during pregnancy, (2)8
skin translucency on, in Down syndrome, prenatal screening for, (3)114
webbed, (2)97
Necrosis
cortical, acute, in pregnancy, (3)6
fat
breast, (1)26
subcutaneous, in newborn, (2)97
tubular, acute, in pregnancy, (3)6
Necrotizing enterocolitis, after preterm premature rupture of membranes, (3)37
Necrotizing fasciitis, (1)11
postpartum, (3)39
episiotomy, (3)39
Necrotizing funisitis, (2)108
Needle aspiration, (4)52. See also Aspiration cytology.
of breast cysts, (1)26
Needle aspiration biopsy, (4)52
Needle-catheter jejunostomy, in gynecologic cancer, (4)63
Needles, for tubal sterilization reversal, (6)46
Nefazodone, in pregnancy, (6)79
Neisseria gonorrhoeae. See Gonorrhea.
Nelfinavir, in pregnancy, (3)47
Nelson’ syndrome, (5)25
after adrenalectomy, (5)37
in pregnancy, (3)23
Nematodes, (3)51–24
intestinal, (3)51
tissue-dwelling, (3)51
Neodymiumyttrium-aluminum-garnet (NdYAG) laser, (1)34. See also Lasers; Laser therapy.
endometrial ablation with, (1)38
Neonatal abstinence syndrome, (1)34
Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE), (3)20
Neonatal withdrawal syndrome, (1)34
Neonate. See Newborn.
Neoplasia
HPV infection and, (4)2
intraepithelial
cervical. See Cervix uteri, intraepithelial neoplasia.
vulvar. See Vulva, intraepithelial neoplasia.
lower genital tract, HIV and, (1)46
origin of, genetic models for, (1)66
Neoplasms. See Tumor(s).
Neosalpingostomy, (5)61
NeoSampoon, (6)17
Neosten (sodium fluoride), in osteoporosis treatment, (1)111
Nephritis, interstitial, in pregnancy, (3)6
Nephropathy
diabetic, in pregnancy, (3)6
counseling on, (2)22
IgA, in pregnancy, (3)6
reflux, in pregnancy, (3)6
Nephrostomy, percutaneous, (4)54
Nephrotic syndrome, (4)63
in pregnancy, (3)6
Nerve(s). See also specific nerve.
genital tract, (2)5
injury
in abdominal wall surgery, (1)56
labor anesthesia and, (3)90
pelvic floor
autonomic, (1)81
examination, (1)81
somatic, (1)81
pelvic wall, (2)5
Nerve blocks. See specific nerve block.
Nerve conduction studies
of lower extremity, (1)81
in pelvic floor disorders, (1)81
interpretation, (1)81
limitations, (1)81
technique, (1)81
in rectocele, (1)83
Nerve growth factor, (5)11
Nervous system
autonomic, uterine activity and, (2)5
central. See Central nervous system.
disorders
in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
prenatal diagnosis, (3)115
parasympathetic, in fetal circulation regulation, (3)58
peripheral, in pregnancy, anesthetic implications, (3)90
sympathetic
in fetal circulation regulation, (3)58
uterine activity and, (2)5
Nesacaine. See Chloroprocaine.
Nestorone, as implantable contraceptive, (6)38. See also Contraception, implantable.
Neural tube, (2)12
Neural tube defects, (3)116
embryology, (3)116
etiology, (3)116
α-fetoprotein and, (1)116–12
in fetus, ultrasound detection, (3)64, 11
incidence, (3)116
maternal serum AFP screening, (1)116
negative ultrasound examination and, (3)72
morbidity and mortality, (3)116
obstetric management, (3)116
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
patient counseling, (3)116
preconceptional nutritional counseling on, (2)22
prenatal diagnosis of, (3)116
preventive therapy, (3)116
recurrence risks, (3)116
screening and diagnostic tests, (3)116
benefits, (3)116
prenatal, (3)114
spontaneous abortion and, (3)69
ultrasonographic detection, (3)72
Neurectomy, presacral. See Presacral neurectomy.
Neuritis, retrobulbar, ethambutol and, (1)49
Neuroendocrine carcinoma, cervical, (4)6
Neurofibroma, vulvar, (1)9
Neurogenic etiology, of female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Neurohypophysial hormones, (5)10. See also Oxytocin; Vasopressin.
action and metabolism of, (5)7
drugs affecting release of, (5)7
in peripheral tissues, (5)7
Neuroleptics, in pregnancy, (3)60
Neurologic disease. See also specific disease.
and bulimia, (5)26
Neurologic dysfunction, intrapartum events and, (3)67
Neurologic evaluation
in newborn, (2)97
in urinary incontinence, (1)79
Neurolytic blocks. See also specific nerve block.
Neuromodulation, for refractory overactive bladder, (1)88
Neurontin (gabapentin)
in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Neuropathy
peripheral, neurophysiologic testing, (1)81
in pregnancy, (3)19
diabetes mellitus and, (3)13
Neuropeptide Y, (5)10
pituitary response to GnRH and, (5)8
placental, (5)39
Neurophysin, (5)7
levels, (5)7
Neurophysiologic testing, of pelvic floor, (1)81. See also Pelvis, floor of, neurophysiologic testing of
Neurosecretory peptides, (5)10. See also specific peptide.
characterization, (5)10
classification, (5)10
hypothalamic-releasing factors, (5)10. See also Angiotensin II; Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH); Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).
isolation, (5)10
neurohypophysial hormones, (5)10. See also Oxytocin; Vasopressin.
nutrition and reproduction and, (5)10
opioid, (5)10. See also Opioid peptides.
study of, transgenic technology and, (5)10
Neurosyphilis, (1)45
in HIV-infected woman, (1)46
treatment, (1)45
Neurotransmitter(s)
hCS secretion and, (5)39
opioid modulation of, (5)10
postpartum mood disorders and, (6)84
Nevirapine, in pregnancy, (3)47
for reduction of vertical transmission, (3)47
Nevus(i)
compound, (1)9
intradermal, (1)9
junctional, (1)9
in newborn, (2)97
in pregnancy, (2)32
vulvar, (1)9
Newborn. See also Infant(s).
abdomen, (2)97–9
acrocyanosis in, (2)97
of adolescent mother, (6)75
adrenal hemorrhage, (2)97
alloimmune thrombocytopenia in, after intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
aspirin during pregnancy and, low-dose, (5)43
assessment, (3)67
benzodiazepine withdrawal in, (6)79
birth weight, (2)14
evaluation, (3)74
fetal length and, (3)74
low
bacteriuria and, (2)43
maternal asymptomatic bacteriuria and, (3)35
maternal infections and, (3)33
prenatal toxicant exposure and, (2)10
psychologic impact, (3)3
maternal HIV infection and, (3)47
multiple gestation and, (2)83
prediction
comparison of formulas, (3)74
femur length in, (3)74
routine use, (3)74
body contour, proportions, and postures, (2)97
brachial plexus injury, secondary to obstetric trauma, (3)63
brachial plexus palsy, (2)97
breast, (2)97
breast-fed. See Breast feeding.
café au lait spots, (2)97
cardiovascular adaptation to extrauterine life, (2)12
pulmonary-systemic pressure relationships, (2)12
sites of venous admixture, (2)12
cephalhematoma, (2)97; (3)63
chest, circumference, (2)97
chlamydial infection in, (2); (3)48
treatment, (3)48
congenital defects. See Birth defects, congenital; Congenital anomalies.
congenital rubella, (3)46
congenital syphilis, (2)42
diagnosis, (2)42
cytomegalovirus infection, (3)45
defenses against infectious diseases, (3)33
of diabetic mother, (3)13
congenital anomalies, (3)13
hypoglycemia, (3)13
and later growth and development, (3)13
macrosomia, (3)13
respiratory problems, (3)13
ductus arteriosus, closure of, (2)12
ductus venosus, closure of, (2)12
duodenal atresia, (2)12
duodenal stenosis, (2)12
erythema toxicum, (2)97
examination, (2)97
auscultation and palpation, (2)97
inspection without contact, (2)97
sequence, (2)97
extremities, (2)97
eyes, (2)97
facial nerve palsy, secondary to obstetric trauma, (3)63
facial paralysis, (2)97
fat necrosis, subcutaneous, (2)97
first breath, (2)12
foramen ovale, closure of, (2)12
fractures
long bones, (2)97
skull, (2)97
genetic disorders. See Genetic disorders.
genitalia
ambiguous, (1)19
female, (2)97
male, (2)97
normal anatomy of, (1)19
genital mycoplasmal infection in, (3)48
gonococcal infection, (2)42; (3)42–7
group B streptococcal infections, (3)41–11
growth retardation, physical findings, (2)97
harlequin color change, (2)97
head, (2)97
circumference, (2)97
heart, (2)97
hemangioma, (2)97
hematoma, subdural, (2)97
hemolytic disease. See Erythroblastosis fetalis.
hemorrhage into abdominal organs, (2)97
hemorrhagic disease of, vitamin K deficiency and, (2)93
hepatitis B infection in, (3)44
hepatitis C virus infections in, (3)44
hepatitis infection, (3)29
herpes simplex, (2)42; (3)46. See also Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection.
high-risk, follow-up, (3)1
HIV infection in, (3)47–16
antiretroviral therapy and, (3)47
mode of delivery and, (3)47
prevention of, in delivery, (3)35
host resistance in, to listeriosis, (3)40
hyperirritability in, (2)97
hyperthyroidism, (3)23
hypoglycemia, diabetic mother and, (3)13
hypotonia in, (2)97
myasthenia gravis and, (3)63
immediate care, multiple gestation and, (2)82
infections, after fetal intrauterine transfusion, (3)81–12
initial stages of transition, (2)97
injury due to breech presentation, (3)63
in intensive care nursery, psychological considerations in, for staff, (3)3
intracranial hemorrhage
higher-order multiple gestations and, (2)83
vitamin K and, (3)59
intrauterine growth retardation, (3)74
isolation, (3)33
jaundice in, (2)97
large-for-gestational age (LGA), (3)74
late onset GBS syndrome, (1)41
listeriosis in, (1)41
clinical manifestations, (3)40
therapy, (3)40
lungs, (2)97
lupus erythematosus, (3)20
macrosomia, (3)74
male, circumcision of, (2)91
milia in, (2)97
mongolian spots, (2)97
Moro reflex, (2)97
of mothers with intra-amniotic infection, (3)37
of mothers with toxic shock syndrome, (1)43
mouth, (2)97
myasthenia gravis, (3)63
neck, (2)97
neural tube defects, (3)116
neurologic evaluation, (2)97
nose, (2)97
peripheral nerve injuries, (2)97
pharmacology, (3)60
phrenic nerve palsy, (2)97
physical findings, (2)97
placental abruption and, (2)50
postmature, (2)14
preterm. See Infant(s), premature.
primary care, (6)110
reflexes, (2)97
respiration, initiation of, (2)12
air entry into lungs and expansion of alveoli, (2)12
circulatory adjustments, (2)12
fetal sites of venous admixture, (2)12
pulmonary-systemic pressure relationships, (2)12
establishment of functional residual capacity, (2)12
initiation of respiratory movements, (2)12
lung fluid and, (2)12
surface tension and surfactant, (2)12
respiratory distress syndrome, higher-order multiple gestations and, (2)83
resuscitation of, (3)68
with abdominal wall defects, (3)68
airway clearance in, (3)68
circulation in, (3)68–10
in diaphragmatic hernia, (3)68
drugs in, (3)68
equipment for, (3)68
laryngeal mask airway in, (3)68
outcome of, (3)68
personnel in, (3)68
respiration in, (3)68
risk factors in, (3)68
room air in, vs. pure oxygen, (3)68
steps in, (3)68
vascular access in, (3)68
with very low birth weight, (3)68
Rh immunization in, (3)66
sclerema, (2)97
sepsis in, group B streptococci and, prevention of, (3) 35
skin and subcutaneous tissues, (2)97
trauma, (2)97
skull, fractures, (2)97
secondary to obstetric trauma, (3)63
small for gestational age (SGA), (3)74
spinal cord injury, (2)97
secondary to obstetric trauma, (3)63
suck function, (2)12
sudamina, (2)97
syphilis in, (1)45; (3)42
diagnosis, (1)45
prevention, (1)45
treatment, (1)45
systemic lupus erythematosus, (3)20
thorax, (2)97
throat, (2)97
toxoplasmosis, treatment, (3)50
transfusion need in, after direct fetal transfusion, (3) 81
transient tachypnea of, (2)12
transition in, from fetal physiology, (3)68
trauma, (2)97
central nervous system, (2)97
hemorrhage into abdominal organs, (2)97
long bone fractures, (2)97
ocular, (2)97
peripheral nerves, (2)97
skin and subcutaneous tissue, (2)97
skull, (2)97
uterine prolapse, pessary in, (1)39
varicella, (3)46
New World leishmaniasis, (3)51
Nexin-1 gene, (5)78
Niacin
deficiency, in breast-feeding mother, (2)93
in infant formula, (2)93
in milk, (2)93
placental transfer, (3)59
requirements, (2)93
Niclosamide, for tapeworm infection, (3)51
Nicotine. See also Smoking.
Nicotine stimulation test, (5)7
Nicotine withdrawal, in pregnancy, (2)6
Nifedipine
for hypertension, in pregnancy, (3)5
for inhibition of preterm labor, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
as tocolytic agent, (3)87
Nifurtimox, for Chagas’ disease, (3)51
Nipple discharge, (1)27
Nishi v. Hartwell, (1)99
Nitabuch’ layer, (2)108
Nitrazine test, for fetal membane rupture, (2)46
Nitric oxide
in labor induction, (2)71
and vascular resistance, in pregnancy, (3)8
Nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)
for asymptomatic bacteriuria, in pregnancy, (3)35
for cystitis, in pregnancy, (3)35
in pregnancy, (2)6
for pyelonephritis, in pregnancy, (3)35
in urinary tract infections, (2)43
Nitrogen mustard, and premature ovarian, (5)88
Nitroglycerin
for female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
in pregnancy, for hypertensive encephalopathy, (3)5
prolonged labor and, (2)73
Nitrous oxide
electrosurgery and, (1)34
obstetric pharmacology of, (3)60
in obstetrics, (3)90
NK cells. See Natural killer (NK) cells.
NKT cells, in female reproductive tract, (5)49
NLE (neonatal lupus erythematosus), (3)20
N-Methyl-d-aspartate antagonists, in pain management, in gynecologic cancer, (4)58
Noble-Mengert repair, for anal incontinence, (1)98
Nolvadex. See Tamoxifen.
Nomegestrol acetate, in Uniplant contraceptive system, (6)38. See also Contraception, implantable.
Nondisjunction, (5)84, 5, 89, 92
in 46, XX/46, XY, (5)84
in 47, XXX, (5)89
in 47, XYY, (5)89
Nonoxynol-9
condoms and, (6)17
in disease prevention, (6)17
in vaginal inserts, (6)17
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). See also Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors; specific drug.
before dilatation and curettage, (1)54
for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
in dysmenorrhea, (1)18
in male infertility treatment, (5)65
for menorrhagia, (5)23
for pain, in gynecologic cancer, (4)58
in pregnancy, (2)6; (3)20
for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
Nonstress test, (3)78
abnormal, (3)78
automated analysis, (3)78
background, (3)78
in biophysical profile, (3)77
clinical considerations, (3)78, 11
compared with biophysical profile, (3)77
compared with contraction stress test, (3)78
effectiveness as primary test, (3)78
fetal stimulation maneuvers, (3)78
follow-up, (3)78
indications, (3)78
instrumentation, (3)78
interpretation, (3)78
in IUGR, (3)74
in multiple gestation, (2)81
nonreactive, (3)78
in postterm gestation, (2)54
reactive, (3)78
reliability, (3)78
technique, (3)78
Noonan’ syndrome, (1)4
Norco, in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Norelgestromin, in transdermal contraception, (6)30
Norepinephrine
placental transfer of, (3)60
and postpartum mood disorders, (6)84
for shock, in septic abortion, (6)118
Norethindrone
in contraception, in systemic lupus erythematosus, (6)14
for endometriosis, (1)20
in oral contraceptives, interaction with estrogen, (6)19
prenatal exposure to
and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
and pseudohermaphroditism, male, (5)83
Norethisterone. See Norethindrone.
Norethynodrel, prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
Norlutate. See Norethindrone.
Norlutin. See Norethindrone.
Normeperidine, (3)60
Normethandrone, prenatal exposure to, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
Norplant contraceptive system, (6)38. See also Contraception, implantable.
adolescent use, (6)9
advantages, (6)10
and cancer risk, (6)25–5
in diabetes mellitus, (6)14
efficacy of, (6)3
in human immunodeficiency virus infection, (6)14
metabolic effects of, (6)14
in sickle cell disease, (6)14
in systemic lupus erythematosus, (6)14
Norplant II contraceptive system, (6)38
Norpramin. See Desipramine.
Nor-Q.D. See Norethindrone.
North American blastomycosis, (1)41
Norvir. See Ritonavir.
Nose, examination, in newborn, (2)97
Notogenesis, (2)14
No-touch technique, for second trimester abortion, (6)125
Novasure device, in endometrial ablation, (1)38
Noxious agents, and pregnancy loss, (5)48
NSAIDs. See Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Nuchal skin, translucency of, in Down syndrome, prenatal screening for, (3)114
Nuclear magnetic resonance. See also Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
biologic effects of, (2)103
principles, (1)93
Nuclear medicine
fetal radiation exposure and, (2)101
pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scans, (2)31
Nuclear receptors, orphan, (5)78
Nucleic acid amplification tests, for tuberculosis, (1)49
Nucleolar channel system, (5)18
Nucleoside analogs, in pregnancy, (3)60
Nulliparity
endometrial cancer in, (4)13
intrauterine device use in, (6)29
Nursery, intensive care. See Intensive care nursery.
staff psychological considerations in, (3)3
Nutramigen formula, (2)93
NutraSweet (aspartame), during pregnancy, (2)6
Nutrition. See also Diet; specific nutrient.
deficiencies
in breast-fed infant, (2)93
in breast-feeding mother, (2)93
in gynecologic cancer patient, (4)63
infantile beriberi due to, (2)93
placental abruption and, (2)50
enteral, (4)63
order form, (4)63
in premature infant, (2)12
lactation and. See Lactation, nutrition and.
neurosecretory peptides and, reproduction and, (5)10
parenteral, (4)63–16
at home, (4)63
order form, (4)63
in pregnancy, (3)54
postoperative considerations, (1)53
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
in pregnancy. See Pregnancy, nutrition in.
preoperative considerations, (1)52
RDA, (2)93
requirements, (4)63
Nutrition therapy. See also Nutrition.
in gynecologic cancer, (4)63
assessment for, (4)63
determination of requirements, (4)63
indications, (4)63
institution, (4)63
metabolic complications, (4)63
prescription, (4)63
recent developments in, (4)63B
Nystatin (Mycostatin)
for candidiasis, (1)37
prepubertal, (1)19
in pregnancy, (2)6

 

Subject Index O

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Obesity
abdominal
clinical significance of, (6)111
marker for, (6)111
androgen metabolism in, (5)2
anovulation in, (5)22
assessment of patient with, (6)111
cancer and, (4)19; (6)111
cardiovascular disease and, (6)111
central, and coronary artery disease, (6)111
comorbidity related to, (6)111
as contraindication, to hysterectomy, for cervical carcinoma, (4)9
definition of, (6)111
effect on reproductive life, (6)111
endometrial carcinoma and, (4)13, 9
epidemiology of, (6)111
etiology of, (6)111
fat distribution in, clinical significance of, (6)111
gallstones and, (6)111
hypertension and, (6)111
management of, (6)111
behavior modification in, (6)111
components of, (6)111
dietary modification in, (6)111
exercise in, (6)111
maintenance of weight loss in, (6)111
pharmacotherapy in, (6)111
prevention in, (6)111
surgical therapy in, (6)111
morbid, in pregnant patient, anesthesia and, (3)91
obstetric anesthesia and, (3)90–22
in polycystic ovarian disease, (1)29; (5)27; (6)111
pregnancy and, (6)111
prevention of, (6)1117
breastfeeding in, (6)111
puerperal infection and, (3)37
type 2 diabetes mellitus and, (6)111
urinary stress incontinence and, (1)87
Oblique lie. See Fetus, transverse or oblique lie.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder, (6)73
Obstetric patient
adolescent, (6)75
with malignancy, (3)57
Obstetrics
diagnostic ultrasound in, (3)64. See also Ultrasound/ultrasonography, diagnostic
disabled woman and, (1)102
disease entities in, (3)33–17
areas of physician concern, (3)33
diagnosis, (3)33
magnitude of the problem, (3)33
spectrum of disease-causing agents, (3)33
female circumcision and, (1)96
fluid replacement. See Fluid replacement, in obstetric patient.
high-risk, anesthesia in, (3)91
midwifery in, (2)68
primary care in, (6)110
Obstructive sleep apnea, in pregnant patient, anesthesia and, (3)91
Occupational exposures, in pregnancy, (2)10
O’Conor technique, for vesicovaginal fistula, (1)90
Octoxynol-9, (6)17
Octuplets. See Multiple gestation, higher-order.
Ocular toxoplasmosis, (3)50
Odsex mice, (5)78
Office hysteroscopy, (1)118. See also Hysteroscopy.
Office management, computers in. See also Computers/computerization.
Ofloxacin
for pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
for salpingitis, (1)44; (5)57
11β-OHD. See 11β-Hydroxylase.
21-OHD. See 21-Hydroxylase deficiency.
Ohm’ law, (3)62
Olanzepine, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Older woman. See Aging woman.
Olfaction, hyperemesis gravidarum and, (2)9
Oligoazoospermia. See Oligozoospermia.
Oligodeoxynucleotides, in gene therapy, (4)64
Oligogalactia, (5)31
Oligohydramnios, (2)107; (3)76
clinical presentation, (3)76
clinical significance, (3)76
congenital anomalies and, (2)14; (3)72
diagnosis, (3)76
ultrasound, prenatal, (3)72
incidence and origin, (3)76
and IUGR, (3)74
pathogenesis, (3)76
prolonged, pulmonary consequences, (2)47
spontaneous, management
antepartum, (3)76
intrapartum, (3)76
ultrasound assessment, (3)64
Oligomenorrhea
definition of, (5)20
hormonal cytology in, (1)29
in polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
treatment of, (5)27
Oligonucleotide hybridization, allele-specific, in prenatal genetic disorder diagnosis, (3)115
Oligo-ovulation, androgen excess and, (5)28
Oligozoospermia, (1)91; (5)63
genetics, (5)91
medical treatment, (5)65. See also Infertility, male, medical treatment.
severe, diagnosis, (5)91
Oliguria, postoperative, (1)53
Omentum
graft from, in vesicovaginal fistula repair, (1)90
in vaginal reconstruction, (4)53
Omphalocele, (2)12
AFP levels and, (3)116
in fetus, ultrasound detection, (3)64
ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Omphalomesenteric duct, (2)107
Onchocerca volvulus, (3)51
Onchocerciasis, (3)51, 24
Oncogenes
in gynecologic cancer, (4)65
cervical, (4)6
endometrial, (4)15
ovarian, (1)66; (4)27
for Wilms’ tumor, mutations of, with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, (5)87
Oocyte(s)
aging, animal studies, (6)37
cryopreservation, during radiation/chemotherapy, (5)88
donation
clinical results, (5)100
embryonic-endometrial synchronization, (5)100
endometrial receptivity evaluation, (5)100
failure, (5)100
historical aspects, (5)100
indications, (5)100
luteal-placental shift and, (5)100
as model
for age-related fecundity study, (5)100
for endometrial receptivity study, (5)100
pretreatment evaluation
of donor, (5)100
of recipient, (5)100
retrieval of donor, (5)100
stimulation of donor, (5)100
success, (5)100
hamster, in sperm penetration assay, (5)63
in in vitro fertilization. See also Fertilization, in vitro.
cryopreservation of, preimplantation aneuploidy diagnosis after, (5)108
donation of, (5)97
maturity of, (5)97
ovarian reserve of, (5)97
retrieval of, (5)97
in vitro maturation of, preimplantation aneuploidy diagnosis after, (5)108
maturation, (5)13
retrieval, ultrasound guiding, (5)55
Oocyte maturation inhibitor, (6)12
Oogenesis, (1)4; (5)13
Oogonia, (5)78
Oophorectomy
ectopic pregnancy and, (1)68
for pain relief, (1)76
prophylactic, (1)57
in cancer prevention, laparoscopic, (1)119
Oophoritis
mumps, (5)88
and premature ovarian failure, (5)86
tuberculous, (1)49
Oophoroma folliculare. See Brenner tumor.
Oophoropexy, (5)88
Ooplasmic sperm injection, (5)65
Open reading frames (ORF), in HPV DNA, (4)2
Ophthalmia neonatorum, gonococcal, (2)42; (3)42
Ophthalmopathy, in Graves’ disease, (5)35
Opiates
addiction. See also Narcotics; Substance abuse.
and anesthesia for delivery, (3)90
endogenous, in menstrual cycle, (5)6
Opioid peptides, (5)10
anterior pituitary function modulation by, (5)10
behavioral effects, (5)10
distribution, (5)10
measurement, in biologic fluids, (5)10
neurotransmitter function modulation by, (5)10
in reproduction control, (5)10
transgenic mice and, (5)10
Opioid receptors, (5)10
Opioids
abuse of, in pregnancy, anesthesia and, (3)91
for pain, in gynecologic cancer, (4)58
Oral cavity
in estrogen therapy, (1)110
in pregnancy, (2)15
Oral contraceptives
abnormal bleeding and, (6)27
acne and, (6)27
adolescent use, (6)9
adrenal effects of, (6)24
age and, (6)21
amenorrhea after discontinuation of, (5)21
anovulation after discontinuation of, (5)22
benefits, (6)1
benign breast disease and, (6)27
bone mineral density and, (6)1
breakthrough bleeding with, compliance with use and, (6)10
breast cancer and, (6)27
breast disease risks, carcinoma, (6)25
breast feeding and, (1)93
breast tenderness and, (6)27
candidiasis and, (1)37
carbohydrate metabolism and, (6)19
carcinogenic risks, (6)25
breast disease, (6)25
cervical neoplasia, (6)25
colorectal disease, (6)25
combination pill, (6)19
endometrial neoplasia, (6)25
gestational trophoblastic disease, (6)25
liver tumors, (6)25
ovarian disease, (6)25
pituitary tumors, (6)25
progestogens and, (6)19
thyroid tumors, (6)25
cardiovascular disease and, (6)14
cardiovascular effects of, (6)24
cardiovascular risks, (6)24
combination pill and, (6)19
progestogens and, (6)19
clinical aspects, (6)27
coagulation and, (6)24
colorectal cancer and, (6)27
combination pills
in adolescent, (6)9
biological effects, (6)19
breast cancer and, (6)19
cardiovascular effects, (6)19
cervical cancer and, (6)19
dosage, (6)19
drug interactions, (6)19
efficacy of, (6)3
endometrial carcinoma and, (4)13; (6)19
for perimenopausal uterine bleeding, (5)23
pharmacology, (6)19
postcoital use, (6)26
postpartum use, (6)15
vascular risks of, (6)23
with discontinued use, (6)23
historical aspects of, (6)23
myocardial infarction and, (6)23
stroke and
hemorrhagic, (6)23
ischemic, (6)23
thromboembolism and, (6)23
compliance, (6)27
continuation of use, (6)10
correct use, (6)10
dermatologic effects of, (6)24
diabetes mellitus and, (6)14
discontinuation, reproduction capacity after, (6)24
drug interactions, (6)19
for dysmenorrhea, (1)18
ectopic pregnancy and, (6)27
efficacy, (6)27
with rifampin, for tuberculosis, (1)49
endocrinologic effects, (6)24
endometrial cancer and, (6)25
endometrial response to, (6)12
in endometriosis, (1)20
in epilepsy, (6)14
gestational trophoblastic disease and, (6)25
headache and, (6)27
compliance with use and, (6)10
for hirsutism, (5)28
historical perspective on, (6)24
HIV and, (3)47
in human immunodeficiency virus infection, (6)14
in hypercoagulability, (6)14
hypertension with, (6)24
hypothalamic-pituitary effects, (6)24
inadequate milk supply and, (5)31
lipid metabolism and, (6)24
lipoprotein metabolism and, (6)24
liver tumors and, (6)25
low-dose, for dysfunctional uterine bleeding, (5)20
management issues, (6)27
mechanism of action of, (6)12
menstrual disorders and, (6)27
menstrual effects, (6)24
metabolic effects, (6)24
in migraine headache, (6)14
mini-pill, (6)9
postpartum use, (6)15
morning-after pill, (6)9
mutagenicity, (6)37
nausea with, (6)27
compliance with use and, (6)10
new, (6)27
new progestogenic steroids in, (6)24
ovarian cancer and, (6)25, 27
ovarian cysts and, (6)27
patient compliance, (6)10
strategies for encouragement, (6)10
patients’ concerns, (6)10
pelvic inflammatory disease and, (1)44; (6)27
perimenopausal use, (1)109; (6)27
pharmacology, (6)19
dosage, (6)19
estrogen-progestogen interaction, (6)19
estrogens, (6)19
progestogens, (6)19
pituitary adenomas and, (6)25
pituitary lactotroph and, (6)24
for postcoital contraception, (6)26
for postpartum contraception, (6)15
premenstrual symptoms and, (6)27
for premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
preservation of ovarian function in radiation/chemotherapy and, (5)88
progestin-only, (6)27
in adolescent, (6)9
ectopic pregnancy and, (1)69
efficacy of, (6)3
postcoital use, (6)26
postpartum use, (6)15
progestogen-estrogen interaction in, (6)24
progestogens in
biological effects, (6)24
new, (6)24
pharmacokinetics of, (6)24
potency tests, (6)24
return of fertility and, (6)24
in rheumatoid arthritis protection, (6)27
risks, (6)27
in sickle cell disease, (6)14
in systemic lupus erythematosus, (6)14
teratogenicity, (6)37
cardiac anomalies, (6)37
esophageal atresia, (6)37
hydrocephalus, (6)37
hypospadias, (6)37
limb reduction deformities, (6)37
multiple anomalies, (6)37
neural tube defects, (6)37
polydactyly, (6)37
syndactyly, (6)37
urinary tract anomalies, (6)37
thyroid cancer and, (6)25
thyroid effects of, (6)24
transition to hormone replacement therapy from, (1)109
use by adolescent, (1)22
in valvular heart disease, (6)14
weight changes with, compliance with use and, (6)10
weight gain and, (6)24
Orchiopexy, in adults, (5)66
Organogenesis, (2)14
Orgasm, (6)99
Orgasmic dysfunction, (1)104, 105; (6)99. See also Sexual response.
in aging woman, (1)108
assessment, (6)104
etiology, (6)104
incidence, (6)104
in lesbians, (6)104
primary, (6)104
secondary or situational, (6)104
treatment, (6)104
historical background, (6)104
outcome, (6)104
Oriental sore, (3)51
Orlistat, for obesity, (6)111
Osmolality, in pregnancy, (3)54
Osteoarthritis, estrogen therapy and, (1)110
Osteochondritis, in congenital syphilis, (1)45
Osteogenesis imperfecta
inheritance, (5)74
prenatal diagnosis, (3)115
Osteopenia, in HIV-infected woman, (1)46
Osteopontin, in endometrium, before implantation, (5)47
Osteoporosis, (1)111
diagnosis, (1)111
eating disorders and, (5)26
heparin and, (2)31
in HIV-infected woman, (1)46
incidence, (1)111
involutional, (1)111
perimenopausal, (1)109
postmenopausal, (1)105106, 109111
androgen therapy, (1)111
bisphosphonates in, (1)111
calcitonin in, (1)111
calcium supplementation in, (1)111
estrogen replacement therapy, (1)111
prevention, (1)111
progestin therapy, (1)111
risk factors, (1)111
screening for, (1)108
selective estrogen receptor modulators in, (1)111
in woman with disabilities, (1)102
in pregnancy, (3)23
primary, (1)111. See also Osteoporosis, postmenopausal.
secondary, (1)111
senile, (1)111
treatment, (1)111
types, (1)111
Otitis media, neonatal, chlamydial, (3)48
Ovarian eunuchoidism, hormonal cytology, (1)29
Ovarian follicular reserve, ultrasound evaluation, (5)55
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)
with clomiphene citrate treatment, (5)68
ultrasound evaluation, (5)55
Ovarian-hypothalamic-hypophyseal relationships. See Hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis.
Ovarian insensitivity syndrome, in primary amenorrhea, (5)21
Ovarian ligament, in hysterectomy, laparoscopic subtotal, (1)61
Ovarian reserve, diminished, oocyte donation and, (5)100
Ovarian vein
acute thrombophlebitis, postpartum, (3)37
thrombosis, in pregnancy, diagnosis, (3)17
Ovaries. See also Gonads.
in abdominal hysterectomy, total, (1)57
adenocarcinoma of. See also Ovaries, cancer of.
adenofibromas of, (4)30
clear cell, (4)30
endometrioid, (4)30
mucinous, (4)30
anatomy of, (1)2, 101
distortion, chronic pain due to, (6)87
androblastoma of, (4)31
aspiration cytology, (4)52
androgen production by, perimenopause and, (1)109
androgen synthesis and secretion in, (5)2
anomalies of, (1)2
in anovulation. See Anovulation.
arrhenoblastoma of, (4)31; (5)2
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
blood supply to, (1)2
blood vessels of, (2)5
cancer of, (4)54
advanced, surgical management of, (4)35
age and, (1)17; (6)110
aspiration cytology of, (4)52–12
borderline, aspiration cytology, (4)52
chemotherapy, (4)36. See also Chemotherapy, in ovarian cancer.
in children, (4)34
choriocarcinoma, primary, (4)34
classification of, (4)34
diagnosis of, (4)34
dysgerminoma, (4)34
germ cell, (4)34
incidence of, (4)34
mixed germ cell, (4)34
presentation of, (4)34
sex-cord stromal cell, (4)34
surface epithelial-stromal, (4)34
teratoma, (4)34
treatment of, (4)34
yolk sac, (4)34
clear cell, (4)30
aspiration cytology, (4)52
behavior of, (4)30
clinical findings in, (4)30
operative findings in, (4)30
pathology of, (4)30
clomiphene citrate treatment and, (5)68
contraceptive implants and, (6)25
CT scan, (4)54
staging, (4)54
cytology of, (1)29
peritoneal washing in, (1)29
cytophotometric DNA quantitation, (4)59
diagnosis, (1)25; (4)54
serum markers in, (1)25
diet and, (4)27
dirty necrosis in, (4)30
double, (4)52
early, surgical management, (4)35
early detection of, fine-needle aspiration biopsy in, (4)52
embryonal, (4)31
aspiration cytology, (4)52
endometrial carcinoma and, (4)19
endometrioid, (4)30
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
associated with uterine carcinoma, (4)30
behavior of, (4)30
clinical findings in, (4)30
operative findings in, (4)30
pathology of, (4)30
resembling sex cord-stromal tumor, (4)30
sertoliform, (4)30
vs. metastatic colon cancer, (4)30
epidemiology of, (1)25; (4)1927
protective factors in, (4)27
reduced risk of
contraceptive use and, (4)27
hysterectomy and, (4)27
pregnancy and, (4)27
tubal ligation and, (4)27
risk factors in, (4)27
genetic, (4)27
epithelial, (4)28
anatomic considerations, (4)28
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
chemotherapy, (4)36
dissemination, (4)28
embryology, (4)28
grade, (4)28
histology, (4)28
marker discovery in, new technologies, (4)28
mixed tumors, of low malignant potential, (4)29
molecular biology, (4)65
natural history, (4)28
patterns of spread, (4)35
in pregnancy, (3)54
preoperative evaluation, (4)28
prognostic factors, (4)28
radiation therapy, (4)37
screening, (4)28
spread, (4)36
staging, (4)28, 36
ultrasonography, (1)101
estrogen therapy and, (1)110
FIGO staging of, (4)36
gene therapy for, (4)64
genetics of, (1)66
clinical implications, (4)66
clinical management and, (4)66
histopathology and, (4)66
mutation analysis, (4)66
risk analysis, (4)66
testing, (4)66
histologic types of, (4)34
histopathology of
cytophotometric DNA quantitation and, (4)59
hereditary cancer and, (4)66
implants, (4)30
intestinal obstruction in, surgical management, (4)39
laparoscopic surgery for, (1)119
laparoscopy in, (4)55
low-grade, aspiration cytology, (4)52
magnetic resonance imaging, (4)54–22
staging, (4)54
metastases, (4)30
microinvasion, (4)30
micropapillary serous, (4)30
behavior of, (4)30
clinical features of, (4)30
invasive, (4)30
noninvasive, (4)30
operative findings with, (4)30
pathology of, (4)30
molecular genetics, (4)66
mucinous
behavior of, (4)30
clinical findings in, (4)30
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
operative findings in, (4)30
pathology of, (4)30
natural history, (4)35
oral contraceptives and, (6)25
pathogenesis
interleukin-6 in, (4)60
interleukin-10 in, (4)60
patterns of spread, (4)35
positron emission tomography of, (4)54B
in pregnancy, management of, (3)57
prevalence of, (1)25
prognostic factors, cytophotometric DNA quantitation, (4)59
radiation therapy, (4)37. See also Radiation therapy, for ovarian carcinoma.
recurrent
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
resection, (4)39
reoperations for, (4)39
evaluation of tumor response during, (4)39
historical background, (4)39
pelvic adhesions and, (5)61
resection of residual or recurrent tumor masses, (4)39
second-look, (4)39
laparoscopy, (4)39
laparotomy, (4)36
technique, (4)39
residual, resection, (4)39
rupture, (4)55
screening for, fine-needle aspiration biopsy in, (4)52
serous
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
behavior of, (4)30
clinical features of, (4)30
invasive, (4)30
micropapillary, (4)30
microscopic (early de novo), (4)30
operative findings with, (4)30
pathology of, (4)30
prognosis for, (4)30
serum markers for, (1)25
small cell, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
sonographic characteristics of, (1)25
spread, (4)54
to peritoneum, (4)54
to urinary system, (4)54
squamous cell, aspiration cytology of, (4)52
staging, (3)57; (4)35
clinical, (4)54
radiologic, (4)54
second-look laparotomy findings and, (4)39
steroid cell, (4)31
surgery, (1)35; (4)35
reoperations, (4)39
synchronous endometrial carcinoma, (4)15
talc and, (4)27
transitional cell, (4)30
behavior of, (4)30
clinical findings with, (4)30
operative findings with, (4)30
pathology of, (4)30
ultrasonography, (1)25
screening, (1)25
staging, (4)54
carcinoma. See Ovaries, cancer of.
choriocarcinoma of, (4)31
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
epithelial, (3)54
as contraceptive target, (6)12
corpus luteum in. See Corpus luteum.
cortex, (1)2
cystadenocarcinoma of, aspiration cytology of, (4)52
cystadenofibroma of, (4)30
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
with atypia, (4)29
serous, (1)17
cystadenoma of
mucinous, (4)29
papillary serous, (4)29
in pregnancy, (3)54
serous, (1)25; (4)29
cystomas of. See Cystomas.
cysts of. See also Adnexa uteri, masses, cystic.
aspiration cytology in, (4)52
dermoid. See Ovaries, dermoid cyst of.
estrogen-secreting, and pseudoprecocious puberty, (1)19
follicular
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
and pseudoprecocious puberty, (1)19
functional, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
in in vitro fertilization patients, (4)52
luteal
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
and pseudoprecocious puberty, (1)19
menopausal, expectant management of, (1)25
oral contraceptives and, (6)27
precocious puberty and, (5)16
in pregnancy, (4)52
premenopausal, expectant management of, (1)25
simple, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
sonographic characteristics of, (1)25
ultrasonic scan of, (1)101
cytology of, fine-needle aspiration, (1)29
dermoid cyst of, (1)17; (4)31
benign, genetics, (4)66
malignant, (4)31
in pregnancy, (3)54
development of, (5)77
genetics of, (5)78
growth factors in. See Ovaries, growth factors in.
disorders of, in pregnancy, (3)54
dysgenesis of. See also Gonad(s), dysgenesis of.
anovulation with, (5)22
dysgerminoma of, (4)31
chemotherapy, (4)36
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
genetics in, (4)66
gonadoblastoma with, (4)31
electrocautery, in ovulation induction, (5)70
embryology of, (1)2; (5)77
endometriotic lesions of, aspiration cytology in, (4)52
failure of
after uterine artery embolization, (1)103
premature (premature menopause), (5)86
actinomycin D and, (5)88
alkylating agents and, (5)88
amenorrhea and, (5)21
anovulation in, (5)22
anti-ovarian antibodies and, (5)86
autosomal dominant, (5)86
with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus syndrome, (5)86
busulfan and, (5)88
chemotherapy-related, (5)88
age and, (5)88
chlorambucil and, (5)88
chromosomal rearrangements and, autosomal, (5)86
combination chemotherapy and, (5)88
combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy and, (5)88
cyclophosphamide and, (5)88
environmental causes of, (5)88
ethanol and, (5)88
etoposide and, (5)88
external ionizing radiation and, (5)88
in fragile X syndrome, with expansion of triplet nucleotide repeats, (5)86
heritable, (5)86
hormonal replacement in, (5)100
incidence of, (5)21
infection and, (5)88
methotrexate and, (5)88
mumps and, (5)88
muscular dystrophy with, (5)86
nitrogen mustard and, (5)88
nonionizing radiation and, (5)88
oocyte donation and, (5)100
oophoritis and, (5)86
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and, (5)88
polyglandular autoimmune syndrome with, (5)86
radiation exposure and, (5)88
age and, (5)88
radionuclides and, (5)88
smoking and, (5)88
vinca alkaloids and, (5)88
feedback from, to hypothalamic-pituitary unit, (5)6
abnormalities of, (5)6
fetal, (5)77
busulfan and, (5)88
radiation effects on, (5)88
steroid physiology, (5)38
fibroma of, (1)17; (4)31
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
genetics, (4)66
fibrosarcoma of, (4)31
follicle. See Follicle, ovarian.
function of
age-related changes in, (5)72
decreased, secondary amenorrhea with, (5)21
growth factors and, (5)11
perimenopausal, (1)109
gonadoblastoma of, (4)31
with germ cell tumor, (4)31
and gonadal dysgenesis, (4)31
growth factors in, (5)11
activin, (5)11
bFGF, (5)11
EGF, (5)11
IGF-1, (5)11
IL-1, (5)11
TGFα, (5)11
TGFβ1, (5)11
TNFα, (5)11
gynandroblastoma of, (4)319
aspiration cytology in, (4)52
hemorrhage in, spontaneous bilateral, and premature ovarian failure, (5)88
hilus of, (1)2
hilus cells in, (1)2
hyperstimulation of
clomiphene citrate treatment and, (5)68
for in vitro fertilization, (5)97
inaccessible, oocyte donation and, (5)100
laser therapy, (1)34
luteoma, (4)31; (5)2
magnetic resonance imaging of, (1)93
mass lesions, ultrasonic scan, (1)101
mesonephric tubules and ducts, (1)2
metastases to, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
myoma of, (1)17
neoplasm of, laparoscopy for, (1)119
nerve supply, (1)2
ovulation in. See Ovulation.
papilloma of, surface, (4)30
perinatal, (5)77
polycystic-appearing, laparoscopy for, (1)119
polycystic disease of. See Polycystic ovarian disease.
polyembryoma of, (4)31
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
position of, (1)2
pregnancy in, (1)69
preservation of, in treatment of cervical carcinoma, (4)9
psammocarcinoma, serous, (4)29
pseudomyxoma peritonei. See Pseudomyxoma peritonei.
pubertal changes in, (5)9
remnant, removal, (1)76
retained, removal, (1)76
secretions, components, (5)13
senescence. See Menopause.
steroid hormone biosynthesis in, (5)1
steroidogenesis, regulation, (5)13
struma ovarii, (1)17; (4)31
teratomas of, (4)31. See also Teratoma.
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
immature, (4)31
mature, (4)31
cystic, (4)31
monodermal, (4)31
solid, (4)31
thecoma-fibroma of, (4)31–6
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
thecoma of, (1)17; (4)31–6; (5)2
luteinized, (4)31
with sclerosing peritonitis, (4)31
typical, (4)31
ultrasonography, (1)101
tuberculosis, (1)49
tumors of. See also specific tumor.
adrenal rest, (4)31
amenorrhea and, hormonal cytology, (1)29
androgen-secreting, (5)2
anovulation and, (5)22
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
atypical proliferative clear cell, (4)30
atypical proliferative mucinous, (4)3010
clinical findings with, (4)30
endocervical-like type, (4)30
gastrointestinal type, (4)30
with intraepithelial carcinoma, (4)30
operative findings with, (4)30
pathology of, (4)30
atypical proliferative serous, (4)30
behavior of, (4)30
clinical features of, (4)30
invasive implants, (4)30
lymph node metastases, (4)30
microinvasion, (4)30
noninvasive implants, (4)30
operative findings with, (4)30
pathology of, (4)30
atypical proliferative transitional cell, (4)30
benign, (1)17
aberrant development causing, (1)17
growth disorders causing, (1)17
origins, (1)17
physiological variation causing, (1)17
borderline, aspiration cytology of, (4)52
Brenner, (1)17; (4)2930, 52
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
metaplastic, (4)30
classification of, (4)52
clear cell, (4)2930
atypical proliferative, (4)30
cystadenofibroma with atypia, (4)29
endodermal sinus, (4)31
endometrioid, (1)17; (4)2930
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
atypical proliferative, (4)30
benign, (4)30
endometriosis and, (4)30
of low malignant potential, (4)29
malignant, (4)30
postmenopausal hormone therapy and, (1)110
endometriotic, aspiration cytology of, (4)52
epithelial, (1)17; (4)30. See also specific tumor.
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
atypical proliferative, (4)30
borderline, (4)30
endocrine manifestations, (4)30
mixed, (4)29
estrogen-producing
amenorrhea and, (5)21
and pseudoprecocious puberty, (1)19
germ cell, (4)31
chemotherapy for, (4)36
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
genetics, (4)66
gonadoblastoma with, (4)31
sex cord tumors and, mixed, (4)31
ultrasonography, (1)101
Glazunov, (4)30
granulosa cell, (1)17; (4)31
adult form, (4)31
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
genetics of, (4)66
juvenile form, (4)31
late recurrence of, (4)31
prognosis for, (4)31
pseudoprecocious puberty and, (1)19
treatment of, (4)31
watered-silk pattern in, (4)31
granulosa-stromal cell, (4)31
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
in theca-fibroma group, (4)31–5
granulosa-theca cell, endometrial carcinoma and, (4)13
hilar cell, (4)31; (5)2
Leydig cell, (4)31–11
hilar, (4)31
nonhilar type, (4)31
lipid cell, (1)17; (4)31
lipoid cell, (4)31
of low malignant potential, (4)29
clinical findings in, (4)29
histology of, (4)29
management of, (4)29
microcarcinoid, (4)31
mixed epithelial, (4)29
mixed epithelial mesenchymal, (4)30
mucinous, (1)17; (4)2930
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
atypical proliferative, (4)30
benign, (4)30
borderline, (4)30
cystadenoma, (4)29
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
intestinal, (4)29
müllerian or endocervical type, (4)29
mural nodules in, (4)29
pseudomyxoma peritonei and, (4)30
polycystic ovarian disease vs, (5)27
precocious puberty and, (5)16
in pregnancy, (3)54
pseudomyxoma peritonei, (4)29
radiation therapy, (4)37. See also Radiation therapy, for ovarian carcinoma.
sarcomatoid, (4)31
seromucinous, (4)30
serous, (1)17; (4)2930
aspiration cytology of, (4)52
atypical proliferative, (4)30
benign, (4)30
classification of, (4)30
clinical findings, (4)29
gross examination, (4)29
implants, (4)29
of low malignant potential, (4)29
with early invasion, (4)29
microscopic findings, (4)29
peritoneal, (4)29
prognosis for, (4)30
psammocarcinoma, (4)29
Sertoli-Leydig cell, (1)17; (4)31
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
genetics, (4)66
Sertoli-stromal cell, (4)31
classification of, (4)31
epidemiology of, (4)31
with heterologous elements, (4)31
of intermediate differentiation, (4)31
poorly differentiated, (4)31
prognosis for, (4)31
retiform, (4)31
sarcomatoid, (4)31
treatment of, (4)31
well-differentiated, (4)31
sex cord-stromal, (1)17; (4)31
with annular tubules, (4)31
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
germ cell tumors and, mixed, (4)31
in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, (4)31
sclerosing, (4)31
signet-ring, (4)31
unclassified, (4)31,
signet-ring stromal, (4)31
staging, (4)29
steroid cell, (4)31
malignant, (4)31
not otherwise specified, (4)31
stromal, (1)17; (4)31
chemotherapy, (4)36
sclerosing, (4)31
ultrasonography, (1)101
surface epithelial-stromal, aspiration cytology, (4)52
transitional cell, (4)30
atypical proliferative, (4)30
benign, (4)30
malignant, (4)30
ultrasonography, (1)101
virilizing
amenorrhea and, (5)21
precocious puberty and, (5)16
yolk sac, (4)31, 21
aspiration cytology, (4)52
endometrioid-like, (4)31
glandular, (4)31
ultrasonic scan, (1)101
abnormalities, (1)101
wedge resection, (5)61
hirsutism and, (5)28
laser, (1)34
Overactive bladder, (1)88. See also Bladder, overactive; Detrusor muscle.
Overflow incontinence, (1)79. See also Urinary incontinence.
Overweight. See also Obesity.
epidemiology of, (6)111
management of, components of, (6)111
Oves Cap, (6)17
Oviduct, in fertility, (6)20. See also Fallopian tubes.
Ovotestis, (5)84
Ovral, for pregnancy prevention, in rape victim, (6)96
Ovulation, (1)2; (5)12
abnormalities, in endometriosis and infertility, (5)59
androgen excess and, (5)28
defined, (5)13
detection, correlation with fertility indicators, (6)16
documentation of, (5)54
basal body temperature in, (5)54
cervical mucus testing in, (5)54
burn test in, (5)54
cervical score in, (5)54
chemical content in, (5)54
enzymes in, (5)54
ferning in, (5)54
protein constituents in, (5)54
spinnbarkeit in, (5)54
viscosity in, (5)54
endometrial biopsy in, (5)54
saliva testing in, (5)54
hormonal assays in, (5)54
in infertility, (5)50
leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in, (5)54
ultrasonography in, (5)54
vaginal cytology in, (5)54
failure. See Anovulation.
feedback mechanism in, (5)13
follicular atresia, (5)12
follicular rupture, (5)13
induction, (5)5069,70
agents, (5)70
in anovulation, (5)22
with clomiphene citrate, (5)68
adverse antiestrogenic effects of, (5)68
alternative treatment regimens in, (5)68
combination treatment regimens in, (5)68
complications, (5)68
confirmation of ovulation, (5)68
extended course for, (5)68
glucocorticoids combined with, (5)68
gonadotropins combined with, (5)68
hCG combined with, (5)68
historical perspective on, (5)68
indications for, (5)68
insulin-sensitizing agents combined with, (5)68
intrauterine insemination and, (5)68
in luteal phase deficiency
as causative factor, (5)56
in treatment, (5)56–26
results with, (5)56
mode of action of, (5)68
multifetal pregnancy and, (3)83
ovarian cancer and, (4)27
ovarian drilling with, (5)68
pretreatment evaluation of patient for, (5)68
results, (5)68
risks, (5)68
side effects, (5)68
treatment monitoring in, (5)68
treatment regimens for, (5)68
in unexplained infertility, (5)53
with FSH, for in vitro fertilization, (5)70
recombinant
hMG vs., (5)70
urinary FSH vs., (5)70
GnRH agonists in, hMG with, (5)70
GnRH antagonists in, (5)70
GnRH in, for in vitro fertilization, (5)71
clinical use and protocols, (5)71
indications, (5)71
patient selection, (5)71
pulsatile, (5)70
exogenous gonadotropins plus, (5)70
with gonadotropins, (5)69, 70
informed consent, (5)69
patient selection, (5)69
pharmacology, (5)69
physiology, (5)69
principles, (5)69
results, (5)69
gonadotropins in
luteal phase deficiency and, (5)56
in unexplained infertility, (5)53
growth hormone in, exogenous gonadotropins plus, (5)70
higher-order gestations associated with, (2)83
hMG in, (5)70. See also Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), in ovulation induction.
GnRH analogues with, (5)70
in hyperinsulinemia, (5)70
in luteal phase deficiency, (5)56
ovarian electrocautery in, (5)70
with ovarian wedge resection, (5)61
patient selection, (5)70
pulsatile GnRH in, (5)7071
exogenous gonadotropins plus, (5)70
treatment results, (5)70
in unexplained infertility, (5)68
induction of, drugs for, in pregnancy, (2)6
initiation of, (5)13
luteinizing hormone and, (1)70
mechanism of, (5)13
ovarian secretion components, (5)13
prediction, cervical mucus method, (6)12
prerequisites, (5)13
prostaglandins and, (5)41
regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development, (5)13
Ovum. See also Oocyte(s); Ovaries; Ovulation.
cleavage, (1)4
development, (1)2
fertilization, (5)46. See also Fertilization.
implantation, (2)11
transport, (5)46
Owen, Robert Dale, (6)8
Oxamniquine, for schistosomiasis, (3)51
Oxford sterilization technique, (6)39
Oxybutynin, for overactive bladder, (1)88
Oxycodone, in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Oxygen
in arterial blood, (3)79
arterial-mixed venous difference in, (3)79
in blood
in fetus, (3)68
in newborn, (3)68
in mixed venous blood, (3)79
pure, in neonatal resuscitation, vs. room air, (3)68
transfer to fetus, (3)58
Oxygen consumption, (3)79
calculation, in critically ill patient, (3)79
in pregnancy, (3)8
in exercise, (3)8
Oxygen delivery, (3)79
Oxygen extraction ratio, (3)79
Oxygen radicals, eicosanoids and, potential parallel roles in reproduction, (5)41
Oxygen saturation
hemoglobin, mixed venous blood, (3)79
mixed venous, (3)79
Oxygen tension, arterial, in pregnancy, (3)26
Oxygen therapy, postoperative, (1)53
Oxygen uptake. See Oxygen consumption.
Oxyprenolol, in pregnancy, (3)60
Oxytocin, (5)10
action and metabolism, (5)7
bioassays of, (5)7
biosynthesis, (5)7
in corpus luteum function, (5)56
drugs affecting release of, (5)7
effects on placental blood flow, (3)62
in labor induction, (2)71; (3)60
after premature membrane rupture, (2)46
in prolonged latent phase, (2)73
in protracted active phase, (2)73
in secondary arrest of dilation, (2)73
in labor induction abortion, (6)127
in lactogenesis, (5)31
levels, (5)7
female, (5)7
during coitus, (5)7
in disorders associated with labor, (5)7
in fetus, (5)7–10
during labor and parturition, (5)7
during lactation, (5)7
during pregnancy, (5)7
in premature labor, (5)7
male, (5)7
measurement, (5)7
in peripheral tissues, (5)7
for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
radioimmunoassays of, (5)7
regional analgesia and, (3)90
secretion, (5)7
structure, (5)7
in third stage of labor, (2)68
in uterine emptying, after septic abortion, (6)118
vaginal birth after cesarean delivery and, (2)65
Oxytocin challenge test (OCT), (2)58; (3)1. See also Contraction stress test.
in high-risk pregnancy, (3)1
in multiple gestation, (2)81

 

Subject Index P

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Pacemakers
in electrosurgery, (1)34
magnetic resonance imaging and, (2)103
Paclitaxel (Taxol)
for endometrial cancer, (4)21
in local cytokine production induction, (4)60
for ovarian cancer, (4)36
Pad testing, in urinary incontinence, (1)79
Paget’ disease
anogenital origin, (4)41
extramammary
primary, (4)40
secondary, (4)40
perianal
primary, (4)40
secondary, (4)40
vulvar, (1)11; (4)40, 41
behavior of, (4)40
clinical manifestations of, (4)40
etiologic classification of, (4)40
histopathology, (4)40
immunohistochemistry of, (4)40
primary, (4)40–8
immunohistochemistry of, (4)40
secondary, (4)40
immunohistochemistry of, (4)40
subtypes of, (4)40
treatment, (4)40
Pain
abdominal
in acute salpingitis, (1)44
chronic, (1)44
ectopic pregnancy and, (1)44
genital tuberculosis, (1)49
in pelvic inflammatory disease, (1)44
in pregnancy, (3)54
right upper quadrant, (3)29
after laparoscopic sterilization, (6)43
after uterine artery embolization, (1)103
in anorectal disorders, (1)97
back
in labor and delivery, (3)90
postpartum, epidural anesthesia and, (2)90
in pregnancy, (3)19
breast, in fibrocystic disease, (5)30
coital. See Dyspareunia.
defined, (6)87
in dying patient, control of, (6)95
in dysmenorrhea. See Dysmenorrhea.
in ectopic pregnancy, (1)69
gate theory, (6)87
in gynecologic cancer, (4)58
psychosocial aspects of, (4)68
relief of, (4)58
acetaminophen in, (4)58
anticancer therapy in, (4)58
anticonvulsants in, (4)58
bisphosphonates in, (4)58
bowel management in, (4)58
corticosteroids in, (4)58
depression management in, (4)58
local anesthetics in, (4)58
neuroablation in, (4)58
N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists in, (4)58
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in, (4)58
opioids in, (4)58
with local anesthetics, (4)58
peripheral neuropathy prevention in, (4)58
sympathetic blockade in, (4)58
tricyclic antidepressants in, (4)58
in HPV infection, (4)2
alleviation of, (4)2
in labor, (3)90
analgesia and anesthesia for, (3)90. See also Labor, anesthesia.
alternatives in midwifery management, (2)68
childbirth education and, (2)18
neonatal, circumcision and, (2)91
pelvic, (6)87
chronic
adhesions and, (6)87
anatomic distortion and, (6)87
chain reaction syndromes, (6)87
consultations, (6)87
continuous, (6)87
decreased pelvic support and, (6)87
endometriosis and, (1)20, 15; (6)87
episodic, (6)87. See also Dysmenorrhea; Dyspareunia.
evaluation methods, (6)87
evolution of, (6)87
gynecologic conditions causing, (6)87
history, (6)87
musculoskeletal components, (6)87
pelvic congestion syndrome, (6)87
physical examination, (6)87
psychologic assessment, (6)87
treatment plans, (6)87
endometriosis and, (1)20
treatment
medical, (1)20
surgical, (1)20
evaluation, (6)87
history, (1)6
myomas and, (1)58
treatment, (6)87
surgical
adhesiolysis, (1)76
hysterectomy, (1)76
presacral neurectomy, (1)76
removal of ovarian remnant, (1)76
removal of retained ovaries, (1)76
uterovaginal ganglion incision, (1)76
vaginal apex revision, (1)76
in placental abruption, (3)90
postoperative control, (1)53
postvasectomy, (6)49
relief of. See also Analgesia; Analgesics; Anesthesia; Anesthetics.
sexual disorders with, (6)105
vulvar, in vestibulitis, (1)11
Pain disorder, DSM-IV, (6)70
Pajot-Saxtorph maneuver, (2)72
Palate, cleft. See Cleft lip/cleft palate.
Pallor, in newborn, (2)97
Pamidronate, (1)111
Pancreas, embryonic development, (2)12
Pancreatitis
acute, in pregnancy, (3)30
in pregnancy, (3)54
Panic disorder, (6)73
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), placental transfer, (3)59
Papanicolaou classification, of cervicovaginal cytology, (1)29
Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, (1)29. See also Cytology.
abnormal, colposcopy and, (1)30; (4)2
after cryotherapy, for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, (1)31
in aging woman, (1)108
in HPV infection, (4)2
in pregnancy, (3)54
tuberculosis, (1)49
Papillary carcinoma
cervical, squamous, (4)6
uterine, serous, radiation therapy, (4)25
Papillary villoglandular adenocarcinoma
cervical, (4)6
endometrial, (4)15
Papilloma
breast, intraductal, (1)26
cervical, squamous, 1(31); (1)31
ovarian, surface, (4)30
serous, (4)29
vulvar, (1)9
Papillomatosis, ovarian surface, of low malignant potential, (4)29
Papillomaviruses. See also Human papillomavirus (HPV).
classification of, (4)2
discovery of, (4)2
DNA, open reading frames in, (4)2
genomic organization of, (4)2
structure of, (4)2
PAPP-A, (5)39
Papules, pruritic urticarial, in pregnancy, (2)32
Papulosis, bowenoid, (1)9; (4)40. See also Vulva, intraepithelial neoplasia.
Para-aminosalicylic acid, (3)60
in pregnancy, (2)6
Paracervical block
infections, (3)39
in labor, (3)90
Paracervical plexus, (1)61
Parakeratosis, cytology of, (1)29
Paralysis. See also specific paralysis.
fetal, for intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
Paramesonephric ducts. See Müllerian ducts.
Parametritis, mycoplasmas and, (1)44
Pararectal spaces, (1)1–18
Parasitosis, in pregnancy, (2)41; (3)51. See also specific infestation.
Parasympathetic nervous system
in fetal circulation regulation, (3)58
in urinary incontinence, (1)79
Parathyroid glands, disorders, in pregnancy, (3)23
Paraurethral cyst, (1)11
Paravaginal repair, for urinary stress incontinence, (1)86, 8
Paravesical spaces, (1)1–17
Paregoric, for heroin addiction, in newborn, (2)33
Parental conflict, and postpartum depression, (6)84
Parenteral nutrition, (4)63–16
at home, (4)63
order form, (4)63
in pregnancy, (3)54
Parenthood
child care provision, (2)19
future trends, (2)19
gay and lesbian, (2)19
preparation for, (2)19
psychologic considerations, (6)82
attachment, (6)82
crisis vs. transition, (6)82
cultural perspective and, (6)82
developmental phase, (6)82
evolutionary, (6)82
for fathers, (6)82
historical perspective and, (6)82
reproductive technologies and, (6)82
single-parent families, (2)19
transition to, (2)19; (6)82
women with physical challenges and, (2)19
Parity
placental abruption and, (2)50
placenta previa and, (2)49
Parkinsonian symptoms, in aging woman, drugs and, (1)108
Parkinson’ disease
drugs for, in pregnancy, (6)79
neurophysiolgic testing, (1)81
Parlodel. See Bromocriptine.
Paromomycin
in Entamoeba histolytica infection, (3)51, 22
in giardiasis, (3)51
in pregnancy, (3)51
Paroophoron, (1)2
Parovarian cysts, (1)17
Paroxetine, in pregnancy and lactation, (6)79
Parturition. See also Labor.
onset
fetus in, (5)38
steroid endocrinology of, (5)38
prostaglandins and, (5)41
Parvovirus infection, intrauterine, after intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
Patent ductus arteriosus. See Ductus arteriosus, patent.
Pathology, obstetric, advances in (future directions for), (2)108
Patient, dying, gynecologist and, (6)95. See also Dying patient, gynecologist and
Patient compliance, in contraceptive use, (6)10
Patient education
about pregnancy symptoms in prenatal record, (2)17B
Addison’ disease and, (5)37
computers in, (1)100
contraceptive compliance and, (6)10
genetic counseling. See Genetic counseling.
multiple gestation and, (2)81
postpartum, (6)77
pregnancy and, (6)77
in insulin-dependent diabetes, (3)14
prepared childbirth and, (6)77
Patient management, paperless records and, (1)100
Patient-physician relationship. See Physician-patient relationship.
Paxil. See Paroxetine.
P-block tubal plug, in hysteroscopic sterilization, (6)40
PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), in breast milk, (2)93
P450c17 gene, in desmolase deficiency, (5)82
PCOD. See Polycystic ovarian disease.
PCR. See Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
PDC counseling model, (6)98
Peanut oil, in micronized progesterone preparation, allergy to, (5)56
Pediatric patients. See Children.
Pedicle flap, labial, (4)53
Pedicle grafts, for pelvic floor covering, after exenteration, (4)10
Pediculosis pubis, in pregnancy, treatment of, (3)35
Peeping Tom, (6)96
Pelvic axis, (1)80
Pelvic congestion syndrome, (6)87
deep dyspareunia and, (6)87
Pelvic floor muscle training
in overactive bladder, (1)88
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), (1)44; (5)57
age and, (1)44
AIDS and, (1)44
bacterial vaginosis and, (1)40
after abortion, (1)40
bacteriology, (1)44
chlamydial, (1)44; (5)57–11
clinical manifestations, (1)44
culdocentesis in, (1)44
cultures in, (1)44
definitions, (1)44
diagnosis, (1)44
douching and, (1)44
ectopic pregnancy and, (1)44; (5)57
endometrial biopsy, (1)44
gonococcal, (1)44; (5)57
history, (1)44
HIV and, (1)46
incidence, (1)44
infertility and, (1)44; (5)57
intrauterine device and, (1)44; (5)57; (6)29
contraindicated, (6)29
vs. implantable contraception, (6)38
laboratory examination, (1)44
laparoscopic evaluation of, (1)119
male sexual partner
examination of, (1)44
untreated, (1)44
microbial etiology, (1)44
nongonococcal-nonchlamydial, (1)41; (5)57
oral contraceptives and, (1)44; (6)27
pathogenesis and pathology, (1)44; (5)57
perihepatitis associated with, (1)44
physical examination, (1)44
postabortion, bacterial vaginosis and, (1)40
postoperative, (1)44
predisposing factors, (5)57
recurrent, (1)44
risk factors, (1)44
sequelae, (1)44
in sickle cell disease, contraception in, (6)14
treatment, (1)44; (5)57
ultrasonic assessment, (1)44
Pelvic pain. See Pain, pelvic.
Pelvic plexus injury, neurophysiologic testing, (1)81
Pelvic thrombophlebitis, septic, in pregnancy, diagnosis, (3)17
Pelvic valve mechanism, (1)80
Pelvic vein thrombophlebitis, septic, (1)47
Pelvimetry
bi-ischial diameter, (2)67
CT, (2)67
diagonal conjugate diameter, (2)67
MRI, (2)67
type of pelvis and, (2)67
x-ray, (2)67, 10, 73
Pelvis
abscess, (1)48
after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
imaging techniques, (1)48
postoperative, (1)47
treatment, (1)48
actinomycosis, (1)41
anastomoses, (1)73
anatomy, (1)73; (2)5
bladder and urethra, (2)5
in endometriosis and infertility, (5)59
ligaments of genital tract, (2)5
normal
magnetic resonance imaging of, (1)93
ultrasonography of, (1)101
pelvic walls and associated structures, (2)5
perineum, (2)5
uterus and adnexa, (2)5
vagina, (2)5
blood vessels, (1)1; (2)5
bony, (1)80; (2)5
android, (2)67
anthropoid, (2)67
classification, (2)67
clinical examination. See Pelvimetry.
flat (platypelloid), (2)67
gynecoid, (2)67, 9
types, (2)67
mixed, (2)67
pure, (2)67
capacity, evaluation of. See Pelvimetry.
cellulitis, after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
connective tissue, (1)80
histology, (1)1
planes and spaces
ascending bladder septa, (1)1
descending rectal septa, (1)1
pararectal spaces, (1)1–18
paravesical spaces, (1)1–17
prevesical space of Retzius, (1)1
rectovaginal septum and space, (1)1
retrorectal space, (1)1
supravaginal septum, (1)1
vesicocervical space, (1)1
vesicovaginal space, (1)1
cross section, (1)1
diaphragm, (1)1; (2)5
enteritides, (1)41
examination of, (1)6
in adolescent, (1)19
in child, (1)19
dilatation and curettage and, (1)54
educational, (6)105
in urinary incontinence, (1)79
in woman with disabilities, (1)102
exenteration of, (4)10
care after, (4)10
patient selection for, (4)10
preparation for, (4)10
techniques of, (4)10
false, (2)5
floor of, (2)5
autonomic innervation, (1)81
covering of, after exenteration, (4)10
exercises. See Kegel exercises.
magnetic resonance imaging, (1)93
musculature, (1)80
physiology of, (1)80
transposition, for anal incontinence, (1)98
neurologic examination, (1)81
neurophysiologic testing
autonomic testing in, (1)81
in clinical conditions, (1)81
electromyography in, (1)81. See also Electromyography
indications, (1)81
nerve conduction studies in, (1)81. See also Nerve conduction studies
in neurologic conditions, (1)81
neurophysiologic testing of, (1)81
postpartum changes in, (2)90
prolapse, (1)107
pudendal nerve and, (1)81
rehabilitation, for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85
somatic innervation, (1)81
tension myalgia, (6)87
hematoma, infected, after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
hemorrhage, surgery, (1)73
anatomic considerations, (1)73
circulation variations, (1)73
collateral circulation, (1)73
relationships of neighboring structures, (1)73
topographic, (1)73
embolization, (1)73
failures, (1)73
indications, (1)73
injury to vital structures, (1)73
ligation
hypogastric artery, (1)73
ovarian vessel, (1)73
physiology of, (1)73
maintenance of reproductive function, (1)73
pitfalls, (1)73
postoperative care, (1)73
technique
extraperitoneal approach, (1)73
midline, (1)73
ovarian vessel ligation, (1)73
transabdominal approach, (1)73
hypogastric artery
aneurysms, (1)73
catheterization, (1)73
embolization, (1)73
ligation, (1)73–17
infections, (1)41 48. See also specific infection;specific organ.
after vaginal hysterectomy, (1)59
inflammatory disease. See Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
inlet, (2)5
joints, birth injuries, (2)5
ligaments, (2)5
Listeria monocytogenes infection, (1)41
lymphadenectomy, (4)55
in vulvar carcinoma, (4)41
mass lesions
fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
ultrasonic classification, (1)101
measurement. See Pelvimetry.
muscles, (2)5
coccygeus, (2)5
iliococcygeus, (2)5
levator ani
anatomy, (1)1
physiology, (1)1
obturator internus, (2)5
piriformis, (2)5
pubococcygeal, (1)1
influence on voiding mechanism, (1)1
pubococcygeus, (2)5
nerves, (2)5
neuroanatomy of, (1)81
outlet, (2)5
pain. See Pain, pelvic.
pelvimetry. See Pelvimetry.
peritoneum, in vaginal reconstruction, (4)53
pressure in, myomas and, (1)58
prolapsed organs
classification, (1)80
diagnosis, (1)80
relaxation
Kegel exercises for, (1)80
medical treatment, (1)80
pathogenesis, (1)80
pessaries for, (1)80
surgical treatment, (1)80
anterior colporrhaphy, (1)80
laparoscopic, (1)123
LeFort operation, (1)80
Manchester-Fothergill operation, (1)80
posterior colpoperineorrhaphy, (1)80
subtotal vaginectomy, (1)80
vaginal hysterectomy, (1)80
vault prolapse, (1)80
schistosomiasis, (1)41
somatic innervation of, (1)81
support abnormalities, (1)123
anatomic considerations
bony pelvis, (1)80
endopelvic connective tissue, (1)80
pelvic diaphragm, (1)80
pelvic floor musculature, (1)80
urogenital diaphragm, (1)80
chronic pelvic pain and, (6)87
laparoscopic repair of, (1)123
and urinary incontinence, (1)80
vault prolapse and, (1)80
thrombophlebitis. See Thrombophlebitis, pelvic.
tuberculosis in, (1)49
tumors of, cervicovaginal spread of, cytology of, (1)29
urogenital diaphragm, (1)80
physiology of, (1)80
uterus support, (1)80
Pelviscopic surgery, (5)61
Pelviscopy, myomectomy, (1)58
Pemphigoid gestationis, (2)32
Penicillin(s)
extended-spectrum, for pelvic infections, (1)48
for gonorrhea, (2)42
for pelvic sepsis, in abortion, (6)118
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
in pregnancy, (2)6
in puerperal infections, endometritis, (3)39
for syphilis, in HIV, (1)46
in syphilis, (1)45; (2)42; (3)42
Penicillin G
aqueous crystalline, for syphilis, in pregnancy, (3)35
benzathine, for syphilis, (1)45
in pregnancy, (1)45; (2)41; (3)35
cost of, (3)35
in group B streptococcal infection, (3)41
procaine, for syphilis, (1)45; (3)42
congenital, (1)45
for sepsis, neonatal, with group B staphylococcal infection, (3)35
for syphilis, congenital, (1)45
Penis
carcinoma, circumcision and, (2)91
circumcision, (2)91. See also Circumcision.
development, in Klinefelter syndrome, (5)77
examination, before vasectomy, (6)47
Pentamidine, in HIV infection, in pregnancy, (3)47
in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii infection, (3)35
Pentazocine
neonatal withdrawal with, (3)60
response to, gender differences in, (3)60
Pentostam (sodium antimonylgluconate), for leishmaniasis, (3)51
Pentoxifylline, in male infertility, (5)65
P450 enzymes, defects in, multiple, (5)82
Peptic ulcer, in pregnancy, (3)54
Peptic ulcer disease, in pregnancy, (3)30
Peptides
genomic effects, (5)5
neuroactive. See Neurosecretory peptides.
pituitary
biosynthesis, (5)7
structure, (5)7
postpartum mood disorders and, (6)84
proopiomelanocortin, chorionic, (5)39
steroid regulatory. See Steroid hormone(s).
Peptococci, in septic pelvic thrombophlebitis, (3)37
Peptostreptococcus
puerperal infections and, (3)37
in septic pelvic thrombophlebitis, (3)37
Percocet, in pain management, in cancer, (4)58
Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS), (3)112
in congenital cytomegalovirus infection, (3)45
in erythroblastosis fetalis, severity assessment, (3)66
Pergonal, in ovulation induction, and multifetal pregnancy, (3)83
Periareolar abscess, chronic, (1)26
Pericardial disease, in pregnancy, (3)10
Periconceptive events, antenatal cytogenetic studies, (3)113
Perihepatitis, pelvic inflammatory disease-associated, (1)44
Perimenopause. See also Menopause.
defined, (1)109
endocrinology, (1)109
primary care and, (6)110
uterine bleeding in, (5)23
medical management of, (5)23
Perimortem cesarean delivery, (2)74
Perinatal database, risk assessment and. See also Risk assessment.
Perinatal health care, risk scoring. See Risk scoring.
Perinatal loss. See also Stillbirth.
psychological considerations in, (6)81
caregiver reactions in, (6)81
community responses in, (6)81
family reactions in, (3)3; (6)81
historical aspects of, (6)81
management of
follow-up care in, (6)81
in hospital, (6)81
psychotherapy in, (6)81
in subsequent pregnancy, (6)81
maternal injury in, (6)81
mourning in, (6)81
parental developmental aspects in, (6)81
preexisting conflicts in, (6)81
recurrence risks, (3)69
Perinatal mortality
diabetes mellitus and, (3)13
psychologic considerations, (3)3
Perinatal pharmacology, (3)60. See also Alcohol; Smoking.
antibiotics in, (3)34
drugs given during labor and delivery, anesthetics, regional, complications, (3)90
psychotropic drugs in. See Psychotropic drugs.
Perinatology, bioeffects of ultrasound, (3)71. See also Ultrasound/ultrasonography, bioeffects for perinatologist.
Perineal flaps, (4)53
Perineal infiltration, in labor, (3)90
Perineal pad testing, (1)85
Perineometer, (1)87
Perineoplasty, with rectocele repair, (1)83
Perineotomy. See Episiotomy.
Perineum
absence of, vs. rectocele, (1)83
anatomy, (2)5
erectile bodies and associated structures, (2)5
external genitalia, (2)5
ischiorectal fossa, (2)5
perineal body, (2)5
pudendal nerve and vessels, (2)5
urogenital diaphragm, (2)5
blood vessels, (1)1
examination of, (1)97
incision
in reconstructive surgery, (4)53
for vaginal reconstruction, (4)53
lacerations, during childbirth, (2)68
episiotomy and. See Episiotomy.
and pelvic relaxation, (1)80
postpartum care of, (2)90
reconstructive surgery, (4)53
vulva and, 4, (4)53
Periodic breathing, in newborn, (2)97
Periodontitis, in pregnancy, (2)15
Perioophoritis, tuberculous, (1)49
Peripheral nerves, injuries at birth, (2)97
Peripheral nervous system, in pregnancy, anesthetic implications, (3)90
Peripheral neuropathy, neurophysiologic testing, (1)81
Peripheral tissues, steroid hormone formation in, (5)1
Peristalsis, in fetus, (2)12
Peritoneal immune factors, in endometriosis, (1)20
Peritoneal washing, in cytology, (1)29
Peritoneoscopy. See Laparoscopy.
Peritoneum
anatomy, (1)56
carcinoma, serous, low-grade, (4)29
closure, after abdominal wall surgery, (1)56
cytologic specimen, and endometrial carcinoma prognosis, (4)19
function, in endometriosis and infertility, (5)59
infection
after laparoscopic sterilization, (6)43
postpartum, (3)39–9
metastases to, from gynecologic cancer, (4)54
pelvic, in vaginal reconstruction, (4)53
surface, ovarian tumor deposits implanted on or below, (4)29
Peritonitis
meconium, hyperechogenic bowel vs., (3)72
tuberculous, (1)49
Periventricular leukomalacia, intra-amniotic infection and, (3)37
Permethrin, in pregnancy
for pediculosis pubis, (3)35
for scabies, (3)35
Perrault syndrome, (5)86
Personality, and postpartum depression, (6)84
Pertofrane. See Desipramine.
Pertussis, vaccination against, in pregnancy, (3)52
Pessary(ies), (1)39
complications, (1)39
contraindications, (1)39
fitting, (1)39
follow-up, (1)39
history of, (1)39
indications, (1)39–9
management, (1)39
for pelvic relaxation, (1)80
selection, (1)39
types, (1)39
for urinary stress incontinence, (1)85
vaginal, for cervical incompetence, (3)53
Pesticides
and pregnancy loss, (5)48
prenatal exposure to, (2)10
Petechiae, in newborn, (2)97
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
sex cord-stromal tumors in, (4)31
sex cord tumors in, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of, (4)52
Pfannenstiel incision, (1)56; (2)74
closure of, (2)74
PGD2. See under Prostaglandins.
PGE. See under Prostaglandins.
PGE1. See under Prostaglandins.
PGE2. See under Prostaglandins.
P53 gene, in endometrial carcinoma, (4)15
PGF. See under Prostaglandins.
PGF2α. See under Prostaglandins.
PGI2 (prostacyclin). See under Prostaglandins.
P-glycoprotein, drug transport by, (3)60
pH
amniotic fluid, in premature rupture of membranes, (2)46
arterial, in pregnancy, (3)54
fetal scalp blood, (3)67
umbilical cord blood, (3)67
vaginal, in trichomoniasis, (3)51
vaginal discharge, (1)40
Phagocytosis, (3)33
Pharaonic circumcision, (1)96. See also Female circumcision.
Pharmacology. See also Drugs; Perinatal pharmacology; Pregnancy, pharmacology of; specific drug.
fetal, (3)60
advances in (future directions for), (3)60
obstetric, (3)60
advances in (future directions for), (3)60
pulmonary, in pregnancy, (3)60–14
Pharmatex contraceptive sponge, (6)17
Pharyngitis, gonococcal, (2)42
Pharynx, examination, in newborn, (2)97
Phenergan. See Promethazine.
Phenobarbital
coagulopathy with, (3)60
for heroin addiction, in newborn, (2)33
metabolism, in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
Phenocopy, (5)74
Phenothiazines, neonatal withdrawal with, (3)60
Phenotype
in 45, X/46, XY mosaicism, (5)84
in 46, XX/46, XY true hermaphrodites, (5)84
in 21-hydroxylase deficiency, (5)79
Phentermine, for obesity, (6)111
Phentolamine, for female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Phenylalanine. See also Phenylketonuria (PKU).
in infant formula, (2)93
in milk, (2)93
Phenylketonuria (PKU), (2)7
infant, breast feeding and, (2)93
maternal, breast feeding and, (2)93
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
pregnancy loss and, (5)48
Phenylpropanolamine (Entex LA)
teratogenicity of, (2)6
Phenytoin. See also Anticonvulsants.
absorption of, in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60
coagulopathy with, (3)60
metabolism, in maternal-fetal compartment, (3)60
plasma levels, monitoring, (3)60
in pregnancy, (3)60
teratogenicity of, (2)6; (3)60
preconceptional counseling on, (2)22
Pheochromocytoma, in pregnancy, (3)5
anesthesia and, (3)91
Phimosis, circumcision and, (2)91
Phobia, diagnosis, (6)73
Phosphatidylcholine (PC), in surfactant, (2)12
Phosphatidylglycerol, in surfactant, (2)12
Phosphatidylinositol turnover, calcium flux and, receptor effector system, (5)5–8
Phosphatidylserine, antibodies to, and pregnancy outcome, (5)49
Phospholipids, amniotic fluid, and prostaglandin synthesis, (5)43
Phosphomannomutase deficiency, 46, XX gonadal dysgenesis with, (5)86
Photocoagulation, for hemorrhoids, (1)97
Photodynamic therapy, for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, (4)40
Photoendoscope, (1)119
Phrenic nerve palsy, (2)97
Phylloides tumor, (1)26
Physical abuse, and psychosomatic medicine, (6)70
Physical examination
after fellatio in sexual battery, (6)96
after rape, (6)96
after sodomy, (1)21; (6)96
in anal incontinence, (1)98
in breast cancer, (1)26
in child sexual abuse, (1)21
in chronic pelvic pain, (6)87
in hirsutism, (5)28
infertility patient, male, (1)65
in labor, (2)68
preoperative, psychologic aspects, (6)89
in primary amenorrhea, (5)21
in urinary incontinence, (1)79
for vasectomy, (6)47
Physical therapy, gynecologic, for female sexual dysfunction, (6)105
Physician-patient relationship
abortion and, (6)123
activity-passivity type, (6)72
approach to marital counseling and, (6)98
guidance-cooperation type, (6)72
in history-taking, (6)72
establishment of, (6)72
lesbian patient in, (6)103
marital conflict and, (6)98
mutual participatory type, (6)72
preoperative preparation of patient and, (6)89
sexual interaction, (6)98
Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, contact information, (6)122
Phytates, dietary, lactation and, (2)93
Phytoestrogens, in menopause, (1)110
Phytonadione. See Vitamin K.
Pica
iron deficiency anemia and, (3)16
in pregnancy, (2)7
PID. See Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Pigmented vulvar tumors, (1)9
Pilonidal sinus, (1)97
Pineal gland tumors, precocious puberty and, in male, (5)16
Pinopods, of endometrial epithelial cells, (5)38
Pinworm infection, (3)51
pediatric vulvovaginitis in, (1)19
Piperacillin
for pelvic infections, (1)48
in postcesarean endometritis prevention, (3)35
for postpartum endomyometritis, (3)37
with tazobactam
cost of, (3)35
for obstetric infection, microbial susceptibility to, (3)35
transplacental transfer of, (3)34
Piper forceps, (2)72, 14, 15, 76
Piroxicam, in dysmenorrhea, (1)18
Pitocin. See Oxytocin.
Pitressin. See Vasopressin.
Pituitary-adrenal axis. See Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
Pituitary gland. See also Hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis.
adenoma
anovulation and, (5)22
oral contraceptives and, (6)24
in pregnancy, (3)19; (5)25
prolactin-secreting, (5)25
and anovulation, (5)22
anatomy, (5)25
anovulation and, (5)22
anterior
insufficiency, (3)23
opioid modulation of, (5)10
tumors, and anovulation, (5)22
in corpus luteum regulation, in mid luteal phase, (5)14
craniopharyngioma, (5)25
defects, and anovulation, (5)22
diseases, in pregnancy, (3)23
feedback to, from ovaries, (5)6
abnormalities of, (5)6
histopathology, (5)25
hormones of, (5)25
hypothalamus and. See Hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
ischemia, and anovulation, (5)22
lactotrophs, oral contraceptives and, (6)24
lesions of, in male infertility, (5)63
macroadenomas, (5)25, 32, 9
in pregnancy, (3)19; (5)25
microadenomas, (5)25–9
and anovulation, (5)22
in pregnancy, (5)25
in ovarian steroidogenesis, (5)13
posterior, (5)7
action and metabolism of neurohypophysial hormones, (5)7
drugs affecting release of neurohypophysial hormones, (5)7
function tests of, (5)7
historical aspects, (5)7
neurophysin levels, (5)7, 13
nicotine stimulation test, (5)7
oxytocin. See Oxytocin.
peptides
biosynthesis, (5)7
structure, (5)7
regulatory mechanisms and secretion, (5)7
vasopressin. See Vasopressin.
vasotocin. See Vasotocin.
water deprivation test, (5)7
postpartum necrosis. See Sheehan’ syndrome.
prolactinoma, (3)23
radiation therapy, for Cushing’ syndrome, (5)37
response to GnRH, regulation of, (5)8. See also Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary response to.
sex hormone effects, (6)20
tumors, (5)25. See also specific tumor.
ACTH-secreting, (5)25
amenorrhea and, (5)21
anovulation and, (5)22
craniopharyngioma, (5)25
etiology, (5)25
in Forbes-Albright syndrome, hormonal cytology of, (1)29
FSH-secreting, (5)25
functional, (5)25
gonadotropin-secreting, (5)25
growth hormone-secreting, (5)25
histopathology, (5)25
incidence, (5)25
nonfunctional, (5)25
in pregnancy, (5)25
prolactin-secreting, (5)25
TSH-secreting, (5)25
Pituitary infantilism, hormonal cytology, (1)29
PIVKA II (protein-induced vitamin K absence factor), (3)60
PKU. See Phenylketonuria (PKU).
Place, Francis, (6)8
Placebo effect, in physician-patient interaction, (6)72
Placebo response, in premenstrual syndromes, (1)23
Placenta, (2)11
abnormalities. See also Placenta accreta; Placenta increta; Placenta percreta; Placenta previa.
in diabetic mother, (3)13
management, (3)13
abruption. See Abruptio placentae.
with absent decidua, (2)107
accreta. See Placenta accreta.
amino acids, (2)11
anatomy of, (2)106; (3)34
anesthesia and, (3)90
blood flow, (2)11–12; (3)62
development of placental circulation and homeostasis, (3)62
dynamic responses of uterine circulation, (3)62
local anesthetics and, (3)62
myometrial contractions, (3)62
pressure-flow relationships, (3)62
responses to vasoactive stimuli, (3)62
and fetal well-being, (3)62
hemodynamics, (2)11
hemorrhage and, (3)62
hypertensive states and, (3)62
inhibition of labor and, (3)62
labor and, (3)62
prostaglandins and, (5)43
regional anesthesia and, (3)62
regulation of, (2)11
sociologic considerations, (3)62–18
cigarette smoking, (3)62
maternal exercise, (3)62
unusual problems, (3)62
circulation, (2)11
development of, (3)62
and hormone secretion, (5)39
shunts in, (2)11
circumvallate membrane insertion and, (2)107
coagulopathy and, (2)108
cortisol-cortisone metabolism, estrogen and, (5)38
creta. See Placenta creta.
delivery of
in cesarean delivery, (2)74
manual, (2)73
for postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
uterine exploration after, (2)80
in twin gestation, (2)107
development, (2)11106; (5)38
diabetes mellitus and, (3)13
dysmorphogenesis of, (2)106
examination of
indications for, (2)106
sampling methodology in, (2)106
in fetal death, (2)107
fetal surface, (2)11
functional development of, (2)106
function of, (3)34
structure and, (3)59
ultrastructural characteristics and, (3)59
gas exchange, (2)11; (3)59
gestational trophoblastic tumor, (4)48
grading, and IUGR, (3)74
growth retardation, (2)108
hemodynamics, (2)11
histopathology of, pattern recognition in, applications in prematurity, (2)108
hormone metabolism, (5)38–18
hormones, (2)11
activin, (5)39
chorionic proopiomelanocortin peptides, (5)39
CRH, (5)39
estrogens, (2)11
follistatin, (5)39
gene expression, (5)39
hCG, (2)11; (5)39
hCS, (5)39
hGH-V, (5)39–17
inhibin, (5)39
leptin, (5)39
neuropeptide Y, (5)39
progesterone, (2)11
protein, (2)11; (5)39
steroid, (2)11. See also Steroid hormone(s), in pregnancy.
urocortin, (5)39
hormonogenesis, (5)38
in hydrops fetalis, (2)107
implantation, (2)11
abnormal, (2)107
increta. See Placenta increta.
infarct, (2)108, 22
inflammation, (2)108
acute, (2)108
chronic, (2)108
and premature rupture of membranes, (2)108
and prematurity, histopathology of, (2)108
and preterm labor, (2)108
invasive. See also Placenta accreta; Placenta increta; Placenta percreta.
definition of, (2)49
iron loss, (3)16
low-lying, (2)49
maternal anemia and, (3)16
maternal floor infarct, (2)108
maternal smoking and, (2)49
maternal surface, (2)11
maturation, (2)11
mechanical pathophysiology, (2)107
melanoma metastasis to, (3)57
membranes. See Membranes.
MHC class I antigens, (5)49
in multiple gestation, (2)107
normal, development, (2)11
oligohydramnios and, (2)107
organization, (2)11
pathology
in early pregnancy loss, (2)106
histopathologic patterns, clinical applications in prematurity, (2)108
inflammatory, (2)108
premature rupture of membranes and, (2)108
vascular, (2)108
pathophysiology, mechanical, (2)107
percreta. See Placenta percreta.
permeability of, (2)106
pharmacology of, (3)60
physiology, (2)11, 106; (3)59
blood flow regulation, (2)11
gas exchange, (2)11; (3)59
carbon dioxide transfer, (3)59
oxygen transfer, (3)59
hemodynamics, (2)11
placental exchange, (3)59
previa. See Placenta previa.
retained, (2)68
and postpartum hemorrhage, (2)80
previous, and placenta previa, (2)49
size, fetal growth and, (2)14
steroid hormone biosynthesis in, (5)1
steroidogenesis. See Steroid hormone(s), in pregnancy.
thrombosis, (5)48
antiphospholipid antibody and, (5)49
thromboxane and, (5)43
transport (transfer across), (2)11, 106
of amino acids, (3)59
of antibiotics, (3)34
of carbohydrates, (3)59
of drugs, (3)60. See also Perinatal pharmacology.
of electrolytes, (3)59
of gases, (3)59
of lipids, (3)59
mechanisms, (3)59
of substrates and metabolites, (2)11, 13; (3)59
mechanisms, (3)59
of trace metals, (3)59
of vitamins, (3)59
of water, (3)59
transport (transfer across), of anesthetic agents, (3)91
in trophoblastic disease, (4)48
ultrastructural characteristics relating to function, (3)59
umbilical cord pathology and, (2)107
vascularization, (3)62; (5)38
vascular pathology, (2)108
abnormal fetoplacental perfusion with, (2)108
obliterative lesions in, (2)108
proliferative lesions in, (2)108
villous edema, (2)108
water transfer, (3)59
weight
fetal growth and, (2)14
fetal weight and, ratio of, (2)106, 7
in twin gestation, (2)107
Placenta accreta, (2)49, 68
anesthesia and, (3)90
classification, (2)49
clinical presentation, (2)49
complications, (2)49
diagnosis, (2)49
etiology of, (2)49
histopathology of, (2)49
incidence, (2)49
outcome with, (2)49
pathogenesis, (2)49
placenta previa and, co-occurrence of, (2)49
postpartum hemorrhage and, (2)80
risk factors, (2)49
sonographic characteristics of, (2)49
treatment, (2)49
Placenta creta, (2)107. See also Placenta accreta; Placenta increta; Placenta percreta.
Placentae abruptio. See Abruptio placentae.
Placenta growth factor, (5)39
Placenta increta, (2)49, 107. See also Placenta accreta.
diagnosis, (2)49
incidence, (2)49
treatment, (2)49
Placental mosaicism, confined, (2)106; (5)73
Placenta membranacea, (2)107
Placenta percreta, (2)49, 107. See also Placenta accreta.
clinical presentation, (2)49
diagnosis, (2)49
incidence, (2)49
sonographic characteristics of, (2)49
treatment, (2)49
Placenta previa, (2)49, 107
anesthesia and, (3)90
classification of, (2)49
clinical presentation, (2)49
complete, management, (2)49
complications, (2)49
diagnosis, (2)49
ultrasonography in, (2)49
etiology of, (2)49
incidence, (2)49
magnetic resonance imaging of, (2)49
outcome with, (2)49
partial, management, (2)49
pathogenesis of, (2)49
placenta accreta and, co-occurrence of, (2)49
risk factors, (2)49
treatment, (2)49
Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), (6)122
Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine), in pregnancy, (3)20
Plasma exchange, in Rh alloimmunization suppression, (3)66
PlasmaKinetic dissecting forcep, (1)119
Plasma protein A, pregnancy-associated, (5)39
Plasma renin activity, in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, (5)79
Plasma volume, during pregnancy, (1)16; (2)13
Plasmodium, (3)51. See also Malaria.
Platelet activating factor, and prostaglandin synthesis, (5)43
Platelet-activating factor (PAF), of blastocyst/embryo, and implantation, (5)38
Platelet-derived growth factors, in uterine receptivity, to implantation, (5)47
Platelets
alloimmunization
after intrauterine transfusion, (3)81
cordocentesis and, (3)80
count
falling, after delivery, (3)90
in HELLP syndrome. See HELLP syndrome.
in labor and delivery, (3)90
preeclampsia-eclampsia and, (3)90
in pregnancy, (2)13; (3)54
preoperative considerations, (1)52
thromboxane and, (5)43
transfusions, for HELLP syndrome, (3)7
Pleiotropism, (5)74
Plethysmography, impedance
in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis, (3)17
in thromboembolic disease, postoperative deep venous thrombosis, (1)95
Pleural effusion, in pregnancy, (3)27
Plexopathy, lumbosacral, intrapartum, (3)19
PLISSIT model, for sexual counseling, (6)98
PMS. See Premenstrual syndrome(s) (PMS).
Pneumatic compression, intermittent, postoperative, in deep venous thrombosis prevention, (1)95
Pneumococcal infection, vaccination against, in pregnancy, (3)52
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, in HIV infection, prevention of, in pregnancy, (3)35
Pneumonia
aspiration, in pregnancy, (3)27
neonatal
after preterm premature rupture of membranes, (3)37
chlamydial, (3)48
Pneumocystis carinii, in HIV infection, pregnancy and, (3)47
in pregnancy, (3)27, 8, 9
aspiration, (3)27
bacterial, (3)27
fungal, (3)27
varicella, (3)46
viral, (3)27
Pneumonitis, aspiration, gastric feeding and, (4)63
Podophyllin, contraindication to, in pregnancy, (3)35
Polar body, in preimplantation genetic diagnosis
of aneuploidy, (5)108
biopsy of, (5)97
Polio, vaccination against
in aging woman, (1)108
in pregnancy, (3)52
Polyarteritis nodosa, in pregnancy, (3)6
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), in breast milk, (2)93
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in cigarette smoke, ovarian effects of, (5)88
Polycystic kidney disease, infantile, fetal ultrasound diagnosis, (3)72
Polycystic ovarian disease, (5)27
adrenal gland in, (5)2227,29
amenorrhea and, (5)21
androgens in, (5)2
secretion of, hyperinsulinemia and, (5)29
body fat distribution, (5)29
cancer in, (5)29
cardiovascular disease in, (5)29
defined, (5)29
diabetes mellitus in, (5)29
endometrial carcinoma and, (4)13
genetics, (5)94
association studies, (5)94
epidemiologic studies, (5)94
ethnic, (5)94
familial, (5)94
twin, (5)94
linkage analysis, (5)94
GnRH and, pulsatile, (5)71
hirsutism and, (1)28
insulin resistance in, (1)29
hyperandrogenism and, (5)29
menstrual irregularity, (5)29
obesity in, (1)29; (6)111
ovarian wedge resection and, (5)61
ovaries in, (5)29
ovulation induction in
clomiphene and glucocorticoids in, (5)68
clomiphene and insulin-sensitizing agents in, (5)68
peripheral disorders, (5)29
pharmacologic interventions, (5)29
pituitary response to GnRH in, (5)8
potential mechanisms of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia in, (5)29
treatment, (1)28
insulin-sensitizing agents in, (5)68
ultrasonography, (1)101
biochemistry of, (5)27
clinical features of, (5)27
differential diagnosis of, (5)27
infertility in, management of, (5)50
in vitro fertilization in, (5)97
pathophysiology of, (5)27
in puberty, (5)9–13
treatment of, (5)27
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), ultrasound appearance, (5)55
Polydactyly, (2)97
oral contraceptives causing, (6)37
short ribs with, Majewski type, (5)83
Polyembryoma, (4)31
Polyethylene terephthalate, in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
Polygenic inheritance, (5)75
Polyglactin 910, in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, premature ovarian failure in, (5)86
Polyhydramnios, ultrasound assessment, (3)64
Polymastia, (5)30
Polymenorrhea, definition of, (5)20
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), (5)76
in avoiding genetic disorder misdiagnosis, (5)109
in DNA mutation analysis, in preimplantation diagnosis, (5)102
in erythroblastosis fetalis, (3)66
in human papillomavirus testing, (1)29; (4)2
in prenatal genetic disorder diagnosis, (3)115
for toxoplasmosis diagnosis, (3)50
in tuberculosis, (1)49
Polymers, mesh, in gynecologic reconstruction, (1)75
Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, (2)32
Polymorphic markers, in avoiding genetic disorder misdiagnosis, (5)109
Polymorphism
genetic, (5)74
shirt tandem repeat, in prenatal genetic disorder diagnosis, (3)115
single-strand conformational, analysis, in prenatal genetic disorder diagnosis, (3)115
Polymyositis, (3)20
Polyneuropathy, gestational, (3)19
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (McCune-Albright syndrome), precocious puberty in, (1)19; (5)16, 15
in male, (5)16
treatment of, (5)16
Polyp(s)
detection, (1)54
endocervical, (1)31
endometrial
hysteroscopic removal, (1)117
and uterine bleeding, (5)23
fibroepithelial
vaginal, (1)10